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[(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Review Article: Recent Biographical Works on Horatio Nelson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(480)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 October, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marianne Czisnik)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(340900210X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodder and Stoughton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Knight)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(713996196X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(912pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Lambert)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(571212220X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(480pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faber and Faber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 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?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5241 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005, the bicentenary of the battle of Trafalgar, has seen a spate of publications relating to Nelson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trafalgar. Some of us may be justified in thinking that there were already too many books on these subjects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1990 there were over 100 biographies of Nelson. Now there are more. Do these books take our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge any further forward, and where do Nelsonic studies go from here? This review examines five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new books, all relating to Nelson. Most are veritable tomes: together they contain over three thousand pages. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most cover the same subject matter. But each is distinctive in approach and treatment, and amazingly some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide food for thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First out was John Sugden's )] TJ ET BT 170.516 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson: a Dream of Glory)] TJ ET BT 296.504 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. At 960 pages it is also the most generous, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as it examines Nelson's life only to 1797 when he suffered the loss of his right arm which could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminated his career \(a further volume is planned\). Sugden, a former journalist and writer on Drake, has an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eye for human detail; he uses crew lists, pay books, ships' logs, and a remarkable amount of biographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information to thoroughly recreate the social environments of the ships' companies and society in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson operated. He is particularly good at recreating the social environments of, for example, Toulon and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naples, at setting out the conflict between the navy and the army during the sieges of Bastia and Calvi in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corsica in 1794, and at providing depth to the lives of key figures like the Hamiltons. The naval dimension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is less effectively covered; significantly the few maps are not tied into the narrative. Furthermore, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too thoroughly, it includes stories and recollections, some of doubtful authenticity, deriving from )] TJ ET BT 502.652 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Admiral Lord Nelson)] TJ ET BT 136.028 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1809 written by James Clark and John McArthur. Sugden nevertheless places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson in his social milieu. His accounts of the Marine Society boys who joined the )] TJ ET BT 439.988 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agamemnon)] TJ ET BT 499.976 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1793, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his examination of the proceedings of the first series of courts martial chaired by Nelson, and his discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a 'venereal complaint' for which a dentist claimed to have treated Nelson vindicate his claim that there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more to say about his life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Lambert's )] TJ ET BT 126.152 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson: Britannia's God of War)] TJ ET BT 279.392 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, contrasts with Sugden's first volume by treating Nelson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Sugden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22406097)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(960pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Cape)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin White)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1843831309)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(592pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Morriss)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7793 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life before 1793 quite thinly, focusing more particularly on the naval dimensions than the social context, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by projecting Nelson's own point of view. The latter provides valuable focus, especially when considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strategic situation in Europe from the Mediterranean in 1799 when Nelson himself remained with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two Sicilies rather than succumbing to the entreaties of Lord Keith to reinforce the British fleet off Minorca. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naval commanders like Lords Hood and St Vincent, who appreciated Nelson, are also well developed. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the analysis of these commanders takes Nelson's viewpoint rather too readily: Keith is demonised, St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vincent's flatteries are reiterated without qualification, and Sir John Orde, who felt threatened by Nelson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing status, is condemned as a blockhead. Women appear little. Nelson's right to terminate his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with Fanny is championed, as her lack of understanding served to make his life difficult. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his relationship with Emma Hamilton is made any more important, for their passion is minimised, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their relationship largely ignored because, in the long-term, they spent relatively little time together. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson always placed his duty before others, an attitude with which later naval officers may have identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which helps to explain his relevance to later British society with which the last fifty pages of this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are preoccupied. But, with the Channel fleet of the Trafalgar campaign repeatedly referred to as the Grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleet, in places the age of Fisher seems to reach back into the life of Nelson.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to Nelsonic history on the grand scale is Colin White's )] TJ ET BT 352.148 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson: the New Letters)] TJ ET BT 467.816 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. White has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracked down over 1,300 unpublished letters by Nelson and here presents over 500 of them. Some have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly printed in earlier gatherings, but invariably edited, sometimes mutilated, and in these cases White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguishes what was previously omitted. The printing includes official as well as private correspondence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former in some cases from scruffy and neglected ships' order books, the latter often in runs among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers of non-naval contemporaries. The operational orders are advanced as 'truly ground-breaking' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed they do show Nelson's forethought, preparations and attention to detail as a fleet commander. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn of the division of his ships into squadrons and instruction for them to prepare to anchor by the stern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding the battle of the Nile, and of the care with which he positioned his ships and boats at Copenhagen. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The printing of Nelson's sea journal for the days surrounding this action connects us directly to his mind and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupations. Much is made of a series of 'pressed copies' in the British Library, not always easy to read, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, because they are pressed, are designated by White as 'secret'. However duplicating by pressing was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming a common procedure in naval administration in 1800?5 and this looks like an over-dramatisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Knight, )] TJ ET BT 105.680 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory: the Life and Achievement of Horatio Nelson)] TJ ET BT 431.000 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, benefits from White's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work and acknowledges the generous pre-publication sharing of his findings. Without doubt, the scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporated in this biography is exceptional. Knight's knowledge of the naval world in the late eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century is exceeded by none; he has travelled the world to examine every relevant source; and he rejects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with consistent discipline the anecdotes and doubtful stories incorporated in previous biographical works; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents printed by Clarke and McArthur in 1809 have been completely banned. Further, certain myths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are corrected from study of the logs of the ships Nelson that served in, which also gives rise to a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(track charts that recreate the maritime-geographical dimension of his life. The result is a naval biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisp with new thinking. Special features are cross-sectional surveys of the British navy in 1771 and in 1793; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the former recreates the social structure Nelson entered, the latter reviews the political events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological innovations that increased the power of the navy when Nelson resumed his career. Regrettably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a similar chapter is not entitled the navy in 1803, although much on the adverse administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances is included in the chapter on the Peace of Amiens. For an academic book, which constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calls upon the reader to consider its sources, the endnotes are too far away. But the quality of the judgements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that inform the text lead forcibly to the conviction that this book is the nearest we yet have to the definitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However Marianne Czisnik's )] TJ ET BT 176.480 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Horatio Nelson: a Controversial Hero)] TJ ET BT 361.148 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demonstrates that there is still much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more to understand about this man. Czisnik, significantly not of the UK, demonstrates the necessity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspend for a time the business of writing full but superficial and subjective biographies, and to take a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clinical and analytical approach to a character that even contemporaries acknowledged as complex. Czisnik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains with admirable clarity and detail key episodes in Nelson's career, tracing the historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhibitions, prejudices, confusions and controversies that beset subsequent interpretations. The second half )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 9088 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her book examines the post-1805 uses of the Nelson legend. But the first half focuses on Nelson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent acts of disobedience at the battle of Cape St Vincent, against Lord Keith, and at Copenhagen; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations for his success as a battle commander; his actual role at Naples in 1799; the appeal of Lady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamilton; his needs at his death; and his qualities as a military leader. In the process she uses management )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, gender analysis, Freudian analysis of Nelson's account of a particularly explicit dream, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptive eye for what Nelson admired in his most famous female partner. The result is that we get to know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson more intimately than in even the fullest of the other biographies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, what new insights do we gain from these new publications? In some areas especially his early life, quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few. Nelson's career passed through three stages. In the first, we have always known of the patronage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurice Suckling, naval captain then Comptroller of the Navy Board, but the new biographies also stress the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of his other uncle, William Suckling, Deputy Collector at the Customs House, who had the ear of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Jenkinson, Lord Hawkesbury, through whom there was a route to Lord Sandwich and later Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatham.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 80.348 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 80.348 612.003 m 94.340 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 94.340 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Maurice Suckling ensured that Nelson became an accomplished seaman by placing him with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captains who gave him time in sailing boats and small vessels. Knight calculates that he had sailed 45,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miles before he took his exam for lieutenant.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.648 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.648 583.491 m 262.640 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 262.640 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Too young though he was, there was thus reason that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should pass. Even so, his early career was probably much like those of many others. After the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, his sycophantic support of the boorish Prince William Henry and readiness to accost his superiors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked him out as an unpredictable, indeed difficult, officer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.288 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.288 540.723 m 340.280 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.280 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Back in England, there were good reasons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his unemployment, an additional one probably being his failure to attend an election.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.300 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.300 526.467 m 472.292 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 472.292 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His criticism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stores management in the West Indies gained him some notice ? an alleged three-hour conversation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Rose ? but this was insufficient to redeem a reputation already tainted, especially with the career of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an otherwise innocent storekeeper certainly damaged.