%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818184311+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818184311+01'00') /Title (Men, Women and Property in England, 1780?1870: A Social and Economic History of Family Strategies amongst the Leeds Middle Classes) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2056 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Men, Women and Property in England, 1780?1870: A Social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Economic History of Family Strategies amongst the Leeds Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.553 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Classes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Recycling of the English Middle Class)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(485)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 December, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Morris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521838088X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(458pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodore Koditschek)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7543 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. J. Morris has spent at least the last forty years studying the social history of Leeds. In this excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume he shows that these decades of careful and painstaking scholarship have paid off. None of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources used by Morris will be unfamiliar to other researchers, and most of his hypotheses can be found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhere else, in embryo.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.320 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.320 740.307 m 182.312 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.312 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Morris has simply milked his sources harder, and pressed his hypotheses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farther than anyone hitherto. The empirical core of Morris's book is a study of 374 Leeds wills, probated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1830 and 1834. He uses these documents to capture a snapshot picture of middle class family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure and its relationship to property, but also to trace this relationship forward and backward in time. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective will had to accomplish multiple purposes: it had to provide for widows and minor children, it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to divide up family property for the next generation and it had to keep a family business going as long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary for the support and security of the members. But then it also had to throw this business on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market at an opportune moment, liquidate the assets, and distribute them to individual heirs, in a manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate for their age, gender and personal capability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Morris shows, the Leeds middle class \(in sharp contrast to the rural gentry and aristocracy\) almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universally practiced partible inheritance. Property was almost invariably divided equally among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, but the forms that these divisions took were extremely variegated and complex. This was a system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that forced each generation to start anew, accumulating its own wealth and capital. At the same time, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended family was kept alive as a network of loosely connected relations, who could help one another in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times of difficulty. In a harsh, competitive, and unpredictable world where premature death, illness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic misjudgment, or commercial recession could be fatal, this 'reserve army of cousins', as Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms them, might provide a cushion of security and assistance that could be obtained nowhere else.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To accomplish all these different functions and purposes, family property had to be held in multiple forms: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the one hand, it was necessary to have a strong competitive firm in some entrepreneurial sector of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local economy that could generate wealth, savings, and assets on which family members could borrow and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw. On the other hand, it was necessary gradually to transfer accumulated assets into passive, rentier forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of investment, such as urban real estate, government bonds, and \(later\) company shares, which could provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(income streams to support retirement and family dependents in the event of premature debility or death. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads Morris, in chapter 4, to his central analytical concept: what he calls the middle-class 'property cycle'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the early stage of family formation, he argues, entrepreneurial capital would predominate, as families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strove to achieve a comfortable livelihood, and to save up for the vicissitudes of life that lay ahead. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gradually, the accumulated wealth would be transferred into passive rentier forms of investment that could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide an income for retirement, and insurance for dependents, in the event of premature debility or death. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the end of the family cycle, the family property would be divided, and a new generation would begin it all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over again.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris's analysis of the family cycle is a model of brilliant generalisation, grounded in careful, painstaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirical research. It is a beautiful example of what micro-history can contribute to our macro )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the past. Although he bases his argument on only a relatively small number of well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented case studies, the evidence is so clear-cut \(see Tables 4.4; p. 155, 5.5 p. 209; and Fig. 4.4, p. 168\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that one is immediately persuaded as to the basic soundness of his concept. Moreover, in chapter 5, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extends it to show how the operation of the property cycle operated in tandem with the local real estate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market to significantly impact the physical development of the urban environment itself. Drawing on a close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of wills, maps, rate books, and property transactions, he zeroes in on specific tracts of several acres, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were purchased by particular middle class investors, who gradually developed, sold, or leased parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, according to the needs of the family, either for housing, cash, capital or rental income.