%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724122719+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724122719+01'00') /Title (Medieval Marriage: Symbolism and Society) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4182 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Medieval Marriage: Symbolism and Society)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quite a lot of work on the history of marriage is based on assumptions that reflect the authors' views about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary society: either that marriage is necessary for an ordered society and that anything that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthens it is good, or that marriage is oppressive to women. Knowing nothing personal about the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than the dedication to his )] TJ ET BT 185.336 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(uxor carissima)] TJ ET BT 257.000 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I guessed that this might fall into the former category: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another romantically favourable book about marriage. D'Avray's book, however, is a systematic attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine what medieval people, not modern ones, thought about marriage, and is remarkably free of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions based on present-day debates. \(Indeed, the organisation of this book and its argument is so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structured, and so dependent upon explicit logic rather than rhetorical flourishes, that one wonders whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he may in fact be reacting to previous work that expressed too much of the authors' personal views about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage.\) And whereas much of the scholarship on marriage confuses it with household and family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation \(which was possible without marriage\), d'Avray is clearly concerned with marriage itself as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and social institution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The basic argument of the book is that the religious symbolism of marriage, communicated to a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience through sermons, had a significant impact on social and legal practice. The argument proceeds in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several logical steps. First, d'Avray demonstrates on the basis of manuscript evidence that sermons on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage were widely known and, presumably, preached. He then looks at individual aspects of marriage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(486)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David d'Avray)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0198208219)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(334pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Mazo Karras)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7459 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the way the use of marriage in sermons as a symbol for Christ's relation to the church or for God's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to the soul may have affected the way communities of listeners understood these aspects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D'Avray's first chapter, entitled 'Mass Communication,' is the most significant in the book because its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications go far beyond the study of marriage. His argument here, following up on his previous book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Marriage Sermons)] TJ ET BT 171.992 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is that the model sermon manuscripts that survive are the tip of the iceberg: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they once circulated in far greater numbers. He shows that vast numbers of manuscripts were destroyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around 1,500 to make bindings for other books; that the number of mendicant houses would have required a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much greater number of sermon manuscripts than those that we have today; that many books circulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without belonging to a particular library and there is hence no record of them; and that many sermon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compilations circulated in ephemeral forms. He also argues that some )] TJ ET BT 371.624 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pecia)] TJ ET BT 397.616 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( exemplars were so over-used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they had to be recopied, indicating a much greater number of manuscripts than survive today. All this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true of other sorts of manuscripts as well, not only sermon; but because sermons were delivered orally to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large audiences, they benefited from a 'multiplier' effect. Although actual quantification is not possible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d'Avray suggests that far fewer than one in ten manuscripts has survived; perhaps only one in fifty, or even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fewer. He is quite right to say that his arguments 'relativize the whole notion of the print revolution' \(p. 41\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D'Avray also suggests that these sermon manuscripts were often copied by those who intended to use them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than by commercial scribes. The variants he finds, not scribal errors but deliberate changes, indicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the copyist was thinking about the material. He does not use this argument to prove that the sermons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented mass communication, but rather to show how the production of the vast quantities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts he posits would have been possible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D'Avray's argument about the sermon as mass communication rests on an assumption that may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioned. Repetition of a message works, he says, citing the example of modern advertising. It is true that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated messages often have an impact on people, but it is not true of all messages. Some messages ? like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('do not litter' ? are repeated precisely because they have not yet had an impact. Historians often argue that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repetition of a message means that the repeater assumes the audience needs to get the message ? in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, that an injunction to do X means that not-X is currently the case. D'Avray, on the other hand, argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the repetition of X means that people eventually come to believe or do X. Market research indicates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither claim is true across the board for a modern audience, and given that 'mass communication' in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval world was so different from in the modern, we cannot assume that either is )] TJ ET BT 443.276 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori)] TJ ET BT 480.284 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( true for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D'Avray also assumes that the impact that the repeated message would have was to change the way people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought about marriage \(the symbol\) rather than about, say, the union between God and the church \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolised\). The impact, however, could as easily have flowed the other way. If the familiar is used as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphor for the abstract and unfamiliar, it is more likely to change the way the audience thinks about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter than the way it thinks about the former. D'Avray notes this at the beginning ? 'Marriage is one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongest experiences in many people's lives. Comparison with marriage is a way of conveying the strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the bond between God and humanity' \(p. 17\) ? but then goes on to argue that the comparison in fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthened marriage itself. He suggests \(p. 7\) that there is a strong correlation between cultures with highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed marriage symbolism and those with indissoluble marriage. This might be because the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage symbolism for divine bonds strengthens the human bonds used as symbol, but it might also be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because indissoluble marriage is more likely to be used as a symbol for a divine bond than a less permanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship. An image of 'the soul who, forgetful of her engagement ring, does not keep the faith of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage, when women as a rule keep their engagement ring throughout their life' \(p. 62\) is not attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change the listeners' view of betrothal, it is trying to work with an image that the listener already has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop an understanding of the soul.