%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 13 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818075508+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818075508+01'00') /Title (The Right to be King: The Succession to the Crown of England. 1603-1714) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4100 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Right to be King: The Succession to the Crown of England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1603-1714)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A coherent narrative political history of early-modern Europe could be constructed around disputes over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right of succession to sovereign thrones. The very nomenclature of the history of armed conflict during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period underscores the importance of succession in a society in which the family stood at the centre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power-holding. The War of the Palatine Succession in 1685 was followed by the Nine Years War--)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes interpreted as the War of the British Succession--then the War of the Spanish Succession, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War of the Polish Succession, the War of the Austrian Succession and, as late as 1778, not far from the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ancien rgime, the War of the Bavarian Succession. Earlier in the seventeenth century, the death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duke Vincenzo II Gonzaga in 1627 led to the War of the Mantuan Succession which provided an Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatre for the Thirty Years War, a conflict the immediate cause of which was a dispute over the Bohemian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession. Here, not unlike the English in 1688-89, a dominant Protestant nobility attempted to protect its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional interests by electing a king in accord with its own religious views, the Calvinist Friedrich V, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elector Palatine, and to reject the claims of the Habsburg Ferdinand II, whose family had exercised a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopoly upon the Bohemian crown for nearly a century. The victory of the House of Austria led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposition of a new Catholic nobility and to the transformation of Bohemia from an elective to an hereditary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(48)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 February, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howard Nenner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780807822477)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(343pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of North Carolina Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://uncpress.unc.edu/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapel Hill, NC)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Oresko)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6052 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, thus demonstrating how succession disputes could alter the demographic composition of what we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must still call 'the political nation' and the constitution of a sovereignty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howard Nenner's deeply impressive and tightly argued )] TJ ET BT 301.124 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Right to be King )] TJ ET BT 404.132 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addresses itself to the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the succession to the English throne in the seventeenth century and, by extension, to the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart monarchy in England; the nature of the Stuart monarchy in Scotland is touched upon only fleetingly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conflicts between a strictly hereditary monarchy and an elective monarchy establish two of the poles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between which the lines of political debate were conducted; other means of succession--by nomination or by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest, the latter closely tied to right by prescription--are also investigated by Nenner. It is one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signal strengths of Nenner's work that he perceives and defines a typology for sovereign successions. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risk of brushing in too broadly a description of Nenner's very meticulously-explored arguments, a model is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposed in which James Vl and I adhered tenaciously to the concept of an indefeasible hereditary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession in England, and the first Act of Parliament of his reign clearly proclaimed this. James insisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he was king by right of blood, not by legislation, nor by the nomination of his predecessor--Elizabeth I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was particularly careful to avoid this technique for the transfer of power--still less by conquest. Henry VIII's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to impose a succession law by means of his various wills, the last of which excluded the Stuarts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were swept aside; consanguinity displaced nomination. Indefeasible hereditary right became a canonical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element of Stuart political thinking, confirmed by the seamless transfer of the crown to Charles I \(1625\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly re-iterated by the rhetoric of the Restoration of 1660: the reign of Charles ll. began at the moment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his father's head was severed from his body in January 1649 on the scaffold outside the Banqueting House, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitehall. From that moment he had the )] TJ ET BT 232.004 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(possession)] TJ ET BT 283.340 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of sovereignty; it was only in 1660 that he acquired the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exercise)] TJ ET BT 73.328 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of sovereign power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nenner continues, convincingly, that the strength of indefeasibility was such that it survived the dynastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crises of Charles II's reign: the sterility of the king's marriage placing his Catholic brother, James, Duke of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, immediately next in line to the throne; the failure of the subsequent Exclusion Bills of the late 1670s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early 1680s; and Monmouth's challenge to James II on Charles II's death in 1685. It was only another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event of supreme dynastic importance, the totally unexpected birth of a Prince of Wales in 1688, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwelcome question of the succession was reopened. Nenner appreciates entirely the weight of such 'family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters', such accidents to which the dynastic system was definitionally prone, for at this point the prospect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of England ruled, not for one reign alone, but for the foreseeable future by a Catholic monarch presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. The success in defending hereditary indefeasibility as the key principle of the English succession, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly clinched during the battle over confessional exclusion, crumbled with breath-taking speed once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sovereign sired a healthy Catholic heir, who, given the accepted succession )] TJ ET BT 415.940 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(custom)] TJ ET BT 449.936 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precedence over his older Protestant half-sisters. A system to combine the hereditary principle with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formula to produce a sovereign acceptable to the political nation--a means I would be inclined to call )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('restrictive election'--was concocted for the elevation of William III and Mary II. A law for the succession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained unarticulated apart from the practical provisions for the immediate future, the heirs of Mary's body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(by William or by a subsequent husband\), followed by the heirs of Princess Anne's body and then by any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heirs of William's body, should Mary predecease him \(as was the case\) and he re-marry \(as was not the case\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7515 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This seemed a plausible solution for, at last, Anne had produced, in 1689, a child \(by this stage, the birth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of either gender was warmly greeted\) in the form of William Henry, Duke of Gloucester \( a shrewd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of Orange and Tudor nomenclatural imagery\), who, despite persistent rumours of delicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health, seemed to evince a greater chance of survival than any of Anne's other children. As long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gloucester lived, the definition of a succession law could be deferred, despite agitations, dating as early as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1689, from the courts of Hannover and Torino that their residual rights should receive some form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition. The arrangements of 1689 were sufficient for the moment. This moment lasted until 1700, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gloucester died, and the widowed, childless William III was compelled to contemplate the succession to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally childless sister-in-law, now the only heiress to his British titles. The Act of Settlement of 1701 fused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the elements of hereditary and elective monarchy with the guarantee of a succession acceptable to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political nation, and, finally, after a century of turbulent theoretical and religious debate, England--although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not yet Scotland--had a juridically established law of succession.