%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140420002032+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140420002032+01'00') /Title (Charity, Philanthropy, and Civility in American History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4112 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Charity, Philanthropy, and Civility in American History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a curious display of cross-partisan consensus, politicians from both major parties in the US frequently tout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the capacity of charitable and non-profit organisations to address the abiding problems of poverty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deprivation and neglect in post-industrial, post-welfarist, and post-Cold War society. George H. W. Bush's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('thousand points of light', Bill Clinton's agenda to 'end welfare as we know it', and George W. Bush's 'faith-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based initiative' all seek to increase the involvement of charitable organisations in public policy. The desire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 'empower mediating structures' transcends the clamour of the culture war. Both conservatives enamoured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'tough love' and liberals with nostalgic feelings about grassroots action seek to employ government to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nurture the personalised care and selfless commitment associated with non-profits as an alternative to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impersonal state bureaucracies and the harsh realities of market commodification.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to the political rhetoric, however, there is really nothing new about the close ties between state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and non-profit organisations in the history of American public policy. In many ways the recent interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropy is more indicative of partisan adjustments than of a fundamental shift in policy. Since World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War II, conservatives who used to be hostile to philanthropic foundations have embraced the instruments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third-sector organising. As their political clout grew in the wake of the economic and socio-demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power shifts toward the South and the West they succeeded in building up a counter-infrastructure of right-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(483)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence Freedman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark McGarvie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521603536X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(467pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Axel Schfer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7496 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wing think tanks and to forge ties with the newly politicised conservative Protestant churches. By the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(token, post-60s liberals, sharing the Right's disdain for government, have not found it in their hearts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defend the distributive policies of the welfare state and to defy the mantra of devolution, privatisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deregulation which has dominated the political debate since the 1980s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is only one of many insights the contributors to Lawrence Friedman's and Mark McGarvie's timely and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much needed historical perspective on third sector organisations provide. In part inspired by the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upsurge in interest in philanthropic organisations, the editors set themselves the difficult task of forging a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent narrative by weaving together research on charities and philanthropic endeavours which has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emanated from a wide range of historiographical and methodological approaches. As a result, traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosopographic essays which discuss the charitable impulses of individual donors are grouped next to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles which, having completed the linguistic turn, examine the empowerment of both giver and recipient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a process of mutual construction. Contributions by organisational historians trace the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity from individual giving to professional philanthropy and, ultimately, the welfare state, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of social reform movements look a the extent to which charitable work reinforced or challenged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established racial, ethnic and gender divides. Finally, scholars who seek to 'bring the state back in' examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of the non-profit sector through public policy, while legal historians locate the origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern philanthropic organisations in contract law and the demarcations between private and public.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considering that research has developed under the auspices of a wide variety of historical subfields with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own ways of conceptualising philanthropic action, the editors of this volume have largely succeeded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing a well-designed, perceptive and stimulating book. The volume never loses track of the larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical context and rarely gets bogged down in overly specialised case studies. Moreover, Friedman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGarvie avoid the pitfalls of many edited collections, namely blatant qualitative differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions and a lack of coherence. A rigorous selection process and pre-publication meetings helped give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume the necessary substance and unity of focus. Friedman and McGarvie chose to organise the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically, but, as the introduction shows, the thematic foci of the contributions form its most thought-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking component. Five themes in particular give shape to the volume and define its scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance: the historical shifts in demarcating the public, private and charitable realms; the relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the state, private business, and non-profit organisations; the institutional development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropic entities; reciprocity and mutual construction of giver and recipient in charity relations; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates about the political radicalism or conservatism of philanthropy. It is worth taking a closer look at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions some of the essays make to these four areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philanthropy, though commonly regarded as a separate space between government and the private market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed in relationship with both realms. Moreover, the borders between 'private', 'public' and 'third sector' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are fluid and constantly negotiated. One of the most intriguing contributions in this area is Mark McGarvie's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay \(chapter 4\) on the 1819 Dartmouth College case in which the Supreme Court struck down efforts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the New Hampshire state legislature to turn a religious college into a state university in the pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican and secular educational goals. In his analysis, McGarvie shows that the Court's assertion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superiority of private contract rights over the public interest and its rejection of the colonial integration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church and state became the legal basis of modern philanthropic organisations. In a manner reminiscent of J. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. A. Pocock, McGarvie views this as an example of a counterrevolutionary impulse which benefited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant churches and promoted the development of a liberal ideology which elevated individual freedoms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the communitarian values of republicanism. The judicial insistence on church-state separatism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contract law thus recognised individual rights as superior to the public good.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, one component of Peter Dobkin Hall's essay \(chapter 17\) provides insights into the legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional construction of the third sector. He maintains that the modern charitable sector was the creation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of federal tax policies after 1945. Internal Revenue Service \(IRS\) codes also imposed regulatory controls and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounting procedures, placed restrictions on excess business holdings, political advocacy, and donor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control. By establishing exemptions and tax deductibility, government policies made charitable giving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractive to donors. IRS codes also allowed organisations such as the Sierra Club and the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association of Retired Persons, gain tax-exempt status, even though membership in these organisations was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7219 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly a political and financial act, rather than a social commitment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second set of articles explore in more detail the particular relationship between the state and the non-profit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector. In doing so, the authors challenge the notion that an expanded welfare state eclipsed philanthropic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entities. Their research suggests a synergistic relationship in which both sectors developed in conjunction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with each other, while their respective remits shifted with the winds of political change. As Roy E. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finkenbine shows \(chapter 7\), the Civil War and Reconstruction 'temporarily restructured the traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division between America's public and private sectors' \(p. 163\). During the war, government emerged as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive force which promoted new interventionist policies and expanded upon existing philanthropic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavours by turning the US Sanitary Commission, which had been built upon the basis of charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nursing organisations, into an effective bureaucracy. The post-war period saw the continuation of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulses in the Freedmen's Bureau and in the efforts of Republican state legislatures to create public health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilities, utility systems, and State Boards of Charities. By the late 1870s, however, a fragmented, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakened, scandal-prone party returned to a traditional ideology of limited government and private property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights, its public service ethos replaced by the economic promises of westward expansion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David C. Hammack \(chapter 12\) shows that despite the mutual hostility between New Dealers and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading philanthropic foundations, federal money began to flow to charities under the auspices of federal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social programmes. The Second World War, in particular, established new traditions of federal funding for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both secular and sectarian international relief agencies and hospitals. In turn, post-war foundations re-shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their programmes to take advantage of federal funding in health care, higher education and the arts. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations worked effectively 'to increase federal funding in these fields, while minimizing federal controls' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 280\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most detailed analysis of the relationship between government and the non-profit sector is provided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Dobkin Hall. He maintains that, as federal fiscal practices changed after the Second World War from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balancing the budget to ensuring the fulfillment of specific strategic objectives, government grants fuelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growth of both non-profit and for-profit organisations. The welfare state was 'devolutionary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privatizing from its inception' \(p. 380\). It centralised revenue gathering and policy making, but decentralised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation of programmes. Programmes such as the G.I. Bill, federal subsidies for 'voluntary' hospitals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and federal support for medical research underwrote the expansion of the nation's human service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrastructure. Moreover, the programmes of the Great Society, vilified by the political right, pioneered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funding streams and the involvement of religious providers, which conservatives today advocate as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative to the welfare state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Gary Hess \(chapter 15\) highlights the close ties between government and philanthropic foundations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in foreign aid policy during the Cold War. Expressing faith in the universality of American values and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, and embracing the mantra of economic growth and democratic institutions, foundations and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy elite saw the Third World as key to winning the Cold War. As a result, the Ford, Rockefeller, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Carnegie foundations often functioned as non-official extensions of US policy. Close organisational ties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a revolving door in personnel marked their relations. Dean Rusk and John Foster Dulles, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved from the Rockefeller Foundation to the State Department, while McGeorge Bundy and John McCloy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved from public service to the Ford Foundation. Though small in monetary terms, the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation efforts was significant in training African elites, the 'Green revolution' in agriculture, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population control. During the heyday of the 'development decade' foundations projected an image as liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and non-ideological and gained political access where the US government failed to do so. By the 1970s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, many of the hopes had been shattered as authoritarian governments, poverty, and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependency showed that foreign assistance was often used as an instrument of capitalist expansion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A third theme in the volume is the transition