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the first half of the century, these 'urban peasants' used their small 'rentier republics' \(p. 203\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide for widows, to obtain loans for their businesses, housing for their workers, retirement income and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic prestige, depending on their needs and priorities at any given time. During the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, many of these rentier republics were further developed and retained, even as less burdensome, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more impersonal, forms of investment opened up. In particular, the advent of the railway boom, the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share capital, and the shift towards capital export to America, India or other colonies in the empire, reduced )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.3197 740.6215 182.3117 752.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7607 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middl-class dependence on these local property parcels. The long-term result was to free the Leeds middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class from these burdensome responsibilities of local real estate management, but also to subject them to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vagaries and vicissitudes of global capital markets, and to detach them from their sense of rootedness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity within the urban environment of Leeds itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter 6, Morris considers the situation of women, who were responsible for 27 per cent of the probates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his sample \(p. 234\). Most of these people were widows or spinsters who had inherited property from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands or fathers. In general, Morris finds a widespread use of formal or informal trusts for women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property, which gave even wives a certain amount of independent income and input into the family's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic affairs. As testators, women tended to be more focused on the dispersal of 'things', rather than with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital or real estate. In chapter 7, Morris contrasts the cases of two widows from the 1820s, whose husbands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died prematurely. In one case, where the widow took an active role in the management of the family real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate holdings, the family emerged in excellent economic condition, earning between 350 and 1,962 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year \(p. 281\). In the other case, where the estate was left relatively undeveloped, in a poorly managed trust, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the family survived, but did not become nearly so well off.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In such cases, Morris shows, in chapter 7, extended family networks were essential in helping the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member branches negotiate their passage through hard times. These networks were loose and amorphous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing employment opportunities \(or recruits\) for the reserve army of cousins, and often linking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businessmen in Leeds with kindred firms in London, or abroad. Lubricated by the social work of spinster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aunts, or maiden daughters, such far-flung networks had to be tended and managed by travel and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence, so that they could provide resources and protection for branches that were facing insolvency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or economic privation, due to the death or dereliction of the local family head. By helping one another, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the extended network were able to keep up their individual reputations, and improve their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chances of success in an extremely harsh, competitive, and uncertain world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considered as a whole, this book must be deemed a great achievement. Morris's claim that the property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycle was at the very centre of the urban middle-class experience ? that 'it was as pervasive for the property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owner as the poverty cycle for the wage earner' \(p. 369\) is almost certainly correct. For this reason, no social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian of nineteenth-century Britain can afford to ignore this volume. Those who do not wish to plough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the many fascinating \(though sometimes dryly presented\) tables, maps, figures, and micro-analyses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will find a masterful summary of the overall argument between pages 367 and 381. Nevertheless, despite its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many virtues, this volume is not uniformly successful, and some of its specific arguments may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerated or one&-sided.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first place, the main analysis of the Leeds middle class \(chapters 3 to 8\) are book-ended by two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader, more sweeping interpretive essays, based on national data, \(chapters 2 and 9\) that are not well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated into the rest of the book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 202.328 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 202.328 276.627 m 216.320 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 216.320 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Chapter 2 takes the place of a conventional introduction, but it neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a preliminary review of the literature, nor leads us directly into Morris's analytical framework. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result, it fails to provide an adequate context for grasping the full significance, and limitations, of this book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Correspondingly, chapter 9 offers some intriguing data on the relationship of national probate values to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population and GNP. These results indicate that the 1830s and 1840s were a period of great economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty for middle-class families on a national level. Only during the 1850s and 1860s did safer, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lucrative investments and entrepreneurial opportunities open up.