%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141127041823+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141127041823+00'00') /Title (Napoleon and the British) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5153 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Napoleon and the British)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The literature on the role of the French as ?other? in the formation of a British national identity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century is probably not as rich as many readers might think.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.636 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.636 328.953 m 388.628 328.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 388.628 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, the literature on French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglophobia seems a little more sustained.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.668 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.668 314.697 m 254.660 314.697 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.660 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Semmel?s work, which looks at the impact of Napoleon on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British political and cultural discourse, makes a valuable contribution to the former. That Napoleon made an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on British society is hardly surprising considering the length of the wars. That he was often used by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponents of the government \(radicals for the most part\) in support of a reform agenda, