%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723083133+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723083133+01'00') /Title (Birthing the Nation: Sex, Science, and the Conception of Eighteenth-Century Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4120 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Birthing the Nation: Sex, Science, and the Conception of Eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birthing the Nation)] TJ ET BT 127.364 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represents history of medicine at its most inclusive. Born itself from the author's doctoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on the history of midwifery, this book is an insightful and hard-hitting examination of how men-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midwives and questions of reproduction more generally intersected with national identities and scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge. In taking such a broad view of the impact of what might otherwise be quite a narrow \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant\) medical development, Cody pushes obstetrical practice to the forefront of many of the most vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of eighteenth-century debates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cody starts her book with a boldly written introduction, which sets out clearly her aims and ideas. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins on a theme which is developed throughout the book: the way in which images of reproduction were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used by satirical artists to shed light on wider concerns. As she says in her preface, her theme 'unexpectedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to illuminate how the British conceived of themselves and others as individuals and as members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups' \(p. viii\). Images of pregnant kings, male midwives delivering nations, monstrous births, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglectful mothers all support her theme, by demonstrating how birth and delivery were used to reflect wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes of inversion, gullibility or novelty. The book is structured both chronologically and by theme. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is effective, since it draws attention to the fact that certain themes are particularly pertinent to certain parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the long eighteenth century, without splitting the time period up artificially. Early chapters are, therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(487)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisa Forman Cody)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0199268649)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(374pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alysa Levene)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7488 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly concerned with the emergence of men-midwives, and how they appropriated biological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimental approaches to reproduction. Later chapters deal with the threat of revolution in the latter third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the eighteenth century, and with emerging ideas on race and taxonomy. The reader is thus reminded that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politics and personnel of reproduction changed over the period, and also that they intersected with many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other significant new themes. At the outset, men are starting to exert their influence over experimentation; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the end, they are largely recognised as experts. The structure of the book also begins with the specific and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moves outwards, gaining momentum as it proceeds from new ideas on sperm and generation, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, the state, and revolution. The weakest link is chapter 2, which sets out the context to the male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrusion into midwifery. It is perhaps necessary to provide background, but by being mainly descriptive, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacks the analytical punch and range of themes developed in the other chapters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 3, however, picks up the wide-ranging thrust of the introduction, by discussing how suspicion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female midwives might feed in to anxieties about patriarchy and the subversion of the state. Female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midwives had a potentially powerful degree of agency over succession, both within the family, and in wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns such as inheritance of the crown. Case-studies are used to demonstrate how women might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly have perverted their proper function, by murdering newborns, by plotting against the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status quo, and by subverting the monarchy \(the infamous 'Warming Pan Scandal', which cast doubt over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veracity of James II's claim to a male heir\). None of these stories is newly discovered, but Cody is skilful in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing out how much they struck at the heart of patriarchy, and how they were re-invoked at other points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of crisis over the long eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapters 4 and 5, the focus moves to men, and the ways in which they managed to gain access to the study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of obstetrics. Again, this is not a new topic, but Cody introduces several novel themes to her discussion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Especially of note is the part played by the newly founded, male preserve of the Royal Society. In this arena, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men were able to disseminate their discoveries on aspects of reproduction which did not touch on female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies, and establish their skill in theories of generation. This skill was used to promote men as experts on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the theory of reproduction, such that they were called upon to judge ambiguous cases such as Mary Toft's, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who apparently gave birth to a number of rabbits in the 1720s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion in these chapters also introduces a theme of gender ambiguity surrounding men who worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the field, which was to continue throughout the development of male obstetrical practice. Even when male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioners used traditionally male tools of investigation and experimentation, they were often represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in satirical print and literature as either effeminate, or as sexual predators. In later chapters, Cody shows that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men continued to have to demonstrate certain female qualities such as intuition and sympathy, alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their male skill and empirical knowledge in obstetrical matters. They also continued to be viewed with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistrust for the access they had to men's wives. Alongside this, however, was a fear that men might still be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misled by women's bodies, and that they could be duped by trumped-up evidence. When Mary Toft was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown to be a fraud, several male practitioners' reputations were lost, and others were careful to recast the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episode in a light which reflected poorly on female passions and irrationality rather than on male skill.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having set out how men managed to establish their authority over the science of reproduction and normal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birth, and its impact on gender relations, Cody moves up a gear in demonstrating how this was harnessed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider themes. In chapter 6, she draws attention to the fact that many of the high-profile male midwives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-eighteenth-century London were not English-born, and that many were Scottish. This immediately plays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into wider questions of national identity and access to medical training, which are developed further in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent chapters. Denied access to elite medical practice, Scots sought new ways to gain expertise, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many specialised in obstetrics. Men such as William Smellie and William Hunter, both Scots, were also able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to change the way that midwifery was taught, by giving open lectures and practical teaching. Along with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countrymen such as Edmund Burke and Adam Smith \(who both attended Hunter's lectures\), they appealed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a wider sense of identity as Britons rather than Englishmen, and established an expertise which encompassed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh and Glasgow as well as London, Oxford and Cambridge. The developments pioneered by Smellie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hunter in teaching and practice also opened up a number of other fields for investigation. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included the origin of life itself, encouraged by the depiction of foetuses as fully human in Hunter's teaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diagrams, and the place of men in the birthing chamber. This was a time of anxiety over gender roles, seen )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7301 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also in the treatment in the press of Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, whom Cody mentions in passing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here too, gender roles were being cast aside, as they were by men who attended women in childbirth. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxiety is one of the most persuasive reasons why reproduction and birth appeared so frequently in print and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in literature as a metaphor for so many other themes \(especially when, as the author reminds us, freedom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression was not absolute\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most novel chapters of the book is the one which draws parallels between medical developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those in other areas of science \(chapter 8, 'Sex, Science, and Race'\). Histories of science and medicine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlap too rarely, but here, a convincing case is made for a common concern with understanding the basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all things. The chapter is curiously effective, given that it is the one in which medicine is perhaps most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangential, but it illustrates how men used reproductive terms to explain the development of race, language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and natural science. These in turn, were harnessed to debates on British national supremacy, much of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was based on reproduction. The \(apparently\) easier births of African women, for example, were deemed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arise from their larger pelvises, and the smaller heads of their infants; arguments which reinforced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superior mental powers of Britons. It is interesting to note that it was at this time that cranial measurements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to be used to assess male development, while for women, the equivalent was pelvimetry. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered approach was to be significant for the development of medical practice and ideas on sexuality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the body throughout the next century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final substantive chapter, Cody turns to the state, and the role that it began to play in reproductive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics towards the end of the century. This chapter is thus tied to changing ideas over population as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource, fears of poverty, and a desire to enumerate the people and judge the quality of national stock. Just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as male expertise had at last been judged necessary in the courtroom to judge on rape and infanticide cases, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so government was now felt to be the expert manager of the state of the population. The relationship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malthus, and also with Darwin, is clear. Male midwifery had ceased to be a shadow of female practice, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had become a whole approach, based on rationality: 'an objective body of knowledge about the invisible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of life, acquired through clinical practice, contemplation, reading, collecting, dissecting, learned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversation and debate.' \(p. 277\) Men used skills which women did not yet have, based on internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination and the collection of facts on reproductive anatomy. So too, did the state collect information in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(censuses and reports such as that carried out in preparation for the New Poor Law, which similarly adopted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulative and expert framework for the lives of the poor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cody ends by reflecting on the path followed by men to reach the state of expert. She particularly dwells on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two themes, which are effectively brought out throughout the book. The first is the ambiguous way male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over knowledge about female bodies was used in terms of gender relations. Male expertise was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly stressed over female superstition and ignorance, and it was invoked also as a justification for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of female participation in political rights. At the same time, however, by publicising knowledge about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these matters, men altered preceding notions of patriarchy by stressing a larger role for men within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally female realm of the home. The world of reproduction and family life was made public, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development the author sums up in the public grief surrounding the death of Princess Caroline in childbirth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1817. Never before had such a scenario been either so public, or so mourned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birthing the Nation)] TJ ET BT 127.364 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( thus succeeds in its aims. It makes a strong case for a common origin of research into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obstetrics and into many other aspect of science. It also illustrates how the intrusion of men into midwifery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summed up many gender-based anxieties as to control of lineage, sexual propriety, and the status quo, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be harnessed to wider scenarios of national identity and security. The use of satirical prints and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature is particularly effective, as it demonstrates how widely available these images were. The use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories of monstrous births such as Mary Toft's, and of national scandals such as the birth of James II's son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also shows how such images were disseminated and anchored to certain well-rehearsed narratives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also does justice to the complexity of notions such as gender and knowledge. Male judgements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not infallible even after they had started to claim superior knowledge, as the Mary Toft case illustrates. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even when they started to command respect, men such as Hunter realised that they had to appeal to feminine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities, and to win over the women they wished to attend. Near the end of the book, Cody shows how )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3359 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of expertise had in fact come something of a full circle, as male medical experts in court cases were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accused of being too ambiguous in their evidence. Men might now be the witnesses of choice, but they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open to the same charges that women had been earlier. The way that men represented themselves, and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ideas on reproduction itself, sometimes highlighted the differences between the sexes, and sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the similarities. This was not a clear-cut transition from female midwife to male, but one which was played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out on uncertain ground.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the ease with which different debates are marshalled, however, which gives this book so much weight. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By targeting national identity, the quality of population, the development of scientific understandings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxieties about gender roles, Cody straddles some of the most significant and distinctive themes of the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century. Historians of medicine have only now begun to realise the ways in which medicine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played into debates over the strength of the nation in this period, and the way that the assertion of expertise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped national policies. Men-midwives are not always centre-stage in the discussion, and at times, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might wonder exactly how far they represent wider developments, and how much they simply reflected what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was going on in other fields. By adopting this framework, however, Cody teases out a novel interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a well-rehearsed medical development, and presents it in a way which cannot help but have impact on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Dr Levene for her thorough engagement with themes of )] TJ ET BT 394.604 491.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birthing the Nation)] TJ ET BT 487.952 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 432.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 414.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 414.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/487)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 413.193 m 322.316 413.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 388.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2846)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 413.5075 322.3157 425.3875 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/487) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000004840 00000 n 0000004949 00000 n 0000005059 00000 n 0000005168 00000 n 0000008729 00000 n 0000008857 00000 n 0000008941 00000 n 0000009006 00000 n 0000016547 00000 n 0000016612 00000 n 0000023966 00000 n 0000024050 00000 n 0000027462 00000 n 0000027590 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27685 %%EOF