%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 44 0 R 49 0 R 76 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417203043+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417203043+01'00') /Title (Vichy et la chasse aux espions nazis, 1940?1942: complexits de la politique de collaboration) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4867 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Vichy et la chasse aux espions nazis, 1940?1942: complexits de la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(politique de collaboration)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In August 1985 the French weekly )] TJ ET BT 203.324 294.707 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L'Evnement du jeudi)] TJ ET BT 307.208 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published a dossier of articles by professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians titled 'Ptain, hros ou tratre?' to mark the fortieth anniversary of the Marshal's trial for high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treason as Vichy head of state. Readers reacted passionately to the forum, flooding the magazine with letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either denouncing or defending the man and the regime. In the latter category, one text stuck out. Written by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Jos Casenave, a veteran of the 1940 campaign who subsequently joined the Resistance and specialised in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shepherding escaped POWs and downed Allied aviators across the Spanish border, it naively heralded Ptain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as 'le premier rsistant de France qui n'a pas cd aux Nazis un mtre carr de terrain' and inaccurately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed de Gaulle, who had seen combat as a tank commander in 1940, as 'un colonel habill en gnral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qui n'a jamais vu de prs un casque allemand, n'a jamais particip un combat, et a seulement brad les )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dpartements franais de notre empire colonial'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.116 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.116 165.009 m 278.108 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.108 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This apparent incongruity between action and ideology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struck Henry Rousso, who at the time was writing his classic )] TJ ET BT 329.324 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Syndrome de Vichy de 1944 nos jours)] TJ ET BT 534.632 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toward the end of the book Rousso cited the letter as evidence of 'strange' ideological categories such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ptaino-gaullistes' and 'rsistants-ptainistes-antigaullistes', concluding blandly that 'les divisions de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(l'Occupation ne furent pas aussi nettement dlimites que le temps volu a fini par le laisser croire'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.912 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.912 107.985 m 529.904 107.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His caution in broaching the subject was understandable given the sensitive ethical dimensions of Vichy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. Since the early 1970s, the Gaullist myth of a nation unified behind the Resistance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally opposed, in spirit if not always in action, to the policies of the Etat Franais, had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(481)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Kitson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2746705885)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Autrement)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brett Bowles)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.1157 165.3235 278.1077 177.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.9117 108.2995 529.9037 120.1795 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8679 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debunked by a series of works documenting the depth and willingness of Franco-German state collaboration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly with regard to the deportation of Jews.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.304 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.304 780.819 m 291.296 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 291.296 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Henceforth all those who had failed to engage in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active resistance were held morally responsible for Vichy's crimes. As Pascal Ory put it in )] TJ ET BT 470.096 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collaborateurs)] TJ ET BT 107.360 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ' la limite, tout Franais rest sur un territoire occup par l'arme allemande ou dpendant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de son bon vouloir a, quelque degr, collabor avec elle'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.104 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.104 738.051 m 329.096 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anyone who dared challenge the Resistance-Collaboration dichotomy by suggesting that hybrid varieties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought and conduct might link the two poles risked being seen as an apologist for Vichy. A high-profile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(target of this view was Louis Malle's film )] TJ ET BT 236.828 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lacombe Lucien)] TJ ET BT 316.484 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1975\), which depicted a teenage peasant's entry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the German-financed 'French Gestapo' as the result of chance and material motivations \(being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disinherited by his family and rejected by a local Resistance cell\) rather than reactionary ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convictions or some innate penchant for malevolence. Though archival research has subsequently shown this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrait to be historically accurate, Malle suffered venomous attacks in the press from the Left and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more damning praise from the extreme Right.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 253.652 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 253.652 612.003 m 267.644 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 267.644 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He struggled to shake the stigma left by the scandal, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later led to his making )] TJ ET BT 144.344 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Au revoir les enfants)] TJ ET BT 244.004 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\), an impassioned dramatisation of the human cost exacted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Vichy anti-Semitism and the quiet heroism of those French citizens who sheltered Jews during the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the mid-1980s the ethical taboo that informed virtually all popular and academic accounts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occupation was beginning to crack under pressure from scholars both in and outside France who, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rousso, realised that the ideological topography of France's 'dark years' was much more complex than had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously been acknowledged. The first significant break occurred in 1986 with the publication of John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sweets's )] TJ ET BT 77.840 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Choices in Vichy France)] TJ ET BT 196.820 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a nuanced social and political history of everyday citizens' conduct in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auvergne which challenged the Manichean portrait of Clermont-Ferrand burned into the collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness by the television broadcast of Marcel Ophuls's documentary )] TJ ET BT 396.452 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Chagrin et la piti)] TJ ET BT 499.796 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1981.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 542.132 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 542.132 471.699 m 556.124 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sweets's book was not well received in France, but it opened the way for a new vein of scholarship devoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to exploring the ideological ambiguities of the period. A series of international conferences held in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980s and early 1990s resulted in a stream of publications that transformed Vichy historiography by warning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the automatic conflation of Vichy with Nazi fascism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.640 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.640 414.675 m 339.632 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kitson's )] TJ ET BT 75.848 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vichy et la chasse aux espions nazis)] TJ ET BT 249.164 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represents the culmination of this historiographic shift. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tackling head-on one of the most striking paradoxes of the Occupation ? the French counter-intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service's pursuit and arrest of approximately 2000 German spies between 1940 and 1942, several dozen of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom were executed ? Kitson offers substantial new insight into the dynamics of state collaboration. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to revealing the political logic behind French counter-espionage, Kitson highlights the mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicion it created between German and French officials, and demonstrates just how inadequate the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collaboration?Resistance paradigm is for comprehending the ambiguities inherent in many of the Vichy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies and French citizens' attitudes toward the regime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like most groundbreaking histories, the book draws on a previously untapped archive: the so-called 'Fonds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Moscou', comprised of secret French counter-intelligence documents seized by the Germans in 1943 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following their invasion of the southern zone. First transported to Berlin for analysis, the 1,400 cartons were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then confiscated by the Soviets at the end of the war and transferred to Moscow. A long process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation between the Russian and French governments following the disintegration of the USSR resulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the documents' repatriation at the end of the 1990s. Today the nearly three tons of paper have come to rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Service Historique de l'Arme de Terre \(SHAT\) at the Chteau de Vincennes. As Kitson notes in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, the archive has almost certainly not survived intact, but it has not been 'sanitised' either, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have most private collections donated by former intelligence operatives, to yield a wholly favourable, pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Resistance image of Vichy counter-espionage. Kitson draws extensively on several related archives to fill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaps and verify information gleaned from the Moscow files, including those of Ptain's Council of Ministers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French Armistice Commission, the Ministry of the Interior and the police. The private papers and post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war memoirs of intelligence agents also have their place in the narrative, but because of their unavoidably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-interested and selective nature are used only as a supplement to primary sources dating from the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part of the book, divided into three short chapters, lays out the administrative structure and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.3037 781.1335 291.2957 793.0135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.1037 738.3655 329.0957 750.2455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 253.6517 612.3175 267.6437 624.1975 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 542.1317 472.0135 556.1237 483.8935 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.6397 414.9895 339.6317 426.8695 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 7267 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectives of German espionage in southern France and North Africa, as well as the sociological profile of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who became spies. Kitson begins by noting that the number of German intelligence operatives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern France more than doubled between the signing of the armistice in June 1940 and July 1941, a move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which despite Vichy's military impotence and genuine commitment to collaboration was integral to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reich's strategy of pacifying France with as few military resources as possible in order to focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest of Great Britain and the Soviet Union. Other factors also came into play: internecine rivalries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Wehrmacht and SS intelligence units, each jockeying for administrative supremacy; more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important, widespread suspicion that Ptain, the celebrated 'Victor of Verdun' from the Great War, would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(double-cross the Germans by dealing secretly with the Allies and having the French army re-arm itself for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future insurrection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though today we know that Ptain had no intention of playing such a 'double game,' during the first six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months of the Occupation German intelligence discovered what appeared to be compelling evidence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including secret stockpiling of arms by the armistice army, proposals to reconstitute the French air force in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North Africa, training of soldiers in guerrilla warfare and with arms \(planes and artillery\) explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forbidden by the armistice agreement, and most crucially, Ptain's dismissal of Laval as prime minister in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 1940 ? a decision acclaimed by the French public as a sign of the Marshal's supposed distaste for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration. In this context, intensive spying provided Germany a means of verifying that the Etat Franais )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained too weak to influence the war militarily, but strong enough to suppress internal dissent and protect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reich's systematic economic pillage of the country through legal and illegal \(black market\) channels. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spies thus infiltrated virtually all levels of Vichy administration, including the army, paramilitary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations such as the Lgion des combatants and the Chantiers de la jeunesse, the police, and even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special units assigned to guard Ptain and prime ministers Laval and Darlan. Given the expansive range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French sources exploited by Kitson, it is perhaps surprising that he relied almost exclusively on secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature for this section rather than consulting the surviving archives of the Abwehr, Gestapo and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sicherheitsdienst. Doing so might have provided more detail and a useful contrast in perspective to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French view that informs the narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the third chapter Kitson details the recruitment of spies using arrest and interrogation records, military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice files, and letters they wrote from prison. The majority \(80 per cent or more, according to arrest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records\) were French citizens motivated by a wide range of ideological and personal factors. In the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category, Kitson identifies two primary groups: nationalists from Brittany, Alsace-Lorraine, Algeria, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morocco who aspired to independence with German aid, and hard-core collaborationists/anti-Communists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who viewed Vichy's policies as weak and ineffective. The second group included persons in search of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventure and intrigue, those with a score to settle with the Vichy or the Resistance, detainees desperate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regain their freedom, and others simply blackmailed into service by the Germans. However, the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common type of agent was the profiteer keen to secure material rewards \(extra food, inter-zone passes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cash\) during a period of ever-increasing hardship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With virtually unlimited financial means at their disposal thanks to ongoing devaluation of the franc versus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mark, the Germans paid handsomely for information. Depending on its utility, each tip was worth from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few hundred to as much as 30,000 francs, allowing especially active informers to amass large fortunes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the first two years of the war. Under the direction of Hugo Geissler, chief of the Gestapo's office in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vichy, most recruits were integrated gradually into the web of espionage by completing a series of small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missions before moving on to bigger targets. The most important agents were issued German credentials as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the Red Cross, one of the many branches of the Armistice Commission, journalists or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salespeople ? a tactic which guaranteed their immunity to prosecution under French law. Indeed, among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forty or so spies eventually tried and executed by Vichy there were no German citizens, only French and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian nationals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of the book, also comprising three chapters, examines the structure of French counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(espionage, the mentalities of the army and police officers involved in the operation and the tactics they used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the field. Because French counter-espionage was forbidden by the armistice agreement, the pre-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative structure had to be overhauled and concealed. The army's 'Fifth Bureau' was thus reorganised )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 7567 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into two units: a clandestine branch based in Marseille under the cover of a business called the Entreprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gnrale des travaux ruraux \(TR\) and an officially attested section known as the Bureau des menes anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationales \(BMA\) whose stated purpose was to quash Gaullist and Communist activity. With offices in each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military region of southern France and North Africa, the BMA was particularly crucial to the success of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French counter-intelligence. A newly created sub-unit of the national police, the so-called Bureau de la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveillance du territoire \(ST\), also participated. Although the TR took primary responsibility for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence gathering and analysis, the other two groups provided supplementary information and essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logistical support for clandestine TR operations. In practice, it was almost always members of the ST who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually arrested and interrogated enemy spies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kitson makes clear from the outset that the overarching goal of the network, whose efficiency often suffered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a lack of effective coordination, was to preserve French administrative and territorial sovereignty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against all foreign intruders, thereby ensuring that Vichy maintained as much political autonomy, power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credibility as possible within the framework of collaboration. The logic of this mission was dictated not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by France's unique geo-political situation, but by the mentalities of the army officers responsible for counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence. Fundamentally anti-German because of their pre-war duel against Nazi spies, they were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed opponents of Communism