%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141228025855+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141228025855+00'00') /Title (The Common Roots of Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4738 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Common Roots of Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bronislaw Geremek needs no introduction to the international community of historians. In 1995, at the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congress of the International Association of Historians, in Montreal the first plenary session was opened by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an hour long video recorded with him, how he sees history being both its expert analyst and also a prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actor in the past decades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a medievalist, Geremek was a dedicated chronicler of medieval Paris craftsmen, of urban and rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginals, vagabonds, of the mighty judicial machinery controlling this troublesome crowd throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history \(cf. his principal books: )] TJ ET BT 187.340 218.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le salariat dans l?artisanat parisien aux XIIIe-XVe siecles)] TJ ET BT 470.324 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paris: Mouton, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1968.; )] TJ ET BT 67.352 204.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les marginaux parisiens aux XIVe et Xve siecles)] TJ ET BT 300.980 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paris: Flammarion, 1976.; )] TJ ET BT 432.320 204.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Truands et miserables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dans l?Europe moderne 1350-1600 )] TJ ET BT 207.332 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris: Gallimard, 1980.; )] TJ ET BT 325.664 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La potence ou la pitie. L?Europe et ses pauvres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(du Moyen Age a nos jours)] TJ ET BT 159.668 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paris: Gallimard, 1987.\) At the same time he also stood for a methodological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewal of Polish historiography, adopting above all the novelties of the French ,school of the Annales", )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what they called ,nouvelle histoire". He inspired and directed the researches of a number of colleagues and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pupils, producing a real renewal of Polish medieval studies, well reflected by the recently published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis: )] TJ ET BT 84.356 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kultura Polski Sredniowiecznej XIV-XV v)] TJ ET BT 285.008 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Polish medieval culture, 14th-15th centuries\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Warszawa: Semper, 1997\), which was already achieved in the 1980s, but prevented from being published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then because Geremek was its principal editor. For Geremek, as is well known, was not satisfied in only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining history, he wanted to make history as well. As another great medievalist, Marc Bloch before him, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he did not hesitate to become actively involved in dangerous clandestine fights for the liberty, as one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 March, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bronislaw Geremek)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745611211)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(194pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gbor Klaniczay)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7590 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal advisers of Walesa in the Solidarity movement, he became a symbol of intellectual resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the socialist system. And after the collapse of this system, where he again played a strategic role at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ,round-table negotiations", he continued to be involved into politics, assuming important positions in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sejm, in various political parties, and recently becoming the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A Polish medievalist scholar, who made his fame by writing excellent works rather on the whole of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval and early modern Europe than only on his closer homeland and his narrower field of expertise. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish politician, who is presently in charge of guiding the process of the reintegration of his country to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. His book )] TJ ET BT 121.340 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Common Roots of Europe)] TJ ET BT 266.672 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a collection of studies, which was first published in Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1991 should have an appeal both for medievalists and experts of present political processes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second half of the Eighties, when changes began to take shape, and the term "Europe" came to be used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to indicate a political trend rather than a geographical place, this is what Edgar Morin wrote about his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues of Eastern Europe in his book )] TJ ET BT 233.648 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Penser l?Europe)] TJ ET BT 314.636 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Contrary to appearances, European culture is by no means on the decline in the East; it is there regenerating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself... It is necessary to be cut off from Europe, wrenched from it, to be as deeply aware of belonging to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe as those Czechoslovak writers, emigres in New York after 1968, who, as they went on holiday, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France or to Italy, would say ?we?re going home?". \(quoted by Geremek, p. 3.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For arriving to this recognition, in Western Europe it was probably indispensable to read Czeslaw Milosz or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milan Kundera. But in Eastern Europe all this needn?t be explained or justified in a special way, we do share )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this common self-perception of being and remaining Europeans even in difficult times when this affiliation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is endangered, challenged or even denied to us. On the other hand, it is less obvious how we relate to each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other?s more detailed conceptions about being European, and in a more specific manner, Central or Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European. The new book of Bronislaw Geremek gives a good opportunity for me to compare his broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions with those of other Central European colleagues, and, above all the Hungarian point of view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is the most familiar to me.