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nenner views the absence of such an articulated law of succession--insofar as an 'absence' can be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('presence'--as the key element in the debates surrounding the nature of the seventeenth-century Stuart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy in England. Nenner is very disinclined to cast his scholarly eye across the Channel. It is churlish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for any reviewer to chide an author for not having written the book he had never intended to write, but by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing the problems of the English succession within a continental context, the density of Nenner's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments acquires even greater resonance, for it is immediately apparent that the English situation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything but unique; it was part of a larger European phenomenon. Very few sovereignties in seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Europe possessed a clear hereditary succession law. One of the few and one of the earliest to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one was Denmark. The 'Kongelov' of 1665 endowed Frederik III with sweeping legislative and juridical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers, but it also pronounced the transformation of Denmark from an elective monarchy, albeit one in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the king's eldest son was habitually 'elected', into an hereditary monarchy. The drafters of this law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously felt that a clearly and precisely enunciated succession law was crucial to the newly-assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereditary status of the Danish throne and they spelt out in meticulous detail the order in which princes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princesses \(Denmark accepted the principle of female succession\) were to be called to the crown. While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practicalities of the Danish Kongelov were implemented, its text remained hidden amongst the crown jewels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpublished and unproclaimed. The republic of letters rapidly learned its fundamental details through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unofficial newspapers, the seventeenth-century parallel of the )] TJ ET BT 332.600 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(samizdat,)] TJ ET BT 378.272 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but the hesitancy to declare it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicly could well point to the perceived dangers accompanying such a novelty as a published law of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession. As late as the mid-eighteenth century, the court of Versailles pretended to ignorance of the exact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of the court of Copenhagen--elective or hereditary?--and expressed this feigned confusion by letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed from the King of France to the King of Denmark with the inferior 'mon cousin' rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superior \(and equivalent\) 'mon frre'. Given the dynastic proximity of the House of Stuart and the House of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oldenbourg \(James Vl and l's consort was Anne of Denmark, sister of Kristian IV, who actually visited his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sister's court; while her homonym, the future Queen Anne, married Prince George of Denmark\), it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely that such constitutional questions, which found expression in the seemingly trivial external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressions of etiquette, did not make some impact upon Stuart thinking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France itself, that over-stated and inflated model of centralising and 'absolute' monarchy, had anything but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly-pronounced succession law. It was not until a late phase in the sixteenth-century Wars of Religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the question of the nature of the royal succession became paramount; by the assassination of Henri III in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1589 the seemingly factional and confessional sequence of 'civil wars' had transformed themselves into yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another 'succession war'. Henri IV's conversion and coronation at Chartres \(1594--Reims was still in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands of the Catholic Ligue\), followed by a sequence of reconciliations with the Guise family, established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fundamental 'succession law': the sovereign of France had to be male and the Salic Law, sharply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioned during the Hundred Years War with England and during the Wars of Religion, was accepted; he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was called to the crown in the order of strict primogeniture and, as a result, he had to be the next in line by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct male descent from a sovereign, even if that meant, as was the case with Henri IV, stretching back to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cousin in the nineteenth-degree of kinship to his predecessor; and he had to be Catholic. The problem was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7503 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, however, entirely resolved. During the seventeenth century two other loosely-defined elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession law remained, the questions of legitimacy and of renunciation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The pressure by the legitimised Longueville family for inclusion in the succession, the Treaty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montmartre, which proposed to incorporate the Lorraine dynasty into the succession in return for the transfer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to France of their patrimonial duchy, a strategic sovereignty on France's borders, and Louis XlV's panicked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to insert his two illegitimate sons, the duc de Maine and the comte de Toulouse, into the succession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all suggest the lack of clarity of definition of a succession law in France. The Regency's refusal to accept the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelty of a potential bastard succession to the crown merely drove the argument back to the Orlans's own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertain position in the succession: the competition between Felipe V of Spain \(the young king's uncle\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the duc d'Orlans \(the young king's cousin\) for the French succession, on the assumption of Louis XV's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death without a son. Felipe V had been compelled against his will to renounce his rights to the French throne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for himself and his heirs as the price for retaining those parts of the Spanish crowns salvaged for the House )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Bourbon at the Utrecht peace settlement \(1713\). As the King of Spain and his faction at Versailles never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely accepted the validity of such an imposed renunciation, the juridical questions of whether a prince )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could abdicate for himself, and at the same time renounce the rights to a succession for his descendants, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born and unborn, re-emerged in European political debate. These, surely, had profound implications for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those devoted to the cause of James III. While James II might have been decreed by the Convention to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('abdicated', could he, as well, legally have renounced the rights of his only legitimate son? The confusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the French succession, pitting two branches of the Bourbon dynasty against one another, was not settled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the birth \(1751\) of the first of the many sons of Louis XV's Dauphin; a constitutional issue was thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolved by the more direct ways of sexual procreation, not by a debate over succession laws. Demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accident served here as a means to a )] TJ ET BT 210.620 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 248.948 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stabilisation, rather than, as it so frequently did, as the impetus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to political crisis. Although the tensions between the court of Madrid and the Orlans establishment had, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superficially, been resolved by distancing both of their claims, the Orlans branch of the family retained its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keen interest in the French succession, as evinced by its policies during the Revolution and in 1830. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point must be made that the supposedly most dirigiste monarchy in Europe had a law of succession which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was dictated by custom not by law, one which seemed open, during moments of dynastic uncertainty, to re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations and interventions on the part of the reigning monarch and his kinsmen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For once, France was typical of Europe as a whole: custom, not legislation, was the key to most European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession patterns. As David Parrott's recent studies of the Gonzaga successions demonstrate, for as long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crown passed directly from father to son or even from brother to brother, there was little practical need of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a juridical succession law, even for those crowns in the Holy Roman Empire and, like Mantova, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reichsitalien, which were subject to some, usually automatic, form of Imperial confirmation. The Stuart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion of indefeasible inheritance in 1625 and even in 1685 was easily accepted because the line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descent was clear to a political nation fully alert to the, at times unspoken, rules of inheritance. Legislation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carrying the heavy burden of the threat of election, was not necessary or desirable in such circumstances. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Parrott is absolutely correct in viewing succession patterns determined by custom as typical of Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole, it must be noted that the dynastic 'machine' was especially prey to the demographic fragility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which effected all hereditary systems. Studies of the French ducal peerage suggest that the average span for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a title to remain in one House was a mere three generations: sterility or 'daughtering-out' frustrated a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familial dure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sovereign dynasties appear to have been rather more durable, although the House of Austria remained on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish thrones for only five generations, the Vasa in Sweden for four. Few dynasties could match the \(still\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unbroken male descent of the Houses of Savoy or of Lorraine. The family history of the Houses of Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Stuart was particularly unfortunate in this respect; unbroken lines of male descent, easily acceptable by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political nation, were the exception, not the rule. On the continent, problems inevitably arose when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cousins, at some times, as with Henri IV in 1589 or Karl Theodor of Bavaria in 1777, many degrees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removed. succeeded cousins, or when heiresses were involved. Compromise, compensation for disappointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates and contest and challenge introduced themselves immediately, again, as Nenner drives home the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5479 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point for England, because there simply was not an articulated rule of succession. Demographic fragility was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to hereditary dynastic thinking: God decided who would have children, whether they would be sons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or daughters and who would survive. To this means of thinking, there was an elective component to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign succession, but one which was represented by a single, divine elector. For hereditary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignties, human intervention, as embodied normally by parliamentary estates, contradicted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental definition of sovereignty. It introduced the concept of elective monarchy with an unacceptably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad electorate, and that menace, as Nenner clearly demonstrates for the case of England in the seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, united, apart from the radical Whigs, the political nation which feared that such a system would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely become the antechamber to the republican Commonwealth rejected in 1660.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nenner is especially trenchant on the traumatic background of the 1649-60 rgime in Britain for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the subsequent determination to retain the hereditary monarchy and to deny in public the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of an elective element. Returning to the continent, we find a much more mixed structure. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular head of Christendom, despite the protests of the King of France, was undeniably the Holy Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor, and his position was elective. The constituency was small, the seven electors stipulated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Golden Bull of 1356, expanded to eight in 1648 and then to nine in 1692. The possibility of a future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlargement of the electoral franchise was strongly present during the eighteenth century, and although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial crown remained uninterruptedly in the hands of the House of Austria from 1452 to 1740, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts in 1519 by Franois I and Henry VIII and throughout the seventeenth century of Kings of France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Bavarian electors to present their own candidacies underscore the elective nature of this throne.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of elective monarchies--as distinct from elected sovereigns such as the Doges of Venice and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Genoa--inevitably drives the debate back to the Baltic crowns. The Danish conversion to a )] TJ ET BT 471.596 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de jure)] TJ ET BT 505.256 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( hereditary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy should not obscure the fact that it appeared to be a )] TJ ET BT 329.288 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 367.616 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( hereditary monarchy since 1448, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which point the reigning king's eldest son was almost invariably elected as his successor during his father's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifetime. 'Appeared', however, is the operative word, for events in the early sixteenth century emphasised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of the tradition of elective monarchy. The internal strife in Denmark surrounding the elimination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kristian II in 1523 from the political equation--another precedent for the tumult of 1688-89 in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereby a revolt of the lites forced a reigning sovereign into exile--altered the recognised line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession, shifting it from a nephew to an uncle. The political collapse of Kristian II is particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant as it reinforced the elective nature of what Ragnhild Hatton defined as the 'Northern Crowns'. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events of 1523 certainly confirmed the elective nature of the Danish crown in the sixteenth century: a king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be deposed and another king--a close relation, one of the pool of plausible 'blood candidates'--elected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his place. The elective nature of the Norwegian monarchy was also specifically articulated and confirmed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at this moment. The Union of Kalmar was broken and Sweden )] TJ ET BT 337.304 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(elected)] TJ ET BT 371.288 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( its first Vasa king, Gustaf I, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch with no blood claim to the throne, but one of the few prominent grandees to have escaped the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Bloodbath of Stockholm'.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the three royal Baltic crowns were emphatically 'elective' in the sixteenth century, this situation changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the seventeenth century, not only in Copenhagen but also in Stockholm. Sweden offers other close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallels to events in seventeenth century England. The deposition of the Catholic Sigismund in favour of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lutheran uncle Karl IX provides yet another example of the means by which the lites rid themselves of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign who was 'inconvenient' in terms of his view of the constitution, however that was defined, and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional orientation, a similar )] TJ ET BT 199.664 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conjoncture)] TJ ET BT 256.988 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to that which trapped James Vll and 11 in 1688-89. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of this crisis was the 1604 Norrkopping Pact of Succession which accepted female succession under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted conditions. This was another early attempt to define laws of succession, and it is striking that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged from a dynasty in turmoil, one only recently established on a throne, one which had implicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted the law of election in order to advance to royal rank and one which was divided by profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familial strife. There was the potential for challenge from within Sweden and the certainty of challenge from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without, from Copenhagen and from Warsaw. It is difficult to avoid the impression that the fragility of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of the Vasa in Sweden, and indeed in Europe, drove them to seek protection in clear-cut and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juridically defined patterns of succession rather than to rely on time-honoured customs upon which they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no sustainable claim.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Catholic Vasas, established on the elective Polish throne, continued to contest the title of their Lutheran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cousins in the junior line to the Swedish throne, but the ease with which the six-year-old Kristina, a minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a female, succeeded her father, Gustaf II Adolf, in 1632 demonstrated how smoothly the Pact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Succession could operate, although with the significant reserve that the queen-mother was distanced from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the regency in favour of Axel Oxenstierna. The succession of another minor in 1660 produced a similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation. The rights of Karl Xl to his father's throne were not questioned, but Karl X Gustaf's will was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overturned in order to restrict the political influence of his widow on the regency council for her underaged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son and to exclude, contrary to the dead king's wishes, his brother from the council entirely. Although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereditary principle was accepted as the functional mode for the transfer of the crown from parent to child, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power of the dynasty as a whole to participate in the exercise of power was contained by a grandee caste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eager to resist notions of indefeasibility in future cases when the succession-might be less obvious and clear-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cut. The very fact that Karl X Gustaf left a will--one which was disregarded as comprehensively as those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successive French kings--created a precedent for his son, in a much stronger political and financial position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than his father had been, to assert a succession law based upon the right of nomination by the incumbent, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl XI, at his premature death in 1697, set down precise instructions for the descent of the crown itself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that the Swedish succession, in the so-called 'Age of Absolutism', was testamentarilv )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bequeathable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Karl XI had an only son, his succession posed no immediate problem, with a son succeeding a father, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the death in 1718 of Karl XII, unmarried and childless, the crown passed, approximately but not strictly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the terms of their father's will, to his younger sister, Ulrike Eleanore, married to the Landgraf of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hessen-Kassel. Here, during a period of dynastic crisis, when the royal treasury and royal power within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sweden had been considerably weakened as a result of the Great Northern War, a new situation presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. The critically important years of 1718-20, nearly coinciding with the opening of the Hannover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynasty's tenure in Britain, shed much light on the nature of the Swedish succession. Although Ulrike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eleanore was next in line to her brother--their elder sister was dead and her descendants had effectively, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not specifically, been excluded by Karl XI's testament--it remains uncertain by precisely which right she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded him on the throne: hereditary right?, testamentary right as laid down in their father's will? The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events of 1720 are traditionally depicted as an abdication on the part of the queen in favour of her husband, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now Frederik I, a transition from being a ruling queen to a queen-consort. My own research suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly that all Ulrike Eleanore did in 1720 was to accept her husband's elevation to the royal title and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resign the right of administration to him; I cannot see, at least at this stage of research, that she, in any sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the word, 'abdicated' her sovereign status. If this is so, the 1688-89 model of William and Mary cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been far away. Mary was recognised as sovereign queen of Great Britain and William as sovereign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king, but the governance of their sovereignty--as Nenner demonstrates quite clearly--was entrusted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William. Yet Mary's position as the prime hereditary beneficiary was acknowledged by the rather primitive )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7527 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession arrangements which were established: had William died before Mary, she would have remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign queen in her own right, assumed full administrative governance and transmitted her claims on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty to any children from a subsequent marriage. The arrangement of 1688-89 delicately balanced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of hereditary sovereignty--Mary's paramount family claims, on the assumption that her half-brother )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had never been born--and an elective monarchy of a sovereign chosen, for his personal gifts, but one with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own blood claims on the crown, William III of Orange being, via his Stuart mother, third in line to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British succession, two places behind his own wife. William's own dynastic rights in England were essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the case of a joint monarchy. Although Nenner does not discuss the issue, this structure of juridical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power-holding opens questions as to Mary II's governance of Britain during William's absences on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continent: was this by virtue of her right as a crowned and anointed sovereign or by right of delegation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost a regency, as designated by her husband? Such niceties of constitutional law rarely altered balances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the realities of power-holding; but we do need to know what the juridical structures were, if only to judge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how far away from them political practicalities impelled rulers to move and to what extent they felt obliged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to justify and validate such innovations, however temporary they may have been.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We cannot yet, however, abandon the court of Stockholm. Like William and Mary, Frederik and Ulrike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eleanore were childless; the question of a succession to direct heirs of their bodies simply did not present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself; and, as again in the case of England, the queen, who had the clearest hereditary claim, predeceased her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband, who, unlike William, had no blood right of his own to his throne. As it became obvious that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couple would have no children--and as with William and Mary perception of the sterility of the marriage was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed remarkably early-Ulrike Eleanore and Frederik pursued diametrically opposed policies to select a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor, the queen supporting a member of the Zweibrucken branch of her own family in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetuate a Wittelsbach presence in Sweden, the king the candidacy of his younger brother as part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign to create a tenth electorate in favour of the House of Hessen-Kassel. Factions developed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance these two possibilities, but it is striking that the Riksdag, in its elective role, chose instead Adolf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederik of Holstein-Gottorp, a cadet from a clan closely attached to the Swedish royal House. In the midst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all this genealogical detail, some striking structural points emerge. During periods of monarchical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength, such as the reign of Karl XI, the disposition of the crown seemed to be in the hands of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incumbent, by means of his testament; when the power of the Estates, particularly the magnate class, was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ascendant, the succession acquired a much more elective character, although the candidates for election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to belong to a recognisable pool of princes with some blood claim to it. The candidates for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession to Frederik I and Ulrike Eleanore were all related to the king or the queen in ways which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have made juridical sense in terms of private law, and I shall return shortly to the definition of relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to succession within such a pool, because it sheds light on a central point of Nenner's thesis for England, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential problems posed by contradictions between private succession laws for subjects and the succession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the sovereignty itself. The conflict between, for lack of better terms, private and public law, or to be more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise, between the code governing non-sovereign succession, even at the ducal level, and sovereign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession plays a fundamental role in Nenner's thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fusion between hereditary and elective right, so crucial to the 1689 settlement in Britain, is clear in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltic sovereignties as well, notably Poland and Russia. The elective nature of the Polish monarchy, based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the vast constituency of the szlachta \(following Robert Frost, roughly 70,000 nobles participated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncontested election of Wladyslaw IV in 1632\), made it an unique if not widely copied institution of power-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holding in early-modern Europe. The extinction, in 1572, of the Jagellion dynasty, which had soldered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal union of the kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania, initiated a sequence of elections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the monarchical crown, which after the unsuccessful \(1573\) flirtation with the Valois candidacy, directed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention only to princes with a dynastic claim upon the Jagellionian inheritance, first Stefan Batory, but, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently the Catholic branch of the House of Vasa. It was only with the abdication \(1668\) of the last of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these, Jan Casimir, that election to the Polish throne ceased to be predicated upon some, albeit ill-defined, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of hereditary right. Even so, the successors to the Vasa in Poland, notably Jan Sobieski and his wife, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to introduce a strictly hereditary system of succession, failing which, a juridical mechanism to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elect the heir during the lifetime of the incumbent.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7696 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The uneasy union between the concepts of heredity and election evinced itself, in different forms, in Russia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1722, Peter I assumed the right to nominate his successor, thus bringing the succession law for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty into line with the right conferred in 1714 on the head of each Russian noble family to control the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession to his lands by naming a chosen heir, a striking attempt to coordinate 'public' succession law and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('private' succession law, but one which concentrated considerable power in the hands of the incumbent. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time of his death in 1725, however, Peter had failed to make his choice, and Russian nominative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession became dormant, although it did not disappear entirely. The uncertainty caused by Peter's death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without a recognised successor opened the door for an elective constituency but one much smaller than that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Polish szlachta, for it became, eventually, the lite guards regiments which determined, by a sequence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of coups d'tat, who sat on the Russian throne. This was election by force, but, yet again, the only plausible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates were those with some direct blood or family link to the Romanov dynasty \(with the innovation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that wives could succeed husbands\). Some form of dynastic validation was essential. Once established on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the throne, those two monsters of eighteenth-century statecraft, Elisaveta Petrovna and Catherine II, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained their hold upon power by securing the 'elective' confidence of the high aristocracy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical hierarchy. Catherine attempted to revive Peter's nominative right with a decree excluding her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only \(presumably\) legitimate son in favour of her grandson, but this document conveniently disappeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the empress was in her death throes. The flea-like agitations of the Russian succession in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century were settled only in 1797 when Emperor Pavel Petrovitch, in a self-conscious act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrospective matricide, decreed a succession law which, without specifically barring female succession, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established the descent of the crown in such a juridical fashion that effectively blocked any woman from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reigning in her own right; any male member of the House, however far removed from the throne in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynastic blood links, took precedence over the incumbent Tsar's closest female relation. Russia therefore had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a coherent succession law one which, as Roderick McGrew has pointed out, eliminated 'a condition fertile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for political intrigue...and was an important step towards a regularized political system', only at the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eighteenth century and only after a period of chaotic 'elections', albeit elections for which only a limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of candidates, based upon hereditary affinity, were eligible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pavel Petrovitch's succession law points forward to a more rigid juridical definition of succession legislation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evinced, as well, in the early nineteenth century by the succession arrangements reached by such recently-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established dynasties as the Sachsen-Coburg in Belgium and the Bernadotte in Sweden. But these precise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pieces of legislation came only after the end of the ancien rgime. As Howard Nenner suggests, the much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more 'mixed' structure of succession agreements, in which 'the best' or 'most accommodating' or 'most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convenient' of the candidates. but only those with plausible dynastic claims, could be 'elected', or, to use the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jargon of the time, 'recognised'--in order to preserve the notion of hereditary descent of-the crown--installed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself in English succession law from 1688-89 onwards. It is necessary to remember that the combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concepts of elective choice and dynastic inheritance became well entrenched within northern Europe at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roughly the same time as the Glorious Revolution. In the Baltic the distinction between indefeasible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereditary monarchy and monarchical election was less clear cut than Nenner would present it for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth-century England; in Denmark, Sweden, Poland and Russia both systems, in very different ways, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolved hand-in-hand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nenner devotes most of his efforts to an investigation of these two seemingly opposed forms of succession, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indefeasible heredity and election, yet right of nomination and right of conquest continued to play significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles in the eighteenth-century validation of sovereign power-holding. Peter l's 1722 decree drives attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexorably to the Spanish monarchies, for throughout the seventeenth century the final testament of the King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Spain was the determining document upon which the succession to his crowns was based. The problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, of course, lies with the very notion of a coherent 'Spain'. Iberian 'Spain' itself consisted of a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowns, principally Castile and Aragon, but also Granada, Leon, Majorca and Navarre, and, between 1580 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1640, the kingdom of Portugal, to which we shall shortly return. But this was only Iberian Spain, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglects Mediterranean Spain--the kingdoms of Sardinia, Sicily and Naples--and what can best be termed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('European' Spain, the duchy of Milano, the Franche-Comt \(until 1678\) and the Southern Netherlands. All of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these units of 'Spain' had individual and highly idiosyncratic )] TJ ET BT 326.660 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(customs,)] TJ ET BT 368.324 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( not )] TJ ET BT 389.660 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(laws,)] TJ ET BT 414.668 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of succession, as Louis XIV )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7724 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully appreciated when he pressed, by means of the War of the Devolution, for 'recognition' of the rights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his consort, the Infanta Doha Maria Teresa, to a chunk of the Southern Netherlands. The King of France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basing himself upon local )] TJ ET BT 160.676 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(private)] TJ ET BT 194.672 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( law in Flanders, claimed that his consort, as the only surviving child of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Felipe IV's )] TJ ET BT 89.504 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(first)] TJ ET BT 108.848 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( bed, was entitled to some compensation in the Southern Netherlands, as the King of Spain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only son, Carlos II, was the issue of his )] TJ ET BT 225.668 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(second )] TJ ET BT 261.992 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bed, and, as sole male heir, had 'scooped the pool' to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jumbled Spanish inheritance. Similarly, in the 1777-78 Bavarian succession dispute the public rights of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multi-branched House of Wittelsbach to the sovereign succession of the electorate and the private rights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late and childless elector's family \(related to him through his sister\) to extensive allodial landholdings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collided head-on and provoked a European crisis. As we have seen, Nenner is fully alert to conflicts between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('public' and 'private' law in his discussion of the English succession, the gaps, the distinctions and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between those customs governing sovereign succession as distinct from those framing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmission of the lands and titles of aristocratic subjects, to repeat, even those at the most elevated ducal or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princely level. The notion of sovereignty is the key here; those with claims to sovereignty behaved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently from 'mere' grandee subjects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlos II's testament is a key document. For generations heads of the Spanish branch of the House of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburg viewed the aggregate of their possessions as disposable by their last will and testament. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Successive Kings of 'Spain', during the long periods in which direct male descent seemed uncertain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised to detach elements--the Spanish Netherlands or the duchy of Milano--from their conglomerate at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their death or held out the lure of the entire inheritance--constantly to the House of Savoy--in the hope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic advantage. The fundamental point remains that the right to the succession to the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdoms, viewed as a whole, was nominative; the will of the incumbent was the key factor in the absence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of one obvious male heir. Carlos II's testament, kept secret until his death late in 1700, named the duc )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d'Anjou as his heir, on the assumption that the young prince's elder brother, the duc de Bourgogne, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father, the Dauphin, would renounce their claims as they were in direct line to the French succession. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of salient points emerge from this crucially important episode which extended the war of the 1690s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into that of the first two decades of the eighteenth century. Firstly, the right of nomination could be exercised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the incumbent only in the circumstances of the king having no sons and no brothers; dispossession of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such close male relations was impossible, although the Don Carlos crisis of Felipe II's reign suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such action was at least contemplated. Secondly, while succession by nomination retained juridical validity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the eighteenth century, the successful candidate, as was so frequently the case, had to belong to the pool )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of princes perceived by the political nation as having some blood right to the crown. The Bourbon duc )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d'Anjou, a member of Carlos II's family rather than his House, had, despite the renunciations to the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance of his grandmother on her marriage to Louis XIV, the best blood claim, one established by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier Castilian succession precedents. The third point to be noted is the introduction of a nuanced form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election into the Spanish succession in 1700, for Carlos II attached one vitally important condition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nomination: the chosen prince would have to accept the Spanish inheritance intact and to guarantee its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete integrity. If not, the next nominee would be invited to do so and to ascend the thrones. Louis XIV, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had previously negotiated with William III for a peaceful partition of Carlos's legacy, effectively had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yield to the pressure of the specifically Castilian grandees who wanted no diminution whatsoever of Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landholdings and no alienation of extra-lberian sovereignties in order to purchase the goodwill of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointed candidates. In accepting the terms of Carlos II's will on behalf of his grandson, the King of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France secured the essential support of the Castilian lites but also implicitly acknowledged their role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determining the form of the succession. The new king, Felipe V, supported by his grandfather, attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensure that this haphazard and mixed approach to the Spanish succession could not be repeated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced the Salic Law in 1713 into a much more juridically integrated and homogenised Spain, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation repudiated in 1830 as a noxious French import in an eventually successful attempt to assert that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the absence of a son, the King of Spain would be succeeded by his daughter in preference to his brother.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If succession by nomination continued to be exercised in the ancien rgime, so did succession by right of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest. Nenner is sharply aware, however, of how problematic this particular form of succession could be )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8268 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a society which was centered upon the concept of precedent and which professed distrust and even hatred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any modification which could be stigmatised as 'innovation'. Succession by conquest opened the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility of succession by a prince--or, indeed, anyone-with no blood right or juridical right to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty. In 1580, at a moment of dynastic crisis in Lisbon, Felipe II of Spain invaded Portugal, where he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed himself as king. He was careful, however, to assert his blood rights to the throne through his mother )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to extract recognition of his self-declared 'superior' claims from as many of the other potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates as he possibly could. Even so, sixty years later, in 1640, the descendant of two of these plausible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimants led a successful revolt against the Spanish authority and established himself as King Joao IV. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events of 1640 in Lisbon are remarkable: using the language of 'restoration' and specifically not 'revolution' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and brandishing the cultural weapon of Lusitanism, Joao IV created a )] TJ ET BT 370.616 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 408.944 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Portuguese succession law, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one which countenanced female succession but also succession in the illegitimate male line-the new king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessed both claims. The rights of bastards to a sovereign inheritance had found some limited acceptance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Italian courts of the Quattrocento and Cinquecento--Ferrara \(where a more experienced illegitimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son actually imposed himself before a still-untested younger legitimate son\), Modena, Florence--but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operating succession arrangements in Portugal stand out as, at least to my knowledge, an unique example in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of respect for the juridical claims of those born out of wedlock.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Italian peninsula indeed provides a striking--and strikingly late--example of succession by right of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest. In 1734, Carlo I, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, the eldest son of the King of Spain, Felipe V, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his second wife \(there were sons from the first bed\), Elisabetta Farnese, conquered Naples amidst the chaos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the European-wide War of the Polish Succession. Although Carlo \(from 1759, Carlos III of Spain\) had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing claims, via private, allodial law thanks to his mother's position as one of the more impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heiresses of eighteenth-century Europe, to the Farnese duchies and to the grand duchy of Tuscany as well, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had none to the kingdom of Naples, assigned to the Austrian Habsburgs as part of the 1713 Treaties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Utrecht. As with Portugal in 1640, the rhetoric of cultural politics was deployed: the independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty of Naples was 'restored', following a gap little short of 250 years. The emblematic definition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('restoration' looms as importantly as the problem of 'succession' over early-modern European history, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlo and his consort, Maria Amalia of Saxony, worked assiduously to 'recreate', through a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated form of cultural patronage, a specifically Neapolitan identity. Juridically, the kingdom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naples was a papal fief--the lengthy disputes over the ceremony of the Chinea in Rome, the presentation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white horse as feudal tribute to the pontiff, shed important light on this complex relationship--but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borbon-Wettin couple simply cut across all this, providing a precedent for succession to sovereignties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without reference to juridical overlords, mainly the Pope but also the Holy Roman Emperor. The succession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Franois tienne, Duke of Lorraine and Bar, as Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1737, three years after Carlo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VII's conquest of Naples, confirmed that the practical functioning of laws of succession need not be rooted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in family rights, and, in this way, despite the application of the cosmetics of 'nomination', the succession in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuscany was 'massaged' to produce the same result as in Naples--effectively Franois-tienne 'conquered' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence, but he conquered it peacefully, without the bellicose stage effects of military invasion. I would like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to suggest--but no more than suggest-- that the disregard, certainly the dwindling respect, in eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Italy for the established authorities, Imperial and, again, especially, Papal, to control and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjudicate transmissions of succession in the absence of an obvious male heir installed the notion of dynastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('deals' which were, in effect, conquests. )] TJ ET BT 226.616 214.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Realpolitik )] TJ ET BT 282.284 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings between the major courts, Vienna \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austrian not as Imperial\), Versailles and Madrid, aimed to impose succession settlements on the Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peninsula without reference to its traditional overlords, whose power had been self-evident in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century, and, thus, helped to pave the way for the most notable exponent, one saturated in Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political )] TJ ET BT 76.352 157.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kultur,)] TJ ET BT 110.696 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the practice of asserting sovereignty throughout Europe by right of conquest, Napoleon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bonaparte. Bonaparte, as well, manipulated the cultural norms of the ancien rgime--replicating formalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of court etiquette and employing artists, musicians, scientists and historians associated with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors--in order to validate his new system, but that new political system owed much to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness of eighteenth-century powers to marginalise the rights and responsibilities over succession law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphatically asserted by the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor during the seventeenth century. In a tetchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review in the )] TJ ET BT 99.668 71.