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One wishes that Professor Morris had integrated these findings more thoroughly into the body of his middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters. This would have enabled him to place the Leeds experience in a national context. Even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, it would have encouraged him to step back from his quantitative databases, so as to integrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these findings into a broader account of the social history of the town. Morris does a very good job of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capturing the lived experience of many middle-class families, but his book inserts these families back into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Leeds urban context only in the most cursory way. Indeed, table 2.8 notwithstanding, an uninitiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader might actually come away from this volume not realising that Leeds was one of the main centres of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the industrial revolution. The fact that its population increased tenfold during the period of Morris's study is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely worthy not only of mention but also of integration into the larger story.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.324 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.324 50.787 m 421.316 50.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.316 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Perhaps Professor Morris )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 202.3277 276.9415 216.3197 288.8215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.3237 51.1015 421.3157 62.9815 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7494 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinks that this story has been told sufficiently often in other places, and therefore it need not be rehearsed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again in the present venue.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.320 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.320 780.819 m 176.312 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 176.312 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The problem is that the story of urban industrial transformation is central to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the circumstances of his subject, and yet remains strangely absent from the analytical framework of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. Neither the entrepreneurial endeavors in which his subjects made their money, nor the rentier real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate investments through which they enjoyed its fruits can be separated from the larger expansive cycles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban industrial capitalism, in which the local economy was regionally, nationally and globally enmeshed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To be sure, Morris does not entirely ignore this wider expansive context, and yet there is a curiously static )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality to his presentation of the property cycle, which simply repeats itself again, in every successive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation, from the late seventeenth to the early twentieth century. As Morris himself acknowledges, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were some fundamental changes, particularly in the shifting profile of rentier investments, which began in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1840s, as his subjects supplemented their holdings in local urban property with railway shares, foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bonds or imperial venture capital schemes. Morris hints that this shift may have had profound consequences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the political, cultural and ideological orientation of his subjects. However, considerably more probing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the ways in which these changes played themselves out would have been appreciated. The fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leeds was a hotbed of class, sectarian and political party conflict during the 1830s and 1840s could not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inferred from the present book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.644 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.644 569.235 m 197.636 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 197.636 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The identities and allegiances of Morris's subjects are sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in passing, but no significance is ascribed to them, and there is no consideration of the possibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the property cycle played out differently for different groups. Professor Morris's silence perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicates that he believes it did not. Yet he shows no evidence of having tested this hypothesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These gaps in Morris's analysis are compounded by certain problems in his sources, and by the notorious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty of defining a group as amorphous and variegated as the 'middle class'. If, as he suggests, we take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion in city directories as evidence of membership in a broadly defined middle class then, by Morris's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own calculations, the probate filers represented only about 40 per cent \(presumably mostly in the upper half\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the larger group. By focusing on those who died between 1830 and 1834, Morris has, in practice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounded his work in the experience of two generations - those born in the 1750-85 period, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, mostly born before 1815. Given the biases of the surviving data, Morris's detailed case studies are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily drawn from an even narrower group of quite wealthy local families that were already well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in the late eighteenth century, and were hoping to perpetuate their descendents amidst the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting cross-currents of the urban industrial age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If one were to move a generation ahead - say, into the 1860s - one would continue to encounter many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris's successfully strategising families, but in the context of a vastly transformed middle class. Between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1841 and 1871, the population of Leeds increased by more than one hundred thousand, approximately a third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whom were recent immigrants to the town. From this we can infer that the mid-Victorian middle class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassed several thousand recent arrivals - the products of both geographical and social mobility - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose parents had not been present in the Leeds middle class of the 1830s. It would have been interesting if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Morris had conducted a second study of wills and probate from the 1860s and 1870s, so as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compare its profile with that of the 1830-4 group. It would be interesting to see if the property cycle played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out different for these recent arrivals, as they negotiated the passage from being an emergent to becoming \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so they hoped\) an established middle class.