%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930204249+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930204249+01'00') /Title (Gangraena and the Struggle for the English Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4421 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gangraena and the Struggle for the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On 28 January 1648 Thomas Edwards \()] TJ ET BT 224.648 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 229.976 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1599?1648\), Presbyterian controversialist and 'true hammer of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heretics', died in exile at Amsterdam. The previous month Edwards had drawn up his will, claiming he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('dealt faithfully, and with a good conscience, in all that I have preached or written, against the late sects and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(errors which have risen and sprung up in )] TJ ET BT 232.640 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 273.308 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' \(pp. 1, 2\). For most modern scholars Edwards's reputation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rests largely upon a single work published in three parts: )] TJ ET BT 308.648 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 363.308 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, printed for Ralph Smith at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sign of the Bible in Cornhill near the Royal Exchange, 1646\). Part one, 'A Catalogue and Discovery of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Errours, Heresies, Blasphemies and pernicious Practices of the Sectaries of this time, vented and acted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England in these four last years', was issued in three broadly distinct editions; part two, 'A fresh and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further Discovery...' was published in two editions with separate printings; and part three, 'A new and higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Discovery...' published in one version.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Probably born in London of a modest family, Edwards matriculated at Queens' College, Cambridge in 1618, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graduating BA in 1622, proceeding MA in 1625, and ordained deacon in January 1626. Queens' was then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renowned for its puritan reputation and, as Hughes points out, 'contacts formed at university were a starting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point for the creation of Puritan networks'. Indeed, Edwards's near contemporaries at other colleges would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include 'numerous future allies and opponents' \(pp. 24, 25\). Notes taken at sermons preached from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge pulpits indicate Edwards offered 'a conventional if awkward Calvinist position on the horrors of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(479)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Hughes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(63.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(494pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ariel Hessayon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7796 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fall, and the deceptions of Satan' \(p. 25\). An intemperate sermon in St Andrew's church, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted in proceedings before the Vice-Chancellor's Court and an order on 31 March 1628 that Edwards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preach a sermon of recantation. This knack for inflaming passions was to prove characteristic of his entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career and Edwards emerged as 'an early and forthright opponent of liberty of conscience for gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congregations' \(p. 34\), arguing against even limited toleration:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([It] will not onely breede Divisions and Schismes, disturbing the peace and quiet of Churches )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Townes ... but will undoubtedly cause much disturbance, discontent and divisions ... )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.984 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.984 685.539 m 505.976 685.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards's second book )] TJ ET BT 149.156 648.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Antapologia, or a Full Answer to the Apologeticall Narration)] TJ ET BT 444.848 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1644\) was a three-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundred-page response to the thirty-page justification of their congregational way by the leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Independents' of the Westminster Assembly. Hughes believes that Edwards wrote from 'a sense of bitter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polarization, from intense anxiety about religious radicalism and fear of the growing power of Independents' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 42, 43\). Lacking a sense of proportion, this attack on Independent church government brought Edwards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to national prominence. In addition, Hughes argues, it facilitated the creation of networks 'vital to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of )] TJ ET BT 109.340 563.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 164.000 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' as men in London and the provinces, alarmed at the influence of 'Independents', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began supplying him with material he would put to use in what Hughes calls 'a massive and notorious assault )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on religious liberty' and its consequences \(pp. 50, 55\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes correctly regards )] TJ ET BT 157.640 508.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 212.300 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as 'a disorganized text with complex or even contradictory messages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and approaches' \(p. 55\). Its title derives from a scriptural verse that had become synonymous with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle against doctrinal error: 'And their word will eat as doth a canker [margin or gangrene]' \(2 Timothy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2:17\). As Hughes demonstrates, the book can be placed in a long line of anti-heretical writing: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresiological tradition beginning with Paul ? even if modern biblical scholarship doubts his authorship of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the epistles to Timothy ? and including church fathers such as Augustine and Theodoret, as well as major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures of the sixteenth-century Reformation like Luther, Zwingli and Calvin. Of course 'there are dangers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking heresiology ... as an accurate guide to what it denounces' \(p. 73\). The great manuscript discoveries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the twentieth century which revolutionised Manichaean studies have led to a fundamental reappraisal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accuracy of Augustine 'On the Manichaean heresy'. Similarly, it is only through extensive quotation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calvin's works that we are familiar with the ex-priest Anthony Pocquet's ideas; if this libertine's writings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were found we would doubtless question Calvin's judgment that they amounted to goat dung. Indeed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties with heresiography as a genre are manifold: the sources from which many were constructed have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not survived or are only partly extant, making it impossible or tricky to establish authenticity; their purpose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not accurately to report errors ? usually represented as inversions of truths ? but to extirpate them; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compilers could be alarmist and self-serving; they attached labels \(sometimes borrowed from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors\) to facilitate categorisation, thereby providing loosely connected individuals with a sectarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity and genealogy that may have deliberately blurred or ignored subtle doctrinal distinctions. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems with heresiography in general are also the problems with )] TJ ET BT 357.296 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 411.956 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in particular. Yet this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('never a finished product', but a text 'ever in the making', by an author 'almost overwhelmed by events' who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early on decided against complete coverage \(pp. 64, 65\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards presented himself as 'cautious and meticulous, interrogating informants if they 'were ear and eye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses' and checking circumstantial evidence \(p. 88\). His method was simply to list error, heresy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemy and schism indiscriminately; and his refutations were brief \(pp. 93, 94\). Even so, as Hughes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes, he 'lacked \(or was unable to exercise\) the basic skills of the effective heresiographer ? to prcis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classify, and sectarianize' \(p. 98\). The question is whether this 'poor' or 'idiosyncratic' heresiographer can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trusted to reflect what people really thought \(p. 102\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among modern scholars Christopher Hill is the 'most influential' of those who have stressed )] TJ ET BT 479.636 99.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 534.296 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value as a source. According to Hill, who used it notably for )] TJ ET BT 326.636 85.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Turned Upside Down)] TJ ET BT 483.968 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1972\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Milton and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 199.352 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1977\), it is 'well documented and seems to stand up quite well to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination' \(p. 5\). Other historians of radical religion have 'accepted and used )] TJ ET BT 417.584 56.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 472.244 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a source, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.9837 685.8535 505.9757 697.7335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 9307 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(albeit with some qualifications' \(p. 5\). Murray Tolmie relied on it for his pioneering )] TJ ET BT 438.800 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Triumph of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Saints)] TJ ET BT 63.356 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 69.356 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Separate Churches of London 1616?1649)] TJ ET BT 291.020 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1977\), while Gerald Aylmer regarded it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an extraordinary compendium and the fullest available catalogue of the sects and their beliefs. As Hughes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says, 'the sheer bulk of the work and its self-presentation as a truthful "catalogue" has often had a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seductive effect upon historians than it had on many contemporaries' \(p. 6\). Though other assessments have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been more cautious they have not gone far enough to satisfy the extreme sceptics. For )] TJ ET BT 448.604 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Model Army)] TJ ET BT 93.668 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1979\) Mark Kishlansky lumped Edwards with Richard Baxter and the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputants, arguing that these men tended to 'polarize and exaggerate' the situations they observed \(p. 7\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently he never cited )] TJ ET BT 173.324 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 227.984 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Likewise, J. Colin Davis maintained that using )] TJ ET BT 461.648 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 516.308 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('evidence of the reality of sectarian development' was comparable to relying on Joseph McCarthy for 'sound, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objective opinions' about American communist activities in his day \(pp. 7?8\). )] TJ ET BT 409.148 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 463.808 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s trustworthiness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has therefore, rightly or wrongly, played a considerable part in wider debates such as the extent of radicalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1640s and the nature of the English revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Hughes's book is the first comprehensive study of )] TJ ET BT 299.816 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 354.476 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and its 'vainglorious, controversial, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately disappointed author' \(p. 2\). Her aim has been to locate )] TJ ET BT 348.464 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 403.124 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 'as many contexts as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible', ranging from 'cultural analysis to discussions of high politics, drawing on insights from literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism, the history of the book, and studies of print culture as well as local, political, and religious history' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 3\). She discusses )] TJ ET BT 134.672 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 189.332 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s 'narrative strategies and generic affiliations', explores Edwards's sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and attempts to unravel his connections, arguing that his work was 'a product of, and a major contribution to, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a broad campaign for Presbyterian reformation, and against schism and heresy' \(p. 3\). Furthermore, Hughes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insists that while the modern debate about )] TJ ET BT 239.000 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 293.660 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has focused on its 'usefulness as evidence', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing its status as a source has not been her 'main purpose' \(p. 8\). Even so, she concedes that 'at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most fundamental level a study of )] TJ ET BT 200.000 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 254.660 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is concerned with truth, the status of evidence, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validity of arguments' \(p. 9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much in this admirably researched book to interest a variety of readers. Hughes provides an account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Edwards's early career, the making of him as a Presbyterian, his first polemical works and the background )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to )] TJ ET BT 46.352 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 101.012 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? which she suggests was 'a product of a debate that never was, the debate over Antapologia' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 53\). There follows an excellent chapter on ')] TJ ET BT 258.116 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 312.776 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as Heresiography' which begins with an outline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 88.676 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s structure, though 'a concise summary risks giving the volumes a logic and coherence that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards never provided' \(p. 55\). This chapter also includes a lively section on heresiological traditions as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as a discussion of Edwards's research methods \(such as they were\), his central themes \(that 'the godly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced the most serious crisis since the Reformation' \(p. 105\)\), and main polemical purpose \('to implicate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream Independents in the spread of religious chaos' \(p. 107\)\). Chapter 3, 'Like a Universal Leprosie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over-spread this Whole Kingdom', examines )] TJ ET BT 253.472 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 308.132 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s relationship with London and the provinces. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('was, and could only have been, a Londoner's book' \(p.130\), and in her sketch of City life Hughes provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several significant contexts: the lecturing scene; the networks of London's puritan clergy which were 'by no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means exclusively clerical but involved a range of laymen, of respected if rarely elevated social status' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(142\); booksellers' contacts and bookshop debates; and how Edwards's networks were 'mobilized to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material for )] TJ ET BT 93.332 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 147.992 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' \(p. 151\). Hughes calculates that at least 40 percent of the specific stories in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 88.676 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( concern London and believes that it 'offers a compelling general picture of the religious \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political\) culture of London' in the 1640s \(p. 169\) ? even if Edwards's was 'a very partial view' \(p. 183\). As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the provinces, here Edwards's focus was on 'those parts of the country where parliament's armies held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sway' and thus where parliament could be 'held responsible for the failures of orthodox reformation' \(p. 187\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A useful table indicates that Kent, Essex, Norfolk and Suffolk were better represented in )] TJ ET BT 461.924 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 516.584 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any other area, while there is nothing on Nottinghamshire \(p. 188\). Hughes concludes her survey of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in provincial England by suggesting that Edwards did not exaggerate the extent of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unorthodoxy: many of his local stories 'had some basis in "actual" provincial anxieties, incidents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes' even though )] TJ ET BT 140.504 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 195.164 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is 'selective and misleading' \(p. 213\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4, 'Books Lately Printed' concerns ')] TJ ET BT 244.136 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 298.796 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the World of Print'. It shows how )] TJ ET BT 484.940 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was produced, considers the broadly distinct editions of each part and summarises the licencing procedure. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8572 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes claims that it 'drew extensively on this deeply partisan world of print' \(p. 241\). Moreover, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates the influence of treatises by William Prynne and Thomas Gataker, noting Edwards's technique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of selectively quoting rather than misquoting radical authors such as John Lilburne, John Saltmarsh and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Collier. No doubt Edwards also subjected Laurence Clarkson's )] TJ ET BT 379.460 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pilgrimage of Saints)] TJ ET BT 478.136 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment, though this is impossible to verify as no copies have survived. This, then, was a basic principle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresiography: 'to isolate the most damning and dangerous passages.' \(p. 248\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Understandably, )] TJ ET BT 116.000 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 170.660 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( generated several 'outraged printed responses', especially from those named by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards \(p. 250\). His respondents adopted 'various strategies of justification and apology' \(p. 251\), some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalising its damaging content, others confronting him directly both in person and print. And when his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories were challenged, Edwards 'was driven to ever more elaborate, exhaustive, and exhausting displays of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own evidence' \(p. 265\). Adopting the modern scholarly approach that readers 'are not simply passive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recipients of a meaning that is clearly contained within a text' \(p. 276\), Hughes suggests that )] TJ ET BT 480.116 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 534.776 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('only possible as a series of collaborations' between Edwards and his informants, and between author and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers \(p. 279\). Less convincing in this context is the application of De Certeau's notion that 'Every story is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a travel story' and that )] TJ ET BT 143.156 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 197.816 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s readers were embarked on a journey \(pp. 123?24, 281\). Books were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly material objects, typography was important and illustrations could enhance meaning, though it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noteworthy that unlike broadsheets such as )] TJ ET BT 243.320 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Discovery of the most Dangerovs and damnable tenets that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(have been spread within this few yeares )] TJ ET BT 228.332 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1647\) and some anti-Royalist pamphlets, )] TJ ET BT 435.320 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 489.980 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither engravings nor woodcuts. This suggests that Edwards's intended audience was educated and fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literate, which is borne out by Hughes's analysis of how )] TJ ET BT 305.144 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 359.804 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was purchased, and who owned and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annotated it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Print was a public medium and it could be used to energise political groups. Though Edwards was not 'an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizational leader of London Presbyterianism' \(p. 318\) )] TJ ET BT 314.792 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 369.452 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had angered the ranks of the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Model Army, 'thereby provoking the fatal confrontation with the Presbyterians in 1646?7' \(p. 319\). Even so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes acknowledges that taking )] TJ ET BT 198.656 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 253.316 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as her focus 'inevitably risks crediting it with too great an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on contemporary events' \(p. 321\). Instead she draws on earlier work by Valerie Pearl and Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mahony, as well as a recent study by Elliott Vernon to provide a nuanced, complex and persuasive study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterians far removed from the familiar caricature: inflexible, bigoted, paranoid, distasteful \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admittedly some were all of these\). For Hughes, )] TJ ET BT 267.980 