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 291.944 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 291.944 483.699 m 305.936 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second stage of his career, with the beginning of the French Revolutionary War, Nelson began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciously to re-establish a more favourable reputation. White prints the actual letter he sent containing an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of his first action ? which he 'would have inserted in the newspaper' ? to his brother Maurice at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navy Office to ensure the details were known in that important department.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.280 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.280 414.675 m 411.272 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.272 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At this stage, he clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courted his senior officers, Hood and later Jervis; he also ensured his activities were well known to Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spencer, First Lord of the Admiralty, by sending him regular reports of the Austrian campaign in northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 59.012 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 59.012 371.907 m 73.004 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 73.004 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( After the battle of Cape St Vincent, he briefed the writer Colonel Drinkwater and wrote his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Remarks Relative to Myself' \(verified by two captains\) which, under Nelson's instruction, went to William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windham, MP for Norwich and Secretary for War, who gave it to George III. Knight reveals that Windham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also a friend of Lord Spencer, First Lord of the Admiralty, under whose supervision a copy of Nelson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partial account, was edited and published, putting a glorious gloss on the battle. Sugden adds the newspapers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which versions of 'Remarks' appeared, largely through the efforts of Locker, Nelson's first captain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyal friend.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.672 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.672 286.371 m 106.664 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There can be little wonder that there were jealousies attending Nelson's promotion to rear-admiral. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squadron commander, after the desperate attack on St Cruz of Tenerife, there were also grounds for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism. Knight maintains the loss of Nelson's arm was a cushion against hostility. Yet Czisnik insists that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the navy Nelson was not really known until after the battle of the Nile when the official report in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Gazette)] TJ ET BT 110.348 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was spontaneously celebrated by the newspapers. Nelson's flag captain Edward Berry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anonymously published an account, but was outdone in popularity of sales by an unauthentic pot-boiler, later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embroidered by others. In Czisnik's view. Nelson thus became a media personality without engineering his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fame.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.004 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.004 160.323 m 74.996 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 74.996 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In view of his efforts to achieve acclaim, it is an irony difficult to credit. However it came about, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once taken to the public heart, Nelson was able to build his reputation, and was assisted in the process by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government which wished to use his prowess at fighting with ships.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was no common talent. What made him such an effective leader? The new books all agree: once in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command he developed a consensual leadership style. For those whom he knew, Nelson generated a genuine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warmth and care which, Sugden suggests, invoked loyalty, based upon something elemental ? 'something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that went beyond empathy, duty and symbiosis'. White refers to a sense of intimacy, personal trust and open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharing of information which did not exclude the occasional sharpness. Knight cites George Duff: 'He is so )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 80.3477 612.3175 94.3397 624.1975 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.6477 583.8055 262.6397 595.6855 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.2877 541.0375 340.2797 552.9175 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.2997 526.7815 472.2917 538.6615 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 291.9437 484.0135 305.9357 495.8935 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.2797 414.9895 411.2717 426.8695 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 59.0117 372.2215 73.0037 384.1015 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 92.6717 286.6855 106.6637 298.5655 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0037 160.6375 74.9957 172.5175 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R 53 0 R 56 0 R 59 0 R 62 0 R 65 0 R 68 0 R 71 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 9014 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good and pleasant man that we all wish to do what he likes without any kind of orders.' His style was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps most evident in his relationship with seamen. They too were drawn into his ambit: one 21 year old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had dinner with him. After the La Minerve/Blanche action of December 1796, he went round the deck of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blanche shaking the hands of seamen: a gesture memorable and liked by the seamen. Officers as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seamen saw him as kind. After the battle of the Nile, he had his captains forgive all seamen on 'charges'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 534.236 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 534.236 738.051 m 554.228 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet he used the stick as well as the carrot. His standards must have been exacting. In the Boreas between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(May 1784 and July 1787 he flogged 86 of 334 men, 25.7 per cent of his ship's company, when the average )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary percentage of men punished on board British warships on the same station was 9 per cent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight also notes the severity of the punishments on board the Victory in 1803?5 and refuses to regard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hardy, the flag-captain, as wholly responsible; he has no doubt that Victory was a 'flogging' ship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.608 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.608 666.771 m 521.600 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 521.600 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground for Nelson's ruthlessness in battle was prepared in his management of his crews.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So how did Nelson win his battles: three excluding that off Cape St Vincent? Czisnik suggests these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victories were once put down to dash and daring. But, having transcribed his public order books, White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals Nelson's methodical attention to detail and mental energy. In the Mediterranean, even when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemy was not on the horizon, he had his ships at readiness, sailing from rendezvous to rendezvous. Before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Nile, after consulting key officers, he divided his squadron into divisions for control, prepared all ships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to anchor by the stern, and emphasised the sole object of completely destroying the French armament ? by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he also implied their land force. Before Copenhagen he directed ships and boats precisely where to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anchor. Before Trafalgar, after disseminating his battle plan and obtaining the cooperation of his captains, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still insisted upon the maintenance of a watering and replenishment regime.