from charity to philanthropy and the development of modern, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionalised non-profit organisations. While charity denotes individual acts of compassion in the tight-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knit communal contexts of colonial societies, philanthropy describes the organised efforts to reform society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(via voluntary collective action. The former means caring for individuals within the context of families and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities, whereas the latter is associated with formal institutions, such as poorhouses, hospitals and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5685 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylums. According to Robert A. Gross \(chapter 1\), philanthropies 'well in advance of railroads . introduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antebellum Americans to modern bureaucracy' \(p. 43\). They were instrumental in the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional social workers and foundation executives. Similarly, Ruth Crocker \(chapter 9\) and Judith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sealander \(chapter 10\) depict post-Civil War philanthropic foundations as managed like business enterprises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and as pioneering modern forms of administration. The 'scientific philanthropy' practiced by the foundations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set up by Carnegie, Rockefeller, Rosenwald, Filene, Olivia Sage and others used corporate models with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boards of trustees, paid managerial staff, and modern accounting and reporting procedures. They funded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the modern medical research and social science infrastructure, helped standardise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training of social workers, lawyers and engineers, and pushed universities toward adopting corporate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounting systems. Bureaucratisation had its costs, however, as corporate foundations had little contact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the vast army of volunteers which were the mainstay of nineteenth-century reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A perceptive contribution to this aspect is Mary J. Oates's \(chapter 13\) essay on the transformation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic charities from local, ethnic and autonomous entities to centralised organisations. The movement to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidate charity organisation and fund-raising, which culminated in the formation of the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conference of Catholic Charities in the early twentieth century, she maintains, 'had its roots not only in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction that the traditional decentralised approach was inefficient, but also in a growing desire among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church leaders to collaborate meaningfully with government and civic organisations in social welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities' \(p. 288\). By the 1960s, 15 per cent of the Catholic charity budget came from government. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1984, this had increased to over 50 percent. At the same time, centralisation and government funding caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems with mobilising grass-roots involvement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to institutional studies which revise our established understanding of philanthropy, many essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apply cultural history to the study of charitable activism. Seeking to avoid 'older frameworks' which see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropies either as beneficent agents of uplift or as instruments of social control and capitalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemony, these scholars point to the transformative effects on both giver and recipient and the agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised by recipients. They shift the focus away from white male Protestants toward the role of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and minorities, and examine the extent to which philanthropy helped destabilise established racial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender constructions. Amanda Porterfield \(chapter 2\) shows how philanthropic activism among Evangelicals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused a shift in emphasis from soul-saving and conversion to the social gospel. Emily Rosenberg \(chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11\) shows how charity and reform in missionary relief, peace work and health care gave way to a secularised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on uplift through science and technology. Stephen Warren \(chapter 5\) depicts missionaries seeking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to convert Indians as inadvertent agents of preserving Indian cultural identity. Reflecting the New Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History, he notes that between the War of 1812 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, missionaries supported by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government funds helped transform Indian gender roles and ended up defending Indian rights. Evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity did not just impose its values and institutions on a powerless people, but also provided Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a chance to live their religion in new ways. Breeding familiarity with American institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthened the ability of Native Americans to negotiate terms of dependency and cultural survival. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westward expansion, however, spelled the end of the philanthropic dream for white-Indian relations as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infringement on Indian land and the Jacksonian impulse of dislocation and dominance prevailed.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7023 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the political impact of philanthropic activism and the extent to which it sustains or challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established power relations and social norms is a core theme of many contributions. Examples for both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects abound. Wendy Gamber \(chapter 6\) concludes that female involvement in various nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century 'enthusiasms' had both radical and conservative potential. Examining the campaigns for insane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylums, utopian communities, the temperance movement and abolitionism, she reiterates that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millennialism of the Second Great Awakening constituted a crucial impetus behind the increased charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activism. However, this also resulted in a renewed urge to morally transform the poor and an 'unyielding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith in the virtues of self-control' which 'encouraged philanthropists to think of poverty as an individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failing, not a structural problem' \(p. 134\). By the 1850s, the moralistic distinction between worthy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unworthy poor had widened the gap between reformers and recipients and informed the philanthropies' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on efficiency and organisation, rather than on charity. Reform thus reinforced conservative social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norms and promoted the creation of a stable source of cheap labour for urban industrial society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathleen McCarthy \(chapter 8\) maintains that charitable work helped create parallel power structures and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive female political culture. Antebellum women benefited from traditions of