%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 38 0 R 43 0 R 63 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818124939+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818124939+01'00') /Title (Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4559 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Barham's book is an excellent example of 'underdog' history. Barham has trawled the archives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search of the lives and experiences of ordinary soldiers who suffered mental crises during the Great War. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aim is to resurrect these forgotten people and to show that, though their voices have since been silenced, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Great War they conjoined with popular protest and progressive elements in psychiatry to create a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief flowering of sympathetic care and treatment associated with budding ideas of an equality of citizens? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essence of his argument is that the marked social change of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coupled with the mass mobilisation of the war led to a notion of the 'citizen soldier' and unforeseen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences for the treatment and disposal of military psychiatric casualties. The narrative traces how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian society profoundly influenced the military, and Barham casts it in contrast to other historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts. Civil society was not, he argues, the secondary recipient of psychiatric change brought about by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military necessities. Still less was it the malign and uninformed influence, attributed to it by some, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben Shephard, who suggests, he maintains, that the treatment of psychiatric casualties should have been left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the military and their medical votaries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.328 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.328 174.393 m 246.320 174.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 246.320 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead, Barham convincingly shows that civilian society was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the source of positive change for the understanding and treatment of military psychiatric casualties. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though this change was short-lived and soon largely reversed, Barham claims that it provided a 'seminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural resource' that was 'etched on popular consciousness' and informed later progressive egalitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences on psychiatric care during and after the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barham sets the scene for his narrative, by briefly emphasising the conflicting dynamics of social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political change in Britain during the decades leading up to the Great War \(pp. 3, 147\):)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(488)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 December, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Barham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Toms)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.3277 174.7075 246.3197 186.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7079 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simultaneously demotic and hieratic, militarism, the cultivation of imperialist visions, and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of administrative rationality, jostled alongside 'progressivist', egalitarian and feminist )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-currents. Largely in response to the growing political power of the working classes and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emergence of a more educated and discerning population, the lines of social class had )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become progressively blurred, and governments had been prodded into adopting more fulsome )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(styles of welfare, doing more than just provide care and protection 'at the margins', and into )] TJ ET BT 64.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking faltering steps towards a politics of equal dignity or 'positive' rights, 'civic' along with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('liberal' freedoms, as in the introduction of old age pensions and national health insurance in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain \(p. 147\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barham places this 'emerging culture of social citizenship' and a 'stronger sense of entitlement among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenry' in stark contrast to the lunacy system. This remained a sphere in which rigid hierarchies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions prevailed. As he says, 'When it came to ravaged minds, there was no semblence of equality, neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in professional attitudes nor in treatment regimes' \(p. 3\). Moreover, to be certified to a lunatic asylum was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross a divide that excluded one from the community of citizens.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The onset of war was to herald circumstances in which this system was to be challenged. Over five million )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men served in the British army during the war, with 700,000 killed and casualties totaling two and a half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.696 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.696 518.979 m 85.688 518.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 85.688 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( With only one small dedicated facility at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley, the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities showed themselves, not only unprepared, but also apparently uninterested in the potential for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high numbers of psychiatric casualties. Barham notes that, according to 'military culture, a soldier with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nervous problems was either a lunatic destined for the madhouse or a malingerer' \(p. 41\). Other than those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases catered for at Netley, all others were discharged under King's Regulations, and sent to public asylums.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the 500 or so soldiers who had been consigned to public asylums by the end of 1914 raised an outcry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By early 1915 calls were being made in parliament for soldiers who had become insane to be spared the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stigma of certification as pauper lunatics \(pp. 41?2\). Some drew analogies with the Workman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Compensation Act which stated that, once an employer had taken on an employee, an accident could no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer be attributed to the worker's unfitness for his occupation. Similar concerns were raised in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarters. The Murray Committee, set up to report on provision of employment for servicemen disabled in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, recommended in 1915 that alternatives to the asylum be found for those who were 'mentally affected'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certification, it believed, might not only prejudice re-employment opportunities, but also provide an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment detrimental to recovery \(p. 44\). The military conceded and an Asylum War Hospitals Scheme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was soon brought into operation under which selected civil lunatic asylums were, wholly or partly, taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over and converted into War Mental Hospitals. By 1918 4,470 beds had been made available.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similar pressures influenced provisions for discharged servicemen. Until the formation of the Ministry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pensions during the war there was 'no single department of state' with responsibility for this. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pensions for discharged servicemen were privileges to be earned rather than entitlements to be expected. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1915 the government appointed a Statutory Committee in order to help provide support and after-care for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discharged soldiers. Barham notes that its principal achievement was the establishment of 300 Local War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pension Committees across the United Kingdom, which 'played a very active role during and after the war' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 103\). The statutory committee advised that placement in an institution should be avoided wherever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible. Instead, encouragement and assistance should be provided in helping men to find employment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instilling in them that they would soon be normal citizens again \(p. 103\). It fell to the Board of Control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which had been established just before the war to oversee the entire mental health system\) to come up with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a strategy that, though it could not keep insane servicemen out of asylums completely, could at least provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a special status for them. This was the Service Pension Scheme. Under the scheme, ex-servicemen would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classified as private patients, paid for by a state pension, and receive special privileges, such as a weekly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowance and distinctive attire to distinguish them from other inmates \(p. 105\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barham draws together the Asylum War Hospitals Scheme and the Service Patient Scheme as critical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 71.6957 519.2935 85.6877 531.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7140 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments which help to further his argument that 'progressive' mental health professionals joined forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with families and advocates of ex-servicemen in a process which brought, both patients' subjective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, and notions of citizen entitlements to the fore. He focuses on the example of Napsbury War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mental Hospital to show that the special circumstances at such hospitals provided an arena in which 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility of a more inclusive psychology ' would emerge. Barham maintains that at Napsbury,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what we witness ? is a moderation of [the] divisive scheme of things, a muting of class )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antagonisms and prejudices, not a dramatic turnaround certainly, rather a fumbling, faltering, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes ambivalent, but nonetheless still significant movement towards a more egalitarian, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and less opinionated, mental health culture \(p. 78\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barham casts this description in contrast with other ?supposedly ?progressive? military doctor[s] such as W. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Rivers? who peddled 'a hierarchical psychology in which superior value was placed on officers over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common soldiers, and psychiatric assessments were inextricably reflections of moral and social divisions' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4\). Rivers held to an image of evolutionary hierarchy in which ordinary soldiers were prone to a regressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of selfish survival instincts at the cost of their comrades, while officers tended to suffer the 'higher' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolutionary conflicts of fear and duty \(pp. 76?7\). Barham notes that this discrimination between middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class officers and lower-class soldiers was mirrored in the representation of officers as suffering anxiety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neuroses expressed through garrulousness, while lower-class ranks suffered traumas in which voices were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silenced or distorted. Indeed, he highlights the way such bifurcations have apparently been uncritically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted by cultural historians such as Eric Leed and Elaine Showalter \(p. 76\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.932 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.932 490.467 m 425.924 490.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.924 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Barham points out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is not the case that 'signs and symptoms were not in evidence in the other ranks, rather they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submerged, disavowed and trivialized by the attitudes and interpretations that were imposed on them' \(p. 78\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He shows that at Napsbury an 'alternative social experiment' developed in which conventional norms were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('suspended or relaxed' \(p. 79\). Far from becoming relatively happy on having secured return from the war, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rivers suggested, what is revealed here is that ordinary soldiers exhibited signs of self-loathing and a deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of failure. Nor were they generally mute; instead, they were often described by the authorities as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('exceedingly loquacious', 'abundant, diffuse and expansive' \(p. 79\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, more than this, Napsbury provided a medical arena in which soldiers could apply the label of 'shell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock' to themselves in order to denote a condition that was 'serious in intensity ? but not at all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dishonourable, and above all temporary and amenable to treatment'. In this way the sufferer could retain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links with the 'community of ordinary human beings' \(p. 87\). Napsbury provided a limited means through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which patients could develop their own sense of what had happened to them and partly negotiate their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Implicit in this development is the assertion of a 'civilian' consciousness; a consciousness that Barham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relates both to socialised, egalitarian visions and to individualised notions of private lives and citizenship \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(117\). The shell shock label enabled some to express their sensitivity and vulnerability unapologetically \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(86\). These soldiers may have been well 'adapted' to civilian life but many were only partly able to adapt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to military life or modern warfare. The historian George Mosse maintains that shell shock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a metaphor for what was seen as the 'unmanly' behaviour of an 'incomplete' man. But, for Barham, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shell shock provided some men with a strategy that helped them to express a 'competing sensibility' in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjective emotional experience might find a voice while under military and psychiatric authority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Barham links these developments with debate over the criteria by which pensions should be awarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the