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.968 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.968 512.211 m 416.960 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 416.960 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For the battle of St Vincent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sugden emphasises Nelson's tactical insight, decision, speed and confidence in the morale and training of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seamen; Knight cites Collingwood's recollection of Nelson's enthusiasm and talents: 'everything seemed, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if by enchantment, to prosper under his direction. But it was the effect of system, and nice combination, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of chance.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.484 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.484 455.187 m 105.476 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.476 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His systematic mode of fighting battles culminated in the tactics at Trafalgar ? to concentrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his principal force, headed by three-deckers, to conceal the precise point of entry into the enemy ranks ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which gave rise to an effective feint by Nelson's line, and to render the enemy van impotent until it could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wear and return against the wind. But there was more: his faith in the 68 pounder carronades, carried on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poops and forecastles, which wrought havoc on the decks of enemy ships; and the fifty copies of Home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popham's new signal code which he carried to sea with him in September 1805.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.792 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.792 383.907 m 436.784 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 436.784 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nelson clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed with the cutting edge of naval technology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Method, tactics and technology help to explain Nelson's success in battle. Was he more than just a leader of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and winner of battles? Lambert argues that Nelson also influenced the strategy with which the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars were fought. He supports Nelson's belief in the strategic value of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two Sicilies in 1799 and of Sardinia in 1803?5, maintaining that Nelson's view encompassed the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean theatre. On this account he justifies Nelson's defiance of Lord Keith when the French Brest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleet arrived in the Mediterranean in 1799. He even suggests that Nelson's views actually influenced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet, though without producing any evidence that this was the case.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.308 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.308 257.859 m 395.300 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 395.300 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A more common argument is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Nelson undertook the long chase to the West Indies on his own strategic judgement. Knight readily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admits precedents in instructions to Rooke in 1704 and Byng in 1756 to follow the French fleet wherever it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went, while Lambert observes that Lord Barham at the Admiralty 'covered every eventuality'. But both rely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Corbett's 1910 work, )] TJ ET BT 152.504 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Campaign of Trafalgar)] TJ ET BT 285.524 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and resist shifting some of the credit traditionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accorded to Nelson back to the Admiralty.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.644 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.644 186.579 m 257.636 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.636 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is regrettable as the Admiralty certainly provided for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chase to the West Indies in 1800 and more research in the Admiralty's instructions to fleet commanders in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1805 still seems necessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More work also seems necessary on Nelson's character. Sugden stresses his early craving for attention, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition and praise. He also emphasises those apparent weaknesses so evident in his printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence: his need to discharge his worries on to others; his dislike of loneliness; his willing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordination, indeed sycophancy, to Prince William Henry. Lambert, on the other hand, argues Nelson was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected by the loss of his mother and was a late developer but, once rising, always placed his duty before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emotional demands of his wife and mistress.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.328 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.328 60.531 m 285.320 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 285.320 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Knight notices his assertiveness against weaker senior )] TJ ET endstream endobj 49 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 534.2357 738.3655 554.2277 750.2455 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.6077 667.0855 521.5997 678.9655 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.9677 512.5255 416.9597 524.4055 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.4837 455.5015 105.4757 467.3815 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.7917 384.2215 436.7837 396.1015 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.3077 258.1735 395.2997 270.0535 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 67 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.6437 186.8935 257.6357 198.7735 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.3277 60.8455 285.3197 72.7255 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 76 0 R 79 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R ] /Contents 74 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Length 10285 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers, his courage under fire, and his cool calculation of the odds, for example at Copenhagen when his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimatum to the 'brave Danes' saved Britain's wafer thin advantage. Yet, at the same time, he also notes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson's apparently hasty and inconsistent \(by British standards\) management of the confusion in Naples.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 752.307 m 54.008 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nelson was but human.