and highly suspicious of British and Gaullist intentions in the wake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the disastrous 1940 campaign, especially with regard to the French Empire. As one of the few genuinely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable bargaining chips in Vichy's negotiations with the Reich, the colonies had to be jealously protected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against potential usurpation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet if the TR, BMA and ST tracked and arrested enemy agents from all camps, they targeted the Germans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most aggressively since the future liberation of France would inevitably hinge on ousting the occupiers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most of the French intelligence community viewed the Occupation as a distasteful but temporary necessity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which could end only with the defeat of Germany ? hence their support for Vichy's programme of internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social reforms known as the National Revolution.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.324 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.324 443.187 m 286.316 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 286.316 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On this point it is telling that most special services )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers sided with General Henri Giraud rather than de Gaulle following the Nazi occupation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern zone in 1942. Kitson points out that while hostility vis--vis the Germans remained constant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes toward the British varied in response to events such as the armed conflicts between Anglo-Gaullist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Vichy forces at Dakar \(September 1940\), in Syria \(July 1941\) and in Madagascar \(May 1942\). Even at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments of crisis, anti-Allied sentiment never outweighed Germanophobia. A secret report drawn up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(March 1942 identifying enemy weapons against which the French should prepare to defend themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included ten belonging to the Wehrmacht versus one British and one American.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In its daily operations, French counter-intelligence turned a blind eye to Allied spying as long as it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed against the Germans rather than Vichy. When British or Gaullist operatives were arrested \(Kitson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cites the relatively low number of 177 for the whole of 1941\), it was often because their perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amateurism and ease of infiltration by German double agents risked exposing the TR's or BMA's own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities. On occasion the French special services engineered the release or escape of Allied agents from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison after their arrest and forwarded reports on German military activities to London, but only after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully removing potentially sensitive information about Vichy. As a rule the special services avoided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contact with interior resistance movements, for these represented a direct challenge to Vichy's sovereignty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the TR did work directly with the Combat movement, its leader Henri Frenay's credentials as a former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army officer entitling him to special treatment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's final chapters, which are in many ways its most surprising and compelling, document the tactics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of French counter-intelligence and examine the fate of arrested spies. According to TR head Colonel Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paillole, his group carried out approximately fifty covert assassinations from 1940 to 1942, but that option )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was risky diplomatically and therefore reserved for only the most severe threats. Since citizens of the Reich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were immune to prosecution, they had to be released after being formally identified by German authorities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the process of identification was far from transparent, in many cases requiring well over a year thanks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French practice of keeping high-value prisoners in solitary confinement and moving them frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from place to place. Internal French documents and letters written by spies themselves while in custody )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attest that the ST and regular police frequently practiced torture including severe beatings, water immersion, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 272.3237 443.5015 286.3157 455.3815 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 6429 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anal electrocution via the infamous 'bibi chatouilleur' which would later resurface during the Algerian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War. In order to uphold the moral tenets of the National Revolution and prevent information leaks, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special services also detained French women suspected of sleeping with German or Italian armistice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commission officials and, in an unexpected foreshadowing of the Liberation, even used head shaving as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment. In the end, the French military tribunals judged only French and Italian nationals. The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common sentence was imprisonment and/or hard labour for up to 10 years; execution was recommended in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approximately 100 cases, but only about twenty of these were actually carried out.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his conclusion Kitson unpacks the paradoxical logic of Vichy's spy hunt and evaluates its historiographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance. Whereas special services agents, Paillole in particular, have always maintained that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity was a natural complement to the Resistance, Kitson takes a more critical and balanced view. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one hand, he notes that counter-espionage reflected a sincere Germanophobia among army officers which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended throughout Vichy's administrative hierarchy. On the other, he is careful to emphasise that French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-espionage showed substantially more anti-German resolve than in any other facet of Vichy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic or foreign policy and that being anti-German should not necessarily be equated with being pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Resistance. Functionally speaking, the French special services did much more to defend Vichy's political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty and in so doing, to support state collaboration, that they did to aid the Resistance. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important, Kitson is careful to assert that the clandestine battle between Vichy's special services and Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spies should in no way overshadow or excuse already well-documented areas of Franco-German ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnership such as their persecution of Jews and Communists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One area for which this study has significant implications is the impact of Vichy propaganda, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newsreels, on the public's \(mis\)understanding and tacit acceptance of the regime through the end of 1941. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kitson touches briefly on the anti-collaborationist press and poster campaign encouraging French citizens to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid contact with Germans in their daily lives, commenting later that 'l'aspect antiallemand du contre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(espionnage va l'encontre des positions diplomatiques ouvertement dclares par le gouvernement et, de ce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fait, doit se faire sans le soutien total d'un public non averti' \(p. 196\). Yet the French army's resolve to fight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any enemy which threatened Vichy's sovereignty was expressed explicitly in a series of government-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financed documentary films produced by Andr Brouillard, a long-time member of the Fifth Bureau and TR, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in conjunction with a civilian filmmaker named Andr Verdet-Klber. Collectively known as )] TJ ET BT 484.280 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La France en )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marche)] TJ ET BT 71.336 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, these films celebrated the cult of Ptain, the Empire, the National Revolution, and the rebuilding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the armistice army, which was shown actively training in the air, at sea, and on land. Potential enemies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never specifically named, allowing spectators to project their own ideological prejudices into the simulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combat they saw on screen. )] TJ ET BT 169.316 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La France en March)] TJ ET BT 268.964 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(e and its sister series, the weekly newsreel )] TJ ET BT 474.584 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(France-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Actualits Path-Gaumont)] TJ ET BT 161.672 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, were produced in Marseille and distributed throughout southern France and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies. Moreover, both were extremely popular with audiences, in sharp contrast to the German-made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Actualits Mondiales)] TJ ET BT 135.680 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shown in the northern zone.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.324 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.324 286.371 m 286.316 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 286.316 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( My research on Vichy cinematic propaganda suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they crafted the seductive myth of a 'Vichy rsistancialiste' which successfully encouraged spectators to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspend disbelief in the realities of state collaboration, at least during the first year and a half of the war. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upshot is that many average French citizens shared the mentalities of the counter-espionage agents who let )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves believe that supporting Vichy without actively engaging in resistance might somehow lead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 272.3237 286.6855 286.3157 298.5655 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R ] /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 10830 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is but one example of the fruitful dialogue that Kitson's deft mix of social, political, and diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history will initiate with other scholars of the Occupation. There is little to criticise here, and the book has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deservedly received almost unanimous praise in both Europe and North America, with the exception of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few former French counter-espionage officers who bristled at not being firmly classified as resisters.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.572 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.572 740.307 m 536.564 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 536.564 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighting Vichy's simultaneous pursuit of sovereignty and collaboration, Kitson has enhanced our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation for the paradoxes that defined the regime. He has also lifted the stigma of apology long attached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to studying anti-German sentiment within the Etat Franais and opened the way for further exploration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts that often lay below the surface of Franco-German relations. All historians of wartime France owe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kitson a debt of intellectual gratitude, for he has made a substantial contribution to the ongoing revolution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vichy historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Letter published in )] TJ ET BT 157.676 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L'Evnement du jeudi)] TJ ET BT 261.560 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 Sept 1985, p. 63.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.896 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.896 589.251 m 411.884 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henri Rousso, )] TJ ET BT 135.680 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Syndrome de Vichy de 1944 nos jours)] TJ ET BT 340.988 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1987\), pp. 325?26.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.308 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.308 574.995 m 522.296 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most notably, Eberhard Jckel's )] TJ ET BT 220.484 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frankreich in Hitlers Europa)] TJ ET BT 362.144 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stuttgart, 1966\); Marcel Ophuls's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary film )] TJ ET BT 152.672 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Chagrin et la piti)] TJ ET BT 256.