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.992 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.992 217.347 m 254.984 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, given the amount of time and energy that Professor Morris has devoted to this project, it may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreasonable to ask him for a further study along similar lines. Yet, his theory of the property cycle is so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytically powerful and intellectually intriguing that it is important for historians \(perhaps other historians\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to apply it at other time-points, and to other sectors of the British middle class. When all the results are in, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we should not be surprised if the final picture does not, in some important ways, depart from Morris's urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upper-middle-class snapshot of early nineteenth-century Leeds. For the time being, however, we will have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content ourselves with this path-breaking, innovative and impressive piece of work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.3197 781.1335 176.3117 793.0135 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.6437 569.5495 197.6357 581.4295 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.9917 217.6615 254.9837 229.5415 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 4968 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris's most original contribution ? his notion of the middle class 'property cycle' ? has already )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared in some of his previous articles, although not with the depth, complexity and richness that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present volume provides.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 202.664 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 202.664 766.563 m 256.652 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is symptomatic of the organisational oddities at the beginning and end of this book, that Morris's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion finishes the actual work of concluding on p. 384, but then goes on for another thirty-one )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages discussing the national campaign for married women's property rights in the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.996 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.996 709.539 m 209.984 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calculated from information in C. J. Morgan, 'Demographic Change, 1771?1911', in ed. Derek Fraser, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Modern Leeds)] TJ ET BT 194.672 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 1980\), p. 48.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.644 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.644 681.027 m 378.632 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the various essays in )] TJ ET BT 186.332 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Modern Leeds)] TJ ET BT 316.988 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as well as R. J. Morris's own )] TJ ET BT 463.472 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class, Sect and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Party: The Making of the British Middle Class: Leeds, 1820?1850)] TJ ET BT 382.676 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.648 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.648 652.515 m 536.636 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris did centrepiece these matters in )] TJ ET BT 253.976 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class, Sect and Party)] TJ ET BT 357.308 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but he offers no indication of how his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings in the present volume relate to his earlier work \(or vice versa\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.608 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.608 624.003 m 459.596 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The global analysis of published probate data, which Morris presents in chapter 9, might be taken as a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proxy for such a study, but it cannot capture the richness of insight to be gleaned from the study of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wills themselves. Not surprisingly, the probate data suggests that the middle class was getting )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealthier ? a trend, however, that is more clearly demonstrated through the calculations made by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold Perkin, thirty-five years ago, than by the more oblique estimates that Morris offers in this part )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his present book. See Harold Perkin, )] TJ ET BT 255.656 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Modern English Society, 1780?1880)] TJ ET BT 503.984 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(1969\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 135?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.344 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.344 524.211 m 168.332 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 480.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 462.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 462.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/485)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 461.193 m 322.316 461.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 436.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2526)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 202.6637 766.8775 256.6517 778.7575 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.9957 709.8535 209.9837 721.7335 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.6437 681.3415 378.6317 693.2215 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.6477 652.8295 536.6357 664.7095 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.6077 624.3175 459.5957 636.1975 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 114.3437 524.5255 168.3317 536.4055 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 461.5075 322.3157 473.3875 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/485) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000000722 00000 n 0000002830 00000 n 0000002939 00000 n 0000003049 00000 n 0000003158 00000 n 0000006719 00000 n 0000006847 00000 n 0000006931 00000 n 0000007015 00000 n 0000014611 00000 n 0000014641 00000 n 0000014769 00000 n 0000014805 00000 n 0000014896 00000 n 0000022556 00000 n 0000022586 00000 n 0000022714 00000 n 0000022750 00000 n 0000022780 00000 n 0000022906 00000 n 0000022942 00000 n 0000023040 00000 n 0000030587 00000 n 0000030617 00000 n 0000030745 00000 n 0000030781 00000 n 0000030811 00000 n 0000030939 00000 n 0000030975 00000 n 0000031005 00000 n 0000031133 00000 n 0000031169 00000 n 0000031295 00000 n 0000036316 00000 n 0000036444 00000 n 0000036499 00000 n 0000036627 00000 n 0000036682 00000 n 0000036810 00000 n 0000036865 00000 n 0000036993 00000 n 0000037048 00000 n 0000037176 00000 n 0000037231 00000 n 0000037359 00000 n 0000037414 00000 n 0000037542 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37637 %%EOF