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement,)] TJ ET BT 232.664 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Tim Blanning recently questioned why historians should concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves with questions of how one Italian king or duke grabbed such-and-such a sovereignty in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8064 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century; one reason to address ourselves to these questions is that such manoeuvres stand at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart not only of European early modern political history, and, by extension, that of political-historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought, as justifying claims to sovereignties through primary documentation drove forward the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidential history \(and the organisation of archives and libraries\), but also of European social history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exploring these questions can say as much about early modern definitions of the family as it can about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of power-holding. Howard Nenner's focus upon the specific concept of succession asserts its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance for England; it is clear that the questions surrounding succession are essential for the study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest of Europe as well. Nenner's re-orientation of seventeenth-century history towards the concerns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupations of the time-rather than to late twentieth-century obsessions with 'Large Historical Questions'-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one of the major achievements of his volume, and, l suspect it moves him closer to the )] TJ ET BT 462.644 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales)] TJ ET BT 501.308 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mentalit.)] TJ ET BT 81.680 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( although a )] TJ ET BT 138.008 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mentalit)] TJ ET BT 182.672 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the lites, indeed that of the pinnacle of society. than he may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finishing, very belatedly, this review in the weeks following the death of Diana, Princess of Wales and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequent, unmistakable sharpening of the debate over the nature of the British--both English and Scottish--)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchies and the laws governing succession to them, it is impossible for me not to note the timeliness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nenner's book. Part of the agenda of what is presented as 'think-tank' meetings at Balmoral--Elizabeth II's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to salvage the monarchy by presenting a 'reforming' or, to use current jargon, 'modernising' profile to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the media--concerns itself specifically with the mechanism of succession: the identity of the consort-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican or not?-- of those with blood rights and the order in which they are summoned--date of birth or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender? The public perception of the links between this late-twentieth-century constitutional discussion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world of historical erudition was signaled when )] TJ ET BT 283.316 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 332.984 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( decided, quite consciously, to give front-page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence to the recent discovery by Michael Bennett of a document in The British Library dating from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1376 in which Edward III )] TJ ET BT 160.988 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nominated)] TJ ET BT 211.652 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( his heir and established an English succession law which excluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women; Edward, at the same time, continued to press his own claims to the French throne by right of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descent. Although the charter dates from over 600 years ago, its revelation was considered sufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Times-worthy' for such prominence because of the historical background it provides to proposals for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altering the order of the British succession. These proposals also draw attention implicitly to projects for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformed House of Lords and to the suggested anomaly between the laws governing succession to the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty and those regulating the descent exclusively in the male line of the overwhelming majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English peerages, an aspect which Nenner discusses with considerable subtlety.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet again, a continental framework is essential, and, in exploring modern comparisons, a number of tropes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which have appeared already in this article represent themselves. As early as 1953, a referendum in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denmark altered the law of succession in order to enable the king's daughters to succeed him in preference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his brother, thus breaking the law of exclusively male sovereignty. This move was subsequently followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by similar legislation in Sweden, Norway and Belgium, not only to permit female succession but also to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assert that the order of succession was determined solely by the date of birth, not, preferentially, by gender. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the cases of Sweden and Belgium, the legislation was applied retrospectively, with younger princes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually being demoted from the superior positions in the succession that they had previously held in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to favour their elder sisters. The constitution \(1814-15\) of the kingdom of the Netherlands, in itself another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early-nineteenth century novelty, has been changed four times \(1887, 1922, 1963, 1983\) in order to re-define )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the royal succession, the 1983 revision abolishing the precedence of sons over-daughters. Such alterations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which weaken the notion of the dynastic House, did not always meet with unqualified enthusiasm in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal families whose succession they affect. In Spain, where, as we have seen, female succession was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('restored' in 1830 \(while preserving the precedence of male children of the incumbent over female\), King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Juan Carlos, working in cooperation with the Corts, has, since his accession in 1975, introduced a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of changes defining the royal family--excluding a first cousin \(a protg of General Franco\) but integrating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more distant Neapolitan cousin--while the Constitution of 1978 effectively relaxed the laws on marriage so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his two daughters could wed, one, a member of the middling Castilian aristocracy, and the other, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympic handball champion, without sacrificing their rights to the crown, as the king's sisters had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliged to do when marrying husbands beneath sovereign status. Such shifts are also apparent outside of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe: in Thailand where the marital confusions of the Crown Prince have raised the prospect of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession of one of his sisters; and in Japan where the absence of princes in the third generation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial House has led to discreet requests for advice from Europe on mechanisms for allowing female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession and has encouraged historians to look back to a far distant past of empresses reigning in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own right. Dynastic crisis still drives scholars back to the archives in the search for precedence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validation and may, thus, have some scientific, as distinct from political utility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political unsuitability or demographic instability, as in Nenner's seventeenth century England, can force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in a constitution predicated upon some form of hereditary authority; it is possible--l would suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again with great caution--that succession laws at the sovereign level throughout Europe have been, during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last fifty years, more flexible and adjustable than they were during the period between again, very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roughly, 1800 and 1950, the high watermark of the nation-state. There may well have been psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links between two distinct historical phenomena: the need to assert, in terms of imagery, the primacy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation-state; and the need to spell-out a succession law, fostering a sense of security and continuity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endowing innovatory political experiments with an aura of validatory stability. The Act of Settlement was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early, indeed a very early, in broader European terms, attempt to deal with a dynastic and ideological crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by articulating guidelines for the English succession, guidelines which, while specifically naming the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Electress Sophia and her descendants as the eventual heirs, were operationally based on the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion, exclusion of the roughly fifty other candidates with better blood claims than Sophia, for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to meet certain criteria, exclusively confessional, precisely the issue which had confronted James II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Duke of York and which, seemingly, had been defeated during the Exclusion Crises in favour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indefeasibility. From 1701, all sovereigns were required to be in communion with the Church of England \(of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they were head\), as the ostensibly Calvinist William III had consented to do. Indeed, the next English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort at defining the succession, the Royal Marriages Act of 1772, was also based upon the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion, in this case because of the inferior social status of spouses. As exclusive legislation, the Act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Settlement was not particularly typical of early-modern-Europe succession arrangements as a whole. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juridical tightening of the definition of rights to sovereign succession, despite the examples of England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denmark and Spain \(later to be reversed\), seems to be more a 'modern' than an 'early-modern' phenomenon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one touching an issue where law, as distinct from custom and consent, was viewed with mistrust and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misgiving.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relatively static state of the English monarchy in the eighteenth century, despite profound family rifts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of which indeed provoked discussions about the direction of the succession, and the public scandals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which damaged the 'image' of the monarchy, emerged, nevertheless, after more than a century of intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and private debate on the nature of the succession and the Stuart sovereignty and it is to that debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Nenner's achievement in describing and analysing it that I shall now turn. It would be a mistake to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of Nenner's book solely in terms of its current topicality. The history of political thought and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, of political literature have for some time been criticised for a failure to establish links between 'pure' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory and the hard-core practical realities of specific political crises and drama. Even if we accept that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Great Minds' of seventeenth-century political thinking were miraculously detached from the pressures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partisan conflict--the cut-and-thrust of claiming power, a notion of dubious navet at best-those lesser men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who wrote the majority of books, tracts and pamphlets, it should be suggested, acted less out of conviction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more because of their positions in clientle systems which required the production of printed fodder to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain and to validate the political stances of their )] TJ ET BT 279.656 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(baroni)] TJ ET BT 311.660 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Trapped in concepts of individualism and self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression, traditional historians of political thought have given insufficient weight to the practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessities imposed on political writers by the combat for power, for sovereignty, a combat which advanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political debate as well as the historical scholarship aimed at justifying the claims of their patrons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At a first glance, Nenner might seem to have inscribed himself into this rather old-fashioned matrix of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying political thought. Only a small handful of primary, archival sources are cited; printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation is, overwhelmingly, the point of reference. Biographical details about individual writers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators are confined to throw-away clauses and the stray sentence; any reader hoping to 'fix' a specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author within a specific political context, in order to understand why he wrote what he wrote, must have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(DNB)] TJ ET BT 58.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by his side and use his own historical imagination. These first impressions would, however, be deeply )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 6059 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleading. Nenner has made an extremely important breakthrough by tying his entire argument to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical imperatives of power-holding. Who held the sovereignty and how did he or she justify its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possession? Nenner is far less concerned with the evolution of such increasingly discredited notions as that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 'nation-state', recently described by Mark Goldie in terms of the Rankean perspective which anointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it as 'the definitive historical actor' in modern European history, than he is with the history of the family and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its grasp on power. Such a view offends nineteenth- and twentieth-century liberal historical ideology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it is unacceptably predicated upon the central role accorded to self-interest in studying political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social action, yet it is probably rather closer to the stark historical realities of seventeenth-century life. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validatory theories which the combat for power called forth were 'patronised' in every sense of that word, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and they belong at least as much to the world of political calculation as they do to that of hermetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By concentrating on the specifics of power-holding, Nenner has developed a method which elucidates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabulary and, indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 169.316 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mentalit)] TJ ET BT 213.980 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of what can be seen as a key constitutional debate of seventeenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century English political thought, the succession. By starting from moments of seemingly 'easy' transition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1603, 1625, perhaps the restoration of 1660, certainly James II's accession in 1685, but also by looking at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more difficult moments, 1649, the tumultuous events of 1688-89, the crisis of 1701, Nenner establishes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself as a 'contextualist'. It is around these 'set-pieces' that he scrutinises the theoretical debate, and, at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risk of utilising facile Marxist rhetoric, identifies a dialectic centered on the nature of both the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty and its succession which exposes the language of political thought. However self-regarding and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-interested the writings on either side--or on all sides--at each moment of succession disputes were, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms and the vocabulary used have rarely been so clearly delineated as in Nenner's book. By forcing us into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the language of succession debate, Nenner opens up fundamental questions about the concepts of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution and about European sovereignty as a whole during the early-modern period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This critically important but very enclosed book does demand that scholars bring their own comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples. It is a pity to record that Macmillan have rendered this key text much less than full justice. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exile of the notes to a section at the back of the volume, the uninspired type-setting and page-layout, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexpressibly dreary and monochromatic jacket design--based on the Lewis chessmen, God help us!: what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do they have to do with seventeenth-century succession in England?--all point to the failure of will of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('commercial' scholarly publishers and to the collapse of integrity amongst the older university presses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(perhaps the revival at Manchester will retrieve the situation\). Howard Nenner is a tight, at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional, historian of political thought, but he has written a synthetic account of succession disputes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which reaches far beyond his remit of seventeenth-century England to embrace much broader European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues. It should serve as a model for scholars to study other succession problems on the continent, and it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bold indication of how bracing and refreshing Anglo-Saxon empiricism can be for an early-modern history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still trapped in a web of nineteenth century assumptions and ideologies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 190.015 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 172.235 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 172.235 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/48)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 170.841 m 316.316 170.841 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 145.864 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/421)] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 171.1555 316.3157 183.0355 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/48) >> endobj xref 0 40 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000406 00000 n 0000000443 00000 n 0000000638 00000 n 0000000720 00000 n 0000004872 00000 n 0000004981 00000 n 0000005091 00000 n 0000005200 00000 n 0000008761 00000 n 0000008889 00000 n 0000008973 00000 n 0000009038 00000 n 0000015143 00000 n 0000015208 00000 n 0000022776 00000 n 0000022841 00000 n 0000030397 00000 n 0000030462 00000 n 0000035994 00000 n 0000036059 00000 n 0000043662 00000 n 0000043727 00000 n 0000051307 00000 n 0000051372 00000 n 0000059121 00000 n 0000059186 00000 n 0000066963 00000 n 0000067028 00000 n 0000075349 00000 n 0000075414 00000 n 0000083531 00000 n 0000083596 00000 n 0000091301 00000 n 0000091385 00000 n 0000097497 00000 n 0000097625 00000 n trailer << /Size 40 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 97719 %%EOF