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungarian evaluation of Europe, as represented foremost in the works of the political essayist Istvn Bib )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1911-1979\), and the historians Istvn Hajnal \(1892-1956\), Lszl Makkai \(1914-1989\) and Jeno Szcs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1928-1988\) has been trying to concentrate its attention above all to find and evaluate our own place within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of our continent. For achieving this, it was relying upon the concept of the continuous change of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borderlines between the various ,historical regions" of Europe, on the insights gained from political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, social and cultural comparative analysis, on the examination of the different patterns of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmission, on the problem of "backwardness" and on the conclusions coming from structurally elaborated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general models of development. \(Good examples in this case are: Istvn Bib: )] TJ ET BT 412.292 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Misere des petits Etats de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(l?Europe de)] TJ ET BT 93.008 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( l?Est", written in 1946, published in French in 1986 /Paris: Harmattan/; Istvan Hajnal, Az ujkor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tortenete,)] TJ ET BT 79.004 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The History of Early Modern Times)] TJ ET BT 253.664 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Budapest, 1939; Lszl Makkai, )] TJ ET BT 415.316 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les caracteres originaux de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(l?histoire economique et sociale de l?Europe orientale pendant le Moyen Age)] TJ ET BT 408.632 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , Acta Historica Academiae )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scientiarum Hungaricae, 16 /1970/ pp. 261-287.; Jeno Szcs, )] TJ ET BT 331.316 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 352.316 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(t)] TJ ET BT 355.652 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hree historical regions of Europe)] TJ ET BT 515.648 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Acta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 29 /1983/ pp. 131-184.\) If one takes Geremek?s book in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, what strikes the Hungarian reader at first is that Geremek \(who knows and cites Bib and Szcs\) starts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his analysis exactly from the opposite point of view. For approaching the problematic of Poland?s place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, he makes an attempt first to define the place of the image of Western Europe in Polish historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geremek?s historiographic survey presents to the reader the range of topics examined by the Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medievalists as well as their results since the pioneering works of Joachim Lelewel, since the second half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last century. And what is perhaps even more important: we get an overall view showing us that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of European and national history were not two segregated disciplines in university education and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice, as has been the case in Hungary and many other East European countries. They had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigated as two inseparable aspects of the same medieval world by Polish economic, social and cultural )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8050 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. This is equally true for Marceli Handelsman dealing with the Europe of the Carolingians and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birth of Eastern Europe, or his disciple Oscar Halecki writing on )] TJ ET BT 346.628 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Borderlands of Western Civilization. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of East Central Europe)] TJ ET BT 184.688 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ronald, New York, 1952\) or ,)] TJ ET BT 335.660 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Millennium of Europe)] TJ ET BT 462.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notre Dame Press, 1963\) or a number of subsequent Polish historians, such as Witold Kula \()] TJ ET BT 478.964 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thorie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conomique du systme fodal. Pour un modle de l?conomie polonaise XVIe?XVIIIe sicle)] TJ ET BT 480.584 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Mouton, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris?La Haye, 1970.\) or Marian Malowist, studying economical relations at the end of the Middle Ages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early Modern times, Henryk Samsonowicz dealing with urban history and the notion of Europe \()] TJ ET BT 500.288 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Miejsce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Polski w Europie )] TJ ET BT 119.684 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([The Place of Poland in Europe], Bellona, Warszawa, 1995\), great names of Art History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Jan Bialostocki or Piotr Skubiszewski; or experts in intellectual and religious history such as Tadeusz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mannteufel, Aleksander Gieysztor \(Alexander Gieysztor?Tadeusz Manteuffel /eds./, )] TJ ET BT 442.568 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Europe aux Xe-XIe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(siecles. Aux origines des Etats nationaux.)] TJ ET BT 233.672 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Warszawa, 1968.; Tadeusz Manteuffel, )] TJ ET BT 428.276 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La naissance d?une )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hrsie. Les adeptes de la pauvrete volontaire au moyen age)] TJ ET BT 324.632 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Mouton, Paris - La Haye, 1970.\) or Jerzy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kloczowski \()] TJ ET BT 98.336 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(East-Central Europe in the Historiography of the Countries of the Region)] TJ ET BT 453.008 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Lublin: Institute of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East Central Europe, 1995.\) On the whole the richness of the results of the Polish medieval studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning European topics is fascinating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second article in Geremek?s book provides a concrete illustration, how medieval European and Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects could be interwoven. He touches here one of the popular research subjects of the last decades, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genre of the exemplum as used in medieval sermons. The investigation of these exempla, situated on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(margins between two cultures?the elite culture of the Church and the popular culture" of the lay people - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a good opportunity to show how medieval European Christianity came to be unified by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms of the spread of culture. The richness of the Polish sources illustrating the characteristics of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Christian folklore demonstrates without any further doubts that in the late Middle Ages people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were brought up in the frames of a very similar international culture both in Western and Eastern Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But did they really have this feeling? Or is it only a posterior classification forced by the searchers on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world partitioned in small, self-sustaining units, divided by ethnic groups, language, traditions and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependence? The third study of the book "The Common Bond and the Feeling of Community in Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe" raises one of the most important questions. The historical syntheses treating the birth of Europe in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Middle Ages are not well justified until we don?t know what medieval people thought of Europe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how they saw it: Europe as a geographical entity, Europe as a common cultural tradition and as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation. What gives the principal line of the argumentation of Geremek?s book is the detailed picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the formation of self-evaluation in the Middle Ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The topics he passes in review are well-known, important moments of the evolution of medieval West: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of the heritage of the Roman Empire \(and within all this the works of Henri Pirenne dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Mediterranean and the effects of the Arabic invasion\); the political efforts of the Carolingian Empire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unite Europe \(Charlemagne came to be called "king and father of Europe" - rex et pater Europae \) which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went together with a geographical vision in terms of large, continental units, as testified by Alcuin; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unifying force and expansion of Latin Christianitas, the missionary efforts, the pilgrimages and the crusades. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But reading Geremek?s work we have to marvel, how little common understanding or even history writing is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware of the importance of these historical factors in the formation of Europe as a community. Crusades for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, besides their political, religious and economic functions had a very strong effect on cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homogenisation provoked by the mass migration of crusaders throughout Europe. Subsequently, from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13th century, after the failure of the reconquest of the Holy Land, a more realistic expectation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulated to the political leaders of the res publica christiana: the responsibility of the prevention of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tartar and later on the Ottoman invasion threatening Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The mobilisation all over Europe in connection with the ,timor tartarorum" had little practical effect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative experiences of the Polish and the Hungarian have much in common concerning this, not to mention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Eastern part of Europe. Useless to say, that the balance was similar in the case of the Ottoman expansion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Geremek points to the fact that it was perhaps in connection with this trauma that in the 14th and 15th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries there was more discussion of Europe than ever before. Due to their key position the Polish and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungarian were given a special role in the elaboration of a new concept of a Europe facing serious dangers )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7950 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the outside. The evil forces threatening the world - that is European Christianity - are arranged into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific geographic system in the apocalyptic discourse written around 1440 by the Polish Carthusian monk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jakub z Paradyza dealt with in a separate study by Geremek. The concept of the shield \(scutum\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ramparts \(antemurale\) protecting Christianity began to spread around that time as well and all this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied by the re-evaluation of former Eastern identities, and the formation of ever-lasting debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning Scythian and Sarmatian self-consciousness, Orthodox Christianity, the recognition or non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition of the Russian territories expanding towards Asia, as parts of Europe. At the same time it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to see that in the Western half of Europe this was the period when a new consensus took shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning a value and community bound understanding of European civilisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geremek, the social historian does not fail to remind us that this community had to be based upon the socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic structures present in Europe that time. Economic relations established between medieval towns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international networks of monastic and mendicant orders or those of the late medieval knightly orders, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the international high society of aristocracy arranged in neat patterns within the institutions of courtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society and political representation. In the period of the fragmentation of medieval universalities - papacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and imperial power - the notion of Europe became the new organising frame. This is what we hear about in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reform-movements organising universal councils to solve ecclesiastic debates. It is at this time that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Christianity elaborated its modern self-perception as a community of nations with a diversity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions. This enrichment in contents can explain the fact that in the 15th century geographical reflection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on various continents became so popular, and shown in the works of Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini or Maciej )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miechowita. Europe was ready to "discover" America and to shape the world to her own image.