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, these observations take us little further forward. Of more interest is Knight's gathering of telling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary comments ? of Alexander Ball on Nelson's 'constitutional irritable and uneven temper'; of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Layman on his 'petulance at trifles'; and of George Cockburn on his 'curious compound of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness, with powers of high exertions of intrepidity and talent whenever great occasions called for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exertion of the nobler qualities and subjection of the former'. As the American A. T. Mahan observed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson was 'a synthesis of personality opposites'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.984 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.984 654.771 m 289.976 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 289.976 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Americans now describe him as 'bipolar'. In view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these comments, should we now place him somewhere on that spectrum which leads at one extreme to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manic depressive? It is tempting, but before doing so, attention needs to be paid to the work of Marianne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Czisnik.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Czisnik reminds us that Nelson has always been interpreted according to current preoccupations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudices. She argues that any assessment of Nelson's character needs to be based on his behaviour in all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the circumstances which beset him. These circumstances were, in her view, far more complex than historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been prepared to admit and research. Her thorough work permits her to remove some blemishes: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson's apparent vanity, for example, is mitigated. It also permits her to explain the unusual quality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson's abilities with convincing clarity. In her view, his leadership was based on a drive to high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement united with his sociability; his ability to make appropriate judgements under pressure derived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a lack of physical and moral fear; while his ability to delegate derived from an absence of any desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominate others as individuals. He was thus compliant, preferred relationships on equal terms, and enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hearing the views of others which involved them in his schemes. These qualities along with his pleasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature, bravery, loyalty, modesty and generosity made him a man most liked to serve.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.628 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.628 443.187 m 465.620 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 465.620 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But what of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irritability, temper, highs and lows, and occasional bouts of remarkable exertion? For all her research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationality, even Czisnik's work seems only a beginning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These new publications thus suggest two necessities for the future: a re-examination of the Admiralty's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy in which Nelson played his part, and an examination of his personality perhaps in collaboration with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a specialist in the psychology of military men. The new books, at least those examined here, provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(platform, if not a resting place, for this particular corner of naval history. If Czisnik is right, there will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always be interest in reinterpretations of Britain's greatest military hero. Perhaps it would reflect adversely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Britain and its historians if there were not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Knight, )] TJ ET BT 135.680 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory: the Life and Achievement of Horatio Nelson)] TJ ET BT 461.000 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\), p. 127; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Lambert, )] TJ ET BT 152.324 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson: Britannia's God of War )] TJ ET BT 308.564 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2004\), p. 20; John Sugden, )] TJ ET BT 444.560 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson: a Dream of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Glory)] TJ ET BT 92.012 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2004\), p. 185.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.004 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.004 223.107 m 219.992 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.356 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.356 208.851 m 297.344 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 548.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.356 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.356 194.595 m 303.344 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 127; Sugden, )] TJ ET BT 294.692 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 328.028 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 368, 371; Colin White, )] TJ ET BT 465.368 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson: the New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letters)] TJ ET BT 97.352 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 151.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.352 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.352 166.083 m 190.340 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 124 usefully corrects Sugden, )] TJ ET BT 374.000 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 407.336 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 394?5, on the fate of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(storekeeper Munton.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.328 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.328 137.571 m 217.316 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 162.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.356 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.356 123.315 m 303.344 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 189; Lambert, Nelson, p. 62.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.344 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.344 109.059 m 420.332 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 228?9; Sugden, )] TJ ET BT 312.020 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 345.356 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 709?13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.684 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.684 94.803 m 461.672 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 253; Marianne Czisnik, )] TJ ET BT 344.348 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Horatio Nelson: a Controversial Hero)] TJ ET BT 529.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26?32.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 96.344 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 96.344 66.291 m 150.332 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 210, 218, 286, 455, 505; Sugden, )] TJ ET BT 396.692 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 430.028 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 23?4, 426, 626, 631; )] TJ ET endstream endobj 75 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 752.6215 54.0077 764.5015 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 78 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.9837 655.0855 289.9757 666.9655 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 81 0 obj [73 0 R /Fit] endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.6277 443.5015 465.6197 455.3815 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.0037 223.4215 219.9917 235.3015 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.3557 209.1655 297.3437 221.0455 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 249.3557 194.9095 303.3437 206.7895 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.3517 166.3975 190.3397 178.2775 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.3277 137.8855 217.3157 149.7655 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 249.3557 123.6295 303.3437 135.5095 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 366.3437 109.3735 420.3317 121.2535 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.6837 95.1175 461.6717 106.9975 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 96.3437 66.6055 150.3317 78.4855 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 44 0 R >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R 134 0 R ] /Contents 103 0 R >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Length 10935 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White, )] TJ ET BT 99.344 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 132.680 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 53?5, 216.