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1969\); and Robert Paxton's )] TJ ET BT 396.500 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vichy France: Old Guard and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Order, 1940?1944)] TJ ET BT 177.680 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1972\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.988 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.988 532.227 m 325.976 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pascal Ory, )] TJ ET BT 122.336 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les Collaborateurs)] TJ ET BT 215.348 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1976\), p. 10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.340 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.340 517.971 m 367.328 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Jankowski, 'In Defense of Fiction: Resistance, Collaboration, and )] TJ ET BT 405.476 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lacombe Lucien)] TJ ET BT 485.132 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', )] TJ ET BT 493.292 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern History)] TJ ET BT 141.008 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 63.3 \(1991\), pp. 457?83; Richard Golsan, 'Collaboration and Context: Louis Malle's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lacombe Lucien)] TJ ET BT 143.672 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 184.664 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mode Rtro)] TJ ET BT 241.652 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' in Golsan, )] TJ ET BT 299.144 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vichy's Afterlife: Memory and Counterhistory in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Postwar France)] TJ ET BT 141.680 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lincoln, 2000\), pp. 57?72.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.332 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.332 460.947 m 330.320 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Sweets, )] TJ ET BT 129.680 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Choices in Vichy France)] TJ ET BT 248.660 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1986\). Along the same lines, see ed. Franois )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bdarida and Denis Peschanski, )] TJ ET BT 220.988 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vichy, 1940?1944: archives de guerre d'Angelo Tasca)] TJ ET BT 482.516 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Milan, 1986\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Sweets's article 'Hold that pendulum: redefining fascism, collaborationism, and resistance in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France', )] TJ ET BT 104.828 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 228.824 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15.4 \(1988\), pp. 731?58.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 353.144 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 353.144 403.923 m 407.132 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On this point Kitson echoes Laurent Douzou and Denis Peschanski, 'La Rsistance franaise face )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(l'hypothque Vichy', in ed. David Bidussa and Peschanski, )] TJ ET BT 348.644 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La France de Vichy: archives indites )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(d'Angelo Tasca)] TJ ET BT 138.248 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Milan, 1996\), pp. 3?42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.236 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.236 361.155 m 312.224 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Laborie, )] TJ ET BT 138.992 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L'Opinion franaise sous Vichy)] TJ ET BT 289.892 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1990\); Jean-Pierre Azma and Franois )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bdarida, eds., )] TJ ET BT 138.332 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vichy et les Franais)] TJ ET BT 239.984 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1992\); Philippe Burrin, )] TJ ET BT 391.652 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La France l'heure allemande)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Paris, 1993\); Jacqueline Sainclivier and Christian Bougeard, eds., )] TJ ET BT 385.976 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Rsistance et les Franais: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(enjeux stratgiques et environnement social)] TJ ET BT 274.652 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Rennes, 1995\); Franois Marcot, ed., )] TJ ET BT 462.620 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Rsistance et les )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Franais: lutte arme et maquis)] TJ ET BT 218.000 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1996\); Marc-Olivier Baruch, )] TJ ET BT 396.296 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Servir l'Etat Franais)] TJ ET BT 500.864 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 275.619 m 149.000 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brett Bowles, 'Newsreels, ideology, and public opinion under Vichy: the case of )] TJ ET BT 452.456 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La France en Marche)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', )] TJ ET BT 72.176 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 196.172 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 27.2 \(2004\), pp. 419?63')] TJ ET BT 319.652 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Tragdie de Mers-el-Kbir)] TJ ET BT 464.636 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the politics of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filmed news in France, 1940?1944', )] TJ ET BT 238.484 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Modern History)] TJ ET BT 368.144 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 76.2 \(2004\), pp. 347?88'German )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newsreel Propaganda in France, 1940?1944', )] TJ ET BT 284.456 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television)] TJ ET BT 522.464 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 24.1 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2004\), pp. 45?67.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.336 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.336 204.339 m 206.324 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the excellent roundtable discussion posted at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.652 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/~diplo/roundtables)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.652 190.083 m 496.808 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.808 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 513.800 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(H-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diplo, 2 June 2005\). Included are reviews by Martin Thomas \(Exeter University\), Kim Munholland )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of Minnesota\), Peter Jackson \(University of Wales, Aberystwyth\), Sean Kennedy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of New Brunswick\) and Douglas Porch \(Naval Postgraduate School\), as well as a lengthy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response by Kitson.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.008 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.008 133.059 m 218.996 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and wishes to express his thanks to the reviewer for engaging so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly with the themes of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.685 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET endstream endobj 51 0 obj [49 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot 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