public-private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnerships, religious disestablishment, and limited government. Their involvement in legally chartered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charitable corporations enabled them to engage in activities which had been denied to them as individuals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely to buy, sell, invest and sign binding contracts. Evangelical Protestantism in particular, with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decentralised organisation and egalitarian impulses, fostered the female mobilisation for reform causes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women's growing political clout culminated in post-Civil War efforts to influence the legislative process via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicity, lobbying and petitioning, and in the construction of a 'maternalist' welfare state exemplified by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheppard Towner Act and the Children's Bureau in the early twentieth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays also highlight the political conundrum of female reform activism. Women's influence tended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrive under the conditions of public-private partnerships, rather than under effective welfare state structures. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words, the conservative demarcation of public and private based on contract law described by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGarvie \(chapter 4\) both limited the potential for effective social change and enabled female political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation. By the same token, the emergence of bureaucratic, entitlement-based systems of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision tended to restrict female control. Mary Oates highlights another aspect of this conundrum. Nuns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other Catholic women provided the main workforce in hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parochial schools, but the efforts to centralise Catholic charities and cooperate with government led to a loss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of influence. Oates attributes the steep decline in the number of nuns since mid-1960s in part to this loss of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The role of philanthropies in overcoming the racial divide is equally ambivalent. Roy Finkenbine maintains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Northern philanthropic support for Southern education during the 1880s and 1890s helped reify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregation. Under the guise of 'scientific philanthropy', organisations such as the John F. Slater Fund helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepare blacks for subservience by providing massive funding for Hampton and Tuskegee Institutes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning industrial education into the dominant curriculum. In a similar vein, Claude A. Clegg \(chapter 16\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses the limitations of philanthropic impulses in overcoming racial inequality after the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War. He points out that foundations participated in attempts of successive administrations to control the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militancy of the Civil Rights movement. Foundations funded conservative policies, such as voter registration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drives and leadership training programmes. Nonetheless, Clegg regards philanthropy in conjunction with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental assistance as crucial in the struggle for racial equality and inclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedman and McGarvie themselves also conclude that reliance on private and non-profit agencies has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed far less to the alleviation of poverty than traditional New Deal and Great Society programmes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While civil society helps sustain a democratic order and patterns of social solidarity against both state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control and the ravages of the market, it also frequently reinforces established social norms and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, the editors have produced a book that reflects the research and thinking of the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation of American history scholars, but there are some problems which need to be pointed out. A )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 3504 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of chapters contain textbook-style summaries of historical developments, which, while making the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume more accessible, limit the depth of insight. William B. Cohen's epilogue on 'The European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison' introduces a different dimension not in keeping with the rest of the volume and thus reads like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an add-on. The book also suffers from a lack of a clear sense of what constitutes philanthropy and charity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays employ a variety of definitions, including traditional eleemosynary giving, reform movements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporate foundations and lobbying organisations. Some chapters barely even mention philanthropy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss charitable impulses in terms of 'sensibilities' \(G. J. Barker Benfield in chapter 3\) and ethnic identities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stephen J. Whitfield in chapter 14\). By the same token, key forms of collective action, such as labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions, are not studied at all, and there is little debate about whether or not to include groups such as the Ku )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klux Klan. Moreover, socio-economic and class issues tend to get short shrift, reflecting a scarcity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research in this field. General philosophical questions, such as whether benevolent giving is ultimately more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demeaning to the recipient than impersonal bureaucracies, are not explored. Finally, footnotes would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been more useful for the researcher than the listing of 'further readings'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book goes a long way toward addressing the lack of sustained historical research into philanthropy. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows yet again that Americans saw themselves as cooperative members of groups and societies more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as isolated individuals. The history of philanthropy still needs to be written, but the book is a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminder that neither the history of the modern state nor the construction of gender, race and class can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written without paying attention to the way in which they were shaped by philanthropic and charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 456.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 438.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 438.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/483)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 437.193 m 322.316 437.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 412.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2522)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 437.5075 322.3157 449.3875 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/483) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000004818 00000 n 0000004927 00000 n 0000005037 00000 n 0000005146 00000 n 0000008707 00000 n 0000008835 00000 n 0000008919 00000 n 0000008984 00000 n 0000016533 00000 n 0000016598 00000 n 0000023870 00000 n 0000023935 00000 n 0000029673 00000 n 0000029738 00000 n 0000036814 00000 n 0000036898 00000 n 0000040455 00000 n 0000040583 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40678 %%EOF