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.008 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.008 795.075 m 266.996 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sugden, )] TJ ET BT 106.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 139.352 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 356; Knight, )] TJ ET BT 221.024 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 328.028 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 475.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.028 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.028 780.819 m 427.016 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White, )] TJ ET BT 99.344 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 132.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 205, 245, 320, 445?7; Lambert, )] TJ ET BT 311.000 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 344.336 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 200.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.336 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.336 766.563 m 443.324 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sugden, )] TJ ET BT 106.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 139.352 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 695, 705, 707; Knight, )] TJ ET BT 275.024 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 382.028 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 556.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.028 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.028 752.307 m 481.016 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Czisnik, )] TJ ET BT 106.688 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Horatio Nelson)] TJ ET BT 181.028 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 33?9; Knight, )] TJ ET BT 274.028 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 381.032 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 504?22, 555; Lambert, )] TJ ET BT 517.352 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 550.688 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 282.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.016 723.795 m 157.004 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lambert, )] TJ ET BT 110.672 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 144.008 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp.108, 140, 145, 147, 160, 253.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.008 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.008 709.539 m 365.996 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 489; Lambert, )] TJ ET BT 299.348 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 332.684 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 266.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.684 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.684 695.283 m 431.672 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sugden, )] TJ ET BT 106.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 139.352 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 271, 303, 366, 355; Lambert, )] TJ ET BT 306.344 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nelson)] TJ ET BT 339.680 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 4, 182.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.680 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.680 681.027 m 456.668 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 104, 323?7, 383.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.684 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.684 666.771 m 374.672 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pursuit of Victory)] TJ ET BT 210.356 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 548?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.684 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.684 652.515 m 326.672 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Czisnik, )] TJ ET BT 106.688 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Horatio Nelson)] TJ ET BT 181.028 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 84?93.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.356 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.356 638.259 m 279.344 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Knight and Andrew Lambert are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Sugden's response:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In noticing my book in his review, Roger Morriss has appreciated some of what I tried to achieve, but as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifelong historian I should point out that, while once an academic editor for )] TJ ET BT 397.304 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American National Biography)] TJ ET BT 542.636 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have never been a 'journalist'. Moreover, since my volume was the first ever to check systematically what I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call the 'canonical' Nelson stories in Clarke and McArthur's official biography against every conceivable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary source, it is disappointing to be criticised for my occasional references to this book. In most cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my purpose in doing so was to demolish legends, demonstrate bowdlerisation, embellishment and outright )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention, and to illustrate the ways in which a myth was being forged, an exercise that some scholars have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acclaimed as long overdue. That aside, I must also unequivocally state that no thorough biographer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson's early years, when sources are scant, can afford to dispense with Clarke and McArthur entirely, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(none has. Whatever their deficiencies, Nelson's official 'biographers' \(perhaps more properly 'editors'\) did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach some highly qualified eye-witnesses and receive valuable statements in good faith. Such witnesses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Surridge, Bromwich, Davison and Wallis do not all deserve to be confused with the medium, nor should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their important details of Nelson's health, relationships and early service be lost through simple prejudice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regrettably, few of their statements now survive independently; most come to us only through the suspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographers, although several witnesses saw and presumably approved the final proofs. Faced with such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially valuable but inadequately rendered sources as these witness statements, the job of the serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian is to investigate them carefully in order to recover, as far as possible, any worth they contain, not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismiss them unheard. The latter is to abort the necessary process of evaluation by an inflexible dogma. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put it another way, dismissal should, if deserved, follow ? not precede ? a proper examination. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examinations may be laborious, as evidenced in my detailed look at a Clarke and McArthur story in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current )] TJ ET BT 71.000 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trafalgar Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 168.680 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but having troubled to make them, I am bemused to see the effort attacked by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who have not. Thoroughness, I realise, has never been fashionable, but so good a historian as Roger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morriss cannot really believe it a sustainable charge against serious work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Morriss writes: The responses of John Sugden and Colin White are fair, well considered and valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in setting out their judgements. They add significantly to my understanding of their thinking. 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