%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930221655+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930221655+01'00') /Title (The Lights That Failed. European International History, 1919?1933) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4795 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Lights That Failed. European International History, 1919?1933)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(International historians have been waiting a long time for this book. Their anticipation of the volume is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony to the esteem with which Zara Steiner?s contribution to the field is held. The good news is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume has been worth the wait; the bad news is that the wait is not quite over, for volume two covering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years from 1933 to 1939 is still in production. Researching and writing international history on this scale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands patience from the author and her audience as it is a considerable undertaking. )] TJ ET BT 453.584 316.091 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lights that Failed)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws on a variety of archival materials housed in four countries and on a literature published in at least six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different languages. While it eschews a recent pre-occupation of the field with the cultural aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international diplomacy with its predominate focus on economic and political relations, the array of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries, personalities, themes and events covered is enormous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the great strengths of the book is that it is far more than a history of relations between Europe?s great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers. The harsh realities of economic and security politics and the way that both elements challenge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctity of national frontiers, meant that Europe?s larger powers played the dominant role in European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations in the interwar period. So too did nations that wielded considerable economic power, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States, or strategic influence, such as Japan. But in this volume Steiner makes a major contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field in her treatment of Europe?s ?lesser powers?, as they were demeaningly called at the time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavia, particularly the contribution of Norwegian diplomats, Fridtjof Nansen and Christian Lange, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the central and eastern European countries of Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Greece, to give but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few examples, receive far greater attention than they have been given in previous international histories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period. Steiner?s lucid treatment of the what became of the ?broken shards? of the Habsburg Empire will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be invaluable to anyone left confused by Margaret MacMillan?s account of the impact of )] TJ ET BT 464.588 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Peacemakers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Eastern and Central Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s narrative structure makes its ideal for the novice reader, while the lucid and engaging prose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(489)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zara Steiner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Clavin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7542 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensures that the coverage in its 938 pages is exhaustive not exhausting. The book is divided into two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unequally sized parts: the first focusing on Europe?s reconstruction in the years between 1918 and 1929, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second, addressing what Steiner calls the ?hinge years? of 1929?33, that cover the catastrophic impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great Depression, the failure of a Disarmament conference that had been nine years in the planning, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Manchurian crisis that ?has come to be seen as part of a nationalist upsurge against a western-created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of internationalism? \(p.707\). The ?hinge years? determined that the doors of Europe that had swung )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open after the First World War ? favouring a reduction of barriers within Europe with regard to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of goods, money, people and ideas ? slammed firmly shut by 1933.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book brings together the latest scholarship in the field, an impressive achievement given the length of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gestation and the range of topics addressed. In her preface, Steiner acknowledges ?the generosity of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow historians? as ?quite amazing?, but it is also rare to find an established scholar who is so interested in, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and determined to understand, what her peers and her students have had to say. The overview of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography in the book makes it invaluable for anyone teaching or studying the period. The chapters on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work of the League of Nations, the failure of disarmament negotiations and the economic diplomacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great Depression best illustrate the thematic and technical range of the book. The League?s contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the fields of healthcare, ?white-slavery? \(read prostitution\) and drug control take the reader in a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different direction to the standard pre-occupation with the League?s disarmament work that invariably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominates synthetic accounts. The importance of disarmament, however, is not ignored. Indeed, anyone who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has struggled to understand the significance of the Geneva Protocol, armament ratios and conference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy need look no further. The book?s thematic sub-plots also hold much to interest the advanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student of period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in the thematic sections that the core of Steiner?s argument lies. In common with other recent studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1920s, she has sought to draw out that the period is more than pure prelude to the Second World War: ?It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a post-war not a pre-war decade.? \(p. 602\) Although the First World War was less destructive than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War in terms of lives lost and property destroyed, Steiner argues that the tasks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction contained opportunities and costs for Europe. After the First World War, the range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, social and political challenges combined with the emergence of new national frontiers and power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations forced statesmen, and very occasionally women, to find new solutions to the task of reconstruction. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, many clung to the traditional ideas and diplomatic methods of the past and this often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermined their best efforts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The phenomenon is best illustrated through the history of League of Nations which was seen to be on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascent until 1929. Before the First World War states alone were considered to be subject to international law. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the creation of the League inaugurated a new kind or organisation based on international law which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though neither a state nor a federal union, was a legal entity with rights, obligations, institutions, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanent staff and a budget of its own. It was also open to all nations of the world that met its criteria for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership. There certainly had never been a world body like it before, although the League gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together a lot of ideas and practises from the past. There was novelty too in the fact that so many problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formerly deemed to be solely of national concern were now considered fit for international discussion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National delegates came to Geneva to consider a huge variety of questions and the hope of League )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasts was that national delegates would begin to look beyond the strictly national perspective and act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as members of a wider transnational community of global citizens.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 353.972 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 353.972 188.835 m 367.964 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it came to the League?s central ambition ?to preserve peace from all risk of outrage?, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League?s efforts were constrained by the methods of traditional diplomacy. As a result, the League did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove to be a substitute for great-power politics, but rather worked as an adjunct to them; indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League?s constitution meant it struggled to be more than the sum of its national parts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.652 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.652 119.811 m 459.644 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.644 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The problems the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League faced in making an effective contribution to European peace are amply illustrated in a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters, including an excellent account of the Manchurian Crisis of 1931.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The League of Nations is one of a number of ?lights? Steiner identifies in the international history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s that, had they remained empowered, would have illuminated paths other than the road to war. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 353.9717 189.1495 367.9637 201.0295 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.6517 120.1255 459.6437 132.0055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7799 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Additional positive developments of the period included the Paris Peace Conference?s emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy, the economic and monetary stabilisation of the mid-1920s and the impact of the Locarno )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treaties. But, as Steiner?s conclusion to part one of the book makes clear, these lights were flickering at best: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extension of democracy was accompanied by the poisoned chalice of self-determination, economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monetary stabilisation was secured on the flawed operation of the gold standard, and Locarno failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address the problem of Eastern European security. Steiner could have taken her exploration of ?the lights? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further. It would have been interesting to hear how far these positive developments shaped diplomacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the 1920s in, for example, the reconstruction decades of the 1940s and the 1990s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would have been valuable too, particularly from a teaching perspective, for Steiner to have placed her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account within the established historiography. Her assertion that her book ?rests on the highly unfashionable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premise that history is more than a simple expression of opinion about the past? does not reflect the degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which the author has engaged with new ways of thinking about international history. Her sensitivity to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds, imagined and real, within which statesmen and nations operated, to the transnational communities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government advisors who influenced governments, and to questions of gender and ethnicity, identify this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book clearly as a product of the twenty-first century. There is also awareness that international encounters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are a reflection of domestic social conditions and ideologies. Although Steiner does not speak directly to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current fashion among international historians for describing foreign policy as the cultural product of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country, when relevant she adopts this methodology to great effect. Her reconstruction of Wilson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldview explains why he could seriously claim to Congress in 1919 that America?s mission at the Paris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peace Conference was ?to redeem the world and make it fit for free men like ourselves to live in? \(p. 35\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occasionally, however, Steiner could have paid more attention to her own assumptions. The implied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of Steiner?s Europe are interesting, for example, for it they do include Russia \(many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary commentators would have certainly frowned upon this\), but exclude Turkey. How far does the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Europe? described in this book match representations and expectations of European foreign policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced in the interwar period? Were there any distinguishing features when it comes to the foreign policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectives of European powers compared to those pursued by other parts of the world? Sally Marks has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently defined this period as delineating the ?Ebbing of European ascendancy?; it will be interesting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read Steiner?s conclusions in volume two about what the history of European diplomacy in this period tells )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us about its place in the wider world.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.328 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.328 371.907 m 225.320 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 225.320 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is testament to the realities of power-politics of the period that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to accounts of Europe?s international history in the late nineteenth century, Steiner makes so little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention of Africa \(except North Africa\), Central and South America, and the Indian Sub-continent. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inference is that Europe had become more inward looking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not only on the question of geography that it would have been interesting to see more of the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasoning laid bare. At a time when many international history courses are being converted to world history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it would have been fascinating to learn a little more of how the local, national and regional connect to one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another in the development of European diplomacy, and how Europe?s north, south, east and west related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one another. The history of Central and Eastern Europe in the 1990s has taught us, for example, that as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern European ties to the West have grown stronger, connections within the region itself have weakened, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes to damaging effect. Was the same true in the decade of reconstruction of the 1920s?