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 322.640 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 'did not stand alone, but was the most startling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and notorious example of a broader Presbyterian polemical campaign' \(p. 401\). She concludes, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably, with a now obligatory discussion of the 'public sphere' before assessing Edwards's reputation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 88.676 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s afterlife, declaring that 'Edwards is one of many examples of how lively, populist, dynamic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and seductive prose can serve a bad cause' \(p. 442\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena and the Struggle for the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 300.344 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a very good book. Moderate in tone and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasive, it is an important contribution to on-going scholarly debates. Nonetheless, there are ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it could have been better. Excluding the introduction and conclusion, it consists of four chapters the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortest of which is 75 pages, the longest 98 pages. Though these are broken down into sections, chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subheadings are not indicated in the contents and readers may wonder why there were not smaller chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead. In addition, readers are sometimes referred to fuller discussions elsewhere in the text, but without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific page numbers \(p. 43 n. 109, p. 45 n. 114, p. 57 n. 3, p. 118 n. 197, p. 126 n. 220\). At times the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure necessitates repetition and one wonders how much could have been avoided. Hence we are told on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several occasions the same notorious stories; of Captain Beaumont's soldiers pissing in a font in Yakesley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huntingdonshire and afterwards baptising a horse \(pp. 60, 120, 166, 215?16, 273, 309\); of Anabaptists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dressing up a cat like a child to be baptised \(pp. 126, 180, 309\); and of John Goodwin playing at bowls on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the day of thanksgiving for the victory at Naseby \(pp. 90, 267?68, 310, 439\). Indeed, Hughes fears that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been 'infected' with Edwards's incapacity for organising his material and hopes her readers will be 'more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerant' than many of Edwards's of her 'often necessary repetitions' \(p. vi\). There is of course more than one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which this could have been written but the result here appears to be an echo of )] TJ ET BT 448.592 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 503.252 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Like its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progenitor, readers need a number of tools to navigate their way through the text. Despite places where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes's 'unwieldy manuscript' \(p vii\) appears to have been cut, the published version is still too long ? not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 4729 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there is anything wrong with big books. But had )] TJ ET BT 289.676 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena and the Struggle for the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been condensed and the material organised differently it would have become more accessible to non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialist readers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As all researchers are only too well aware, there is a real problem of what evidence does and does not say ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how far one can push it to make a point. The question of Edwards's 'accuracy' and Hughes's attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(check his 'facts' brought her 'face to face with the limitations of the historian's craft where certainty can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never be achieved' \(p. 435\). She remains convinced that 'he made nothing up, but so much cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(checked that this must remain a provisional and contestable judgement' \(p. 435\). But ultimately this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evades, defers or postpones the issue of 'accuracy' ? which Hughes regards as liberating for her analysis \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10, 170?71, 213, 270?71, 434?6\). Then there is the matter of whether reading )] TJ ET BT 408.608 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 463.268 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( helps or hinders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historian. Has it warped our view of the past and would our histories improve if no copies had survived? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, Edwards's version of events has so profoundly influenced modern discussions that 'it is almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible now to develop a view of London, not affected \(or tainted?\) by the prominence of )] TJ ET BT 484.268 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 538.928 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a source' \(p. 131\). )] TJ ET BT 122.816 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 177.476 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been available in facsimile since 1977 and can now be downloaded from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early English Books Online. While Hughes has convincingly shown that a critical edition is unnecessary, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-issue of )] TJ ET BT 87.332 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 141.992 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with modern typeface, coherent pagination and index is still desirable. If this were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever produced it would complement )] TJ ET BT 210.320 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena and the Struggle for the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 476.648 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Even without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this readers can still appreciate what a remarkable job Hughes has done in untangling and contextualising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Edwards, )] TJ ET BT 125.336 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reasons Against the Independent Government of Particular Congregations )] TJ ET BT 489.980 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1641\), p. 26, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted in Hughes, )] TJ ET BT 154.676 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 209.336 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 39\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.332 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.332 446.691 m 300.320 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank Dr Hessayon for his thorough and perceptive review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 376.591 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 358.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 358.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/479)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 357.417 m 322.316 357.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 332.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2506)] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.3317 447.0055 300.3197 458.8855 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 357.7315 322.3157 369.6115 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/479) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000563 00000 n 0000000645 00000 n 0000005118 00000 n 0000005227 00000 n 0000005337 00000 n 0000005446 00000 n 0000009007 00000 n 0000009135 00000 n 0000009219 00000 n 0000009303 00000 n 0000017152 00000 n 0000017182 00000 n 0000017310 00000 n 0000017346 00000 n 0000017411 00000 n 0000026771 00000 n 0000026836 00000 n 0000035461 00000 n 0000035552 00000 n 0000040334 00000 n 0000040462 00000 n 0000040517 00000 n 0000040645 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40740 %%EOF