Service Pension Scheme. He points to a meeting on 13 July 1917 of representatives of the Board )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Control with services and pensions authorities as signally important. The agreement that followed was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make 'enormous concessions to civilian sensibilities' over entitlements to war disability pensions \(p. 122\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two features are particularly apparent in Barham's depiction. First, he maintains that 'justice was the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that figured most prominently in the debate' \(p. 122\). At this point in the war, a notion of the 'community of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving citizens was able to trump traditional military values as the operating standard' \(p. 122\). Reception )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.9317 490.7815 425.9237 502.6615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8003 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the military, rather than soldierly efficiency, extreme traumatising experience or evidence of fortitude, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was now contended, was the requisite for entitlement to pension. Second, and related to this, was what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barham calls, a kind of 'psychiatric decommissioning'. There was a relaxation of conventional psychiatric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgments. Mental experts 'relinquished their positions on the high ground of moral certainty; condemnatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices were temporarily stilled ? in the face of the anguish that confronted them' \(p. 124\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In both the examples of treatment at War Mental Hospitals and concessions over qualification for war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pensions, Peter Barham emphasises the conjunction of psychodynamic therapies with popular protest, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of very high numbers of casualties. Psychodynamic theories of mental disorder had already made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inroads on some psychological and psychiatric thinking before the Great War. Their reception had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uneven and controversial. However, the war stimulated interest in what became known as the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Psychology. A concept of mental disorders as 'functional' rather than based on 'brain disorders' gained wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currency amongst doctors who treated shell shock. The apparent need to analyse and understand unconscious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivations, coupled with the therapeutic value of 'talking therapies', became established as important areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for activity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of the influential figures that Barham mentions were, in fact, associated with what became known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the movement for mental hygiene that became established soon after the war. This was a principal vehicle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the promotion of the New Psychology. The mental hygiene movement considered that ?functional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nervous illness' was 'a disturbance in adaptation of personality to the physical, mental and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.836 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.836 514.467 m 113.828 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 113.828 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These 'maladjustments' were attributed to unconscious motivations; the emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substrates of the mind. The 'psycho-neuroses' were thus primarily disorders of the emotions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.276 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.276 500.211 m 490.268 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.268 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, essentially, that rational thinking had finally grasped the fact that emotional experience underlay all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth and adjustment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This general approach certainly represented a shift away from overt authoritarianism in therapy. \(Though not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the case of those who were deemed to be 'mentally deficient'.\) This was replaced with a more restrained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority engaged in an attempt to prompt what was considered to be an in-built drive towards 'adjustment' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to societal norms. The subjective emotional experience of patients now constituted a target that needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding and shaping, rather than something that was of significance only in so far as its excesses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required to be negated and subordinated. Peter Barham maintains that wartime psychotherapeutic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments represented a 'wholehearted engagement with emotional reality [that] was potentially a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subversive undertaking in itself, in as much as it exposed a common ground into which all servicemen were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrown, regardless of station or rank, and opened windows on the subjectivities of ordinary soldiers' \(p. 153\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the context of this alteration of the conceptualisation of emotionality his argument is apt. But, as Barham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises himself, this emergence of a psychology that was more inclusive was faltering and ambivalent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And the wider factors of extreme and prolonged wartime suffering coupled with pronounced public pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have been primary in driving the psychiatric views on pension provisions that he describes. Perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying pressure for this temporary alliance lay principally with the sheer numbers of casualties and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated response of a public made up of more organised and articulate working-class voices than ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before. As Barham notes, the vast extent of human suffering prompted strong feelings of solidarity and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rights of all \(pp. 148?9\). Nevertheless, the shift in approach to subjective experience surely played a part.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These issues aside, Barham narrates how, by the early 1920s, reaction had set in. The state, in the form of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry of Pensions, the Treasury, and the military, along with significant elements of psychiatry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasserted traditional classifications and diagnoses that peddled notions of 'jerry-built brains collapsing under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own weight' \(p. 140\), of class and gender stereotypes, and of moral and social hierarchies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.072 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.072 148.323 m 505.064 148.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 505.064 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry of Pensions, which had always considered itself an outpost of objectivity in the face of public \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some psychiatric\) gullibility and misguided sympathy, attempted to roll back pension awards \(p. 186\). Less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than 150 servicemen admitted to asylums were rejected classification as Service Patients in 1918, but by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-1920s over 60 per cent were being refused \(p. 189\). Despite the campaigning of associations such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ex-Services Welfare Society, the public profile of Service Patients declined during the economic austerities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the early 1920's. Moreover the emerging discourse of community care \(with which the movement for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental hygiene was centrally involved\) could be highly conditional, discriminating between those who were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.8357 514.7815 113.8277 526.6615 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.2757 500.5255 490.2677 512.4055 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.0717 148.6375 505.0637 160.5175 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 7441 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capable of 'adjustment' to full citizenship, and those who impaired the 'social machine by their inefficiency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as citizens' \(p. 314\). In parallel with such views, the Ministry of Pensions was able to reassert a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalist view and, associated with this, apply the self-serving argument that genuine mental traumas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(due to the war were temporary with recovery taking place relatively quickly, while those that persisted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became chronic were evidence of innate instabilities \(p. 306\). Similarly, the Ministry of Pensions enthusiasm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for psychotherapy soon declined after the war with officials claiming it was promoting treatment for its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sake at the expense of looking for gainful employment. In response the Ministry promoted 'hardening' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres where ex-servicemen could be turned into 'efficient citizens' through supervision, discipline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But despite these reactionary developments Peter Barham points out that the Service Patient category did at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least provide some patients and their families with a means to lay claim to rights and justice, playing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('strategic role in improving life chances, and remedying basic injustices, for a disadvantaged constituency' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 366, 9\) And, if the progressive therapeutic currents that Peter Barham describes declined and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deteriorated after the war, their impulse, he argues, lived on to inspire later movements during and after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War \(p. 366\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Barham's monograph is persuasive, informative, and enjoyable to read. He has cast his net widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across archives and skillfully brought together an array of disparate fragments of soldiers' and pensioners' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences that throws them and their treatment, by psychiatrists and the state, into a new light. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragments are cleverly weaved into his overall narrative, and sustain his general thesis that civilian society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the source of positive change for the treatment and support of military psychiatric casualties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One minor gripe regarding this account of the influence of civilian identity on the military is Peter Barham's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of the notion of a 'feminisation' of society to describe this. Barham maintains that soldiers at Napsbury, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in using the label of shell shock as a way of partially legitimising their subjective emotional experience and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finding expression for their sensitivity and vulnerability, were displaying what 'stereotypically can only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(register as a feminized sensibility ? ' \(p. 86\). A response to this might be, 'Let's not be stereotypical then'. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various points in his narrative Barham refers to the 'feminisation' of society almost interchangeably with that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the impact of 'civilianness' on the military, and employs it as a motive force for the voices calling for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions and justice from the state and the military. These voices were, he says, the 'expression of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminized standpoint on life' \(p. 116\). But, to buy into this terminology is to accept what ought to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained. Barham may be using this characterisation in what he believes to be a positive sense, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attribution of 'sensitivity' and 'empathy' to 'the feminine' and 'control' and 'hierarchy' to 'the masculine' is at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best a distraction and at worst unwittingly perpetuates unnecessary divisions between people. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such attributions lead to confusing and unhelpful characterisations. Thus, soldiers who unapologetically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express acute sensitivity and vulnerability appear 'feminine'. Similarly, Montague Lomax, who delivered a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biting critique of the asylum in the 1920s, is described as displaying a 'hesitant and uncertain form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manhood' in his character, and delivering a 'feminized appreciation of the asylum' \(p. 117\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.408 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.408 260.115 m 484.400 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 484.400 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Meanwhile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beatrice Webb and Virginia Wolf, as they are described in the text, appear 'masculine'. Thus, Beatrice Webb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found 'moral magnificence in the unsensational dutifulness unto death of millions now enlisting', expressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disdain for the misguided youths who had allowed themselves to be swept up into the conscientious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objection movement ? 'pasty-faced furtive boys', she called them. Similarly, Barham's discussion of Virginia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woolf's attitude towards mental illness cites her biographer's view that her language was 'often brutal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional accepting apparently without irony the current official attitudes?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This aside, Peter Barham's description of the positive influence of civilian society on the military and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('psychiatric votaries' is compelling. However, my understanding of what Peter Barham is, in fact, essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing to, is something more fundamental than this. As Barham says this 'wholehearted engagement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional reality was potentially ? subversive'. It concentrated on subjective experience at the expense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(station or rank, and it implied that understanding subjective emotional experience was critical to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciating human value and worth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not a battle between 'feminine' and 'masculine' sensibilities, and though it can be characterised as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.4077 260.4295 484.3997 272.3095 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 8052 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict between military and civilian values, at a fundamental level it is a battle between the purported value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of rigid authority and hierarchies determining the 'characters', roles, and ultimately fate and worth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals, and