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final two related questions are the most fundamental and difficult for students and practitioners of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy \(and according to current thinking we are all diplomats now\): what are the objectives of foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy and how should they be met? In other words, what is foreign policy and how is it made? )] TJ ET BT 493.292 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(That Failed)] TJ ET BT 90.356 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is very informative as to the ambitions of European countries in their foreign policy, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be interesting to learn more about Steiner?s views as to why some countries are more successful in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the formulation and prosecution of their foreign policy than others. In what ways do the different elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic power, military strength, strategic position and political influence determine that one country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plays a larger role in fashioning the international history of Europe than another? How far were governments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the mercy of forces, notably the movement of money, goods and diseases, over which they had little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control? The account of the ?hinge years? in part two certainly draws out the degree to which both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic nations and the ?system? of international relations struggled and failed to meet the challenges )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.3277 372.2215 225.3197 384.1015 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 6131 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before them. Do pressure groups, of which there was a considerable variety in the interwar period, play any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role at all in shaping the development of international relations? And finally, how important was the quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of leadership in determining the outcome of events? The book contains some wonderful pen portraits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European statesmen of the interwar period who were a much more varied, talented and eccentric group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men than the familiar monochrome photographs of moustached figures in morning suits of the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convey. At key moments, the negotiation of the Locarno treaties and the Lausanne Conference, to give but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two examples, their impact was decisive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lights That Failed)] TJ ET BT 144.368 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( certainly underlines the idea that it is time to lay to rest the old distinction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic and international history. Traditionally, international history was seen to privilege, or at least to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider at length, the international environment over the inherently national character of diplomatic history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although diplomatic history, too, was profoundly shaped by power relations, it often took the structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which determine the questions of international history as a given. This book draws richly on both traditions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It also makes an important challenge to the criticism that both diplomatic and international history have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added little to our understanding of the varied connections between nation-states by focusing too much on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of war and peace.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.976 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.976 583.491 m 180.968 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 180.968 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although inevitably dominated by the experience of war and peace, Steiner?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume is able to demonstrate, nonetheless, the rich and varied connections that bound European countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to one another and to the wider world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Webster, ?The transnational dream: politicians, diplomats and soldiers in the League of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nations? pursuit of international disarmament, 1920?1938?, )] TJ ET BT 355.316 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary European History)] TJ ET BT 514.640 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14.4 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2005\), 493?518.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.336 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.336 460.947 m 200.324 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Clavin and Jens-Wilhelm Wessels, ?Transnationalism and the League of Nations: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the work of its economic and financial organisation?, )] TJ ET BT 393.296 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary European History)] TJ ET BT 552.620 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.4 \(2005\), 465?92.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.336 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.336 418.179 m 218.324 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sally Marks, )] TJ ET BT 128.348 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ebbing of European Ascendancy. An International History of the World, 1914?1945)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.664 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.664 389.667 m 193.652 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kiran Klaus Patel, ?berlegungen zu einer transnationalen Geschichte?, )] TJ ET BT 413.924 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zeitschrift fr )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichtswissenschaft)] TJ ET BT 177.344 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 52.7 \(2004\), 626?45, 633.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.664 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.664 361.155 m 361.652 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank Dr Clavin for her incisive review. Some of the questions raised in the review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are ones which she hopes to address in the second volume, currently in preparation, where she also intends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to comment more extensively on her methodology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 262.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 244.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 244.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/489)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 243.369 m 322.316 243.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 218.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2850)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.9757 583.8055 180.9677 595.6855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 146.3357 461.2615 200.3237 473.1415 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.3357 418.4935 218.3237 430.3735 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.6637 389.9815 193.6517 401.8615 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.6637 361.4695 361.6517 373.3495 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 243.6835 322.3157 255.5635 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/489) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000005497 00000 n 0000005606 00000 n 0000005716 00000 n 0000005825 00000 n 0000009386 00000 n 0000009514 00000 n 0000009598 00000 n 0000009689 00000 n 0000017284 00000 n 0000017314 00000 n 0000017442 00000 n 0000017478 00000 n 0000017508 00000 n 0000017636 00000 n 0000017672 00000 n 0000017756 00000 n 0000025608 00000 n 0000025638 00000 n 0000025766 00000 n 0000025802 00000 n 0000025921 00000 n 0000032105 00000 n 0000032135 00000 n 0000032263 00000 n 0000032299 00000 n 0000032427 00000 n 0000032482 00000 n 0000032610 00000 n 0000032665 00000 n 0000032793 00000 n 0000032829 00000 n 0000032957 00000 n 0000032993 00000 n 0000033121 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33216 %%EOF