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, the conveyance of meaning through symbolism works both ways: both the sign and the signifier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be understood in a new way. D'Avray argues that although marriage was important in medieval society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was preaching that sacralised it from the mid thirteenth century on. Here it is not so much the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage as a symbol in sermons that is at issue, but the explicit preaching of the religious nature of marriage )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7483 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its goodness. The thirteenth century developed a delivery system ? mendicant sermons ? for bringing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this message to the masses. But the use of marriage symbolism to understand the divine would seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(require that the message about the sacral nature of marriage had already been absorbed, rather than being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of transmitting that message. Social practice and cultural representations clearly influence each other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the subject of marriage as well as other subjects, in the Middle Ages as well as other periods. D'Avray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives priority to symbolism, which he says had to be notably strong to overcome many people's wish to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change spouses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next three chapters focus on indissolubility, bigamy, and consummation. For each of these topics he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives a brief history of the development of the church's doctrine and shows how people's ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour were influenced by the ubiquity of marriage symbolism. Marriage symbolism has a role even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the heyday of mendicant sermons: for example, Hincmar of Reims uses Christ's marriage with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church to discuss why the marriage of Stephen of Auvergne was invalid \(p. 46\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With regard to the indissolubility of marriage, d'Avray links it to the development of clerical celibacy: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas secular rulers may wish to have several wives or concubines, either simultaneously or serially, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power to control marriage falls into the hands of men who may not marry they are not likely to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathetic to these wishes. But the rationale presented for the indissolubility of marriage, he argues, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it mirrored the union of Christ and the church, which was permanent. The juxtaposition of the sermons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using this symbolism, and the shift in court practice to the indissolubility of marriage, is suggestive. It is not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, definitive. The number of people who did try to get out of a marriage \(as evidenced by the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court cases which d'Avray cites\) indicates that not everyone lived the symbolism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion of bigamy is a bit different because bigamy was not illicit, as was the dissolution of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage. \(By bigamy d'Avray means not simultaneous marriage to two people, but the remarriage of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widow or widower.\) Remarriage was acceptable for a lay person, if frowned upon in some circles. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a widower who wished to become a priest could not do so if he had had more than one wife, or if his wife )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not been a virgin when he married her. Canonists held that a bigamist could not symbolise Christ, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because that would mean dividing the Word made flesh. Medieval authors, d'Avray shows, recognised that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in one sense this was illogical, since there was no sin in remarriage. But the symbolism was paramount, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outweighed the disadvantage of preventing a man from becoming a priest for a reason that did not involve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sin. \(One might make the analogy, although none of the sources d'Avray cites did so, of a man who cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become a priest because of some congenital physical imperfection, which is not his doing but nevertheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeps him from standing in for Christ.\) This chapter begs the question of )] TJ ET BT 386.648 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(why)] TJ ET BT 405.980 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as d'Avray puts it, 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationality of marriage symbolism was the basis of a casuistry of ?bigamy? cases' \(p. 140\). In the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indissolubility, one might imagine that the symbolism was a rationalisation, rather than a cause, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indissolubility doctrine, which could have emerged for other reasons. In the case of bigamy, those reasons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are harder to see. For that reason, this chapter makes the stronger case that the symbolic meaning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage really stood in a causal relation to actual practice ? not that the symbolism necessarily always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the actual impetus, as d'Avray says of bigamist clergy in minor orders who were removed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their positions, but it 'provided the rationale for the new clear line that was drawn and determined its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contours' \(p. 162\). In this case he is persuasive that 'the symbolism is not just epiphenomenal, not merely a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surface coating: it has affected the meaning of marriage' \(p. 154\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subject of consummation would seem to be a difficult one for marriage symbolism: one does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine God having sexual intercourse with the soul, or Christ with the church. But some medieval writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that consummation was necessarily to create a complete and permanent marriage, even after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph of Peter Lombard's position that consent makes marriage over that of Gratian which required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercourse to ratify marriage. The idea that Mary and Joseph's marriage was somehow incomplete, which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present in Gratian, did not disappear. And in practice, a marriage that had not been consummated was easier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to dissolve \(for example, to enable entrance into a monastery\) than one that had; d'Avray argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolism was crucial to the development of the right to break a non-consummated marriage. This chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with cases from the registers of the papal penitentiary, brings the social experience of medieval people to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreground in a way that the other chapters \(where the legal material is derived from the work of other )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3163 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars\) do not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D'Avray's conclusion contains one problematic disclaimer. Because the 'Church as bride of Christ is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composed of men as well as women' and the 'soul as bride of Christ is the soul of a man as much as the soul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a woman,' d'Avray argues, gender is 'somewhat peripheral to [these texts'] principal significance' \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(201?2\). On the contrary, the gendered nature of the symbolism is key. If symbolism influences social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice, and in the symbolism the bridegroom is divine while the bride is a human institution or soul, surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the effects on social practice would have been the reinforcement of the husband's authority within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage. On the other hand, casting men in the position of the bride of Christ tells us something about how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the church understood masculinity, and the kinds of conflicts that developed between clerical and secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although I have my doubts about some of the conceptual leaps necessary to reach d'Avray's broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions, his arguments on specific points are entirely convincing. He knows this material better than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone, and he has taken care to set it out so that the reader can evaluate the argument. The appendix of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents, eighty pages of newly edited material from sermons, canon law quaestiones, letters and court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases is very valuable. The fact that the documents are not translated, as well as with the general tone of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, indicate that the appropriate audience is a specialist one. Anyone with a serious interest in medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage, or medieval sermon studies, or indeed the transmission of knowledge in the Middle Ages, will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to read it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 484.879 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 467.099 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 467.099 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/486)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 465.705 m 322.316 465.705 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 440.728 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 426.328 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2843)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.928 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 466.0195 322.3157 477.8995 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/486) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000543 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000004859 00000 n 0000004968 00000 n 0000005078 00000 n 0000005187 00000 n 0000008748 00000 n 0000008876 00000 n 0000008960 00000 n 0000009025 00000 n 0000016537 00000 n 0000016602 00000 n 0000024138 00000 n 0000024222 00000 n 0000027438 00000 n 0000027566 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27661 %%EOF