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is only after analysing thoroughly the elaboration of the new concept of Europe that Geremek returns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("home", to the "place of Poland in the cultural geography of Medieval Europe". The emerging picture fits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neatly into the frames of the book elaborated earlier. After well taking into consideration the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation of Slavic cultures and the analysis of their inner divisions, Geremek points out the variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new ties relating them more and more intensively to Europe. The enumeration could begin with the special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political role of the Holy Roman Empire in the process of attaching Poland to the West, then continue with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the summing up of all the cultural effects that reached the Polish through missionary German priests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German and French wandering knights fighting together with Polish soldiers, the German. Jewish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walloon citizens of medieval Polish towns, and finally by paying a tribute to the Italian artists and humanists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living in their princely courts. It was due to all these relations that the ,latinisation" of Piast Poland led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same synthesis as the one at the time of the romanisation and later on the Christianisation of Celtic Gaul in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West. Thus Poland became one of the pillars of the new Europe in formation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this point Geremek would have probably been very glad, had he been acquainted with the similar theses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jeno Szcs on the parallels between two processes of conversion and latinisation, that of the Western and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Eastern Barbarians in the Middle Ages \(Jeno Szcs, )] TJ ET BT 316.964 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nation und Geschichte. Studien)] TJ ET BT 468.956 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Corvina, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Budapest, 1981; idem, )] TJ ET BT 145.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A magyar nemzeti tudat kialakulsa. Kt tanulmny a krds elotrtnetbol)] TJ ET BT 512.984 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of Hungarian National Consciousness\) Szeged, 1992.; cf. Gbor Klaniczay )] TJ ET BT 446.936 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(People and "Nation" : )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A unfinished inquiry into the genesis of two concepts, )] TJ ET BT 293.348 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Budapest Review of Books 4 /1994/ pp. 25-29.\) The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works of Szcs, and other Hungarian historians could certainly have provided interesting material also for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problem of subsequent resurgence of the consciousness of Oriental origins, such as the myth of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descendence of the Hungarians from the Huns \(cf. Jeno Szcs, )] TJ ET BT 337.268 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theoretical Elements in master Simon of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kza?s Gesta Hungarorum)] TJ ET BT 165.344 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1282-1285 a.d.Akadmiai, Budapest, 1975.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same could be said about the ample set of Hungarian studies concerning the problem of the fight against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ottoman aggression \(who are labelled in the book of Geremek the same way as Turks" as in Hungarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography this erroneous designation belongs unfortunately to the terminological habits of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures\). Just to mention a single example: Geremek makes a detailed reference to the famous account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgius de Hungaria, but he does not take into account its various Hungarian analyses such as the one by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florio Banfi \(Fra Giorgio di Settecastelli O.P. detto Georgius de Hungaria", in Memorie Domenicane, 1939, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 130-141, 202-209\); or Lajos Tardy \()] TJ ET BT 226.652 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rabok, kvetek, kalmrok az oszmn birodalomrl )] TJ ET BT 473.288 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Prisoners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassadors, merchants on the Ottoman Empire\), Budapest, Gondolat, 1977.\) But these are really minor )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2848 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omissons, and testify rather to the linguistic difficulties we have to face here in Central Europe despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close co-operation of our intellectuals and the common problematic we have to explain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Looking at Geremek?s synthetic view-for this is where we get after reading through his collection of studies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are well concluded by a modern political essay where the medievalist who became a politician, speaks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about The Nation-State in Twentieth Century Europe - the Hungarian historiography could learn from him a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bit more self-confidence we generally show. While we are all too frequently stuck with complexes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inferiority expressed by the "delayed", "imperfect", "bastard" versions of Western civilisation in our region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(a view partly shared by Bib and Szcs as well\), Geremek presents a balanced parallel between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of Western and Eastern Europe with due elegance and respect for all its different varieties. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is able to convinc his readers that his own central European civilisation merits the same respect and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention. In international history-writing there have been large-scale initiatives to investigate how Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to be what she is, and who "made" this Europe \(such as the series )] TJ ET BT 379.076 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Faire l?Europe - The Birth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe )] TJ ET BT 72.344 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited by Jacques Le Goff\). But very few are those who managed to make such a convincing claim, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that today?s Europe is the common child of West and East.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 553.903 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 536.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 536.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/49)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 534.729 m 316.316 534.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 509.752 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/423)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 535.0435 316.3157 546.9235 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/49) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000536 00000 n 0000000618 00000 n 0000005408 00000 n 0000005517 00000 n 0000005627 00000 n 0000005736 00000 n 0000009297 00000 n 0000009425 00000 n 0000009509 00000 n 0000009574 00000 n 0000017217 00000 n 0000017282 00000 n 0000025385 00000 n 0000025450 00000 n 0000033453 00000 n 0000033537 00000 n 0000036438 00000 n 0000036566 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36660 %%EOF