the value and authority of subjective experience itself in determining 'what is at stake in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human lives'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Barham remarks perceptively of soldiers' expressed experience at Napsbury that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are countless experiences that exemplify this arbitrary dimension in which, even if the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject may willingly have embraced the signifier which represents him for the other, as by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volunteering for the cause, still it becomes apparent quite soon that there has been a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstanding, and that the subject's idea of who he is, and of what he has let himself in for, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is quite at odds with the mandate that has been foisted upon him by the authorities. ? [Such )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men] found themselves ? forced to account for themselves as someone whom they never )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realized that they were. ? so it is hardly surprising that we should encounter individuals who )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give the impression that they find themselves on the wrong bus or train, the bearer of an )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwanted or uninvited identity, or the victim of some misunderstanding or a breakdown in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication \(p. 62\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is ultimately rigid hierarchies of rank, of social authority and control, that force some people 'to account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for themselves as someone whom they never realized they were'. This is not a conflict between 'masculine' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 'feminine', and it transcends the conflict between civilian and military life. This is the principal issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, for me, suffuses Barham's text. His underlying refusal to make distinctions between who was and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not suffering mental troubles, and whether they can be attributed to the war, echoes this. In taking this stance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Barham presents us with a text that refuses to place human experience, and ultimately worth, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual hierarchy. In so doing he achieves one of his central aims of acknowledging those who have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silenced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 357.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 357.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben Shephard, )] TJ ET BT 137.672 357.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists, 1914?1994)] TJ ET BT 409.664 357.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2000\), p. 28. See also Martin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 343.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone, 'Shellshock and the psychologists' in ed. Roy Porter, W. F. Bynum and Michael Shephard, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 328.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Anatomy of Madness)] TJ ET BT 185.672 328.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ii, )] TJ ET BT 204.344 328.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Asylum and its Psychiatry)] TJ ET BT 350.336 328.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.328 328.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.328 327.411 m 442.316 327.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 314.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 314.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Lawrence, 'The First World War and its aftermath' in ed. Paul Johnson, )] TJ ET BT 428.276 314.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 300.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain: Economic, Social and Cultural Change )] TJ ET BT 297.020 300.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1994\), p. 151.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.012 300.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.012 298.899 m 422.000 298.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 286.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 286.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Leed, )] TJ ET BT 116.996 286.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(No Man's Land: Combat and Identity in World War One)] TJ ET BT 388.556 286.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge,1979\); Elaine )] TJ ET BT 64.016 271.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Showalter, )] TJ ET BT 118.676 271.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture, 1830?1980)] TJ ET BT 467.312 271.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 257.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 257.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 256.131 m 149.000 256.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 243.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 243.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Brown, 'Rationalization', )] TJ ET BT 228.668 243.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mental Hygiene)] TJ ET BT 305.648 243.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 Dec. 1932, 34?7, at p. 36.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.960 243.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.960 241.875 m 497.948 241.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 229.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 229.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurice Craig, speech on 'The place of mental health in the life of the nation', given at Third Biennial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 214.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mental Health Conference, 22?25 Nov. 1933, printed in )] TJ ET BT 335.636 214.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mental Hygiene)] TJ ET BT 412.616 214.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8 Jan. 1934, 8?10, at p. 8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 200.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 199.107 m 118.004 199.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 186.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 186.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Johnstone, 'The case for dementia praecox', )] TJ ET BT 288.944 186.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Mental Science)] TJ ET BT 415.256 186.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1909\), p. 55, cited in Peter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 171.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barham, )] TJ ET BT 108.008 171.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Lunatics)] TJ ET BT 200.348 171.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 140.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.348 171.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.348 170.595 m 293.336 170.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 157.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also Barham?s description of D. W. Winnicott, p.164.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.980 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.980 156.339 m 396.968 156.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 131.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 105.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is grateful to Jonathan Toms for his review and pleased to accept his considered and sympathetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of )] TJ ET BT 87.332 90.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War)] TJ ET BT 264.332 90.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.709 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 50.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 36.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/forgotten-lunatics-of-the-great-war-by-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 34.803 m 534.248 34.803 l S BT 34.016 21.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peter-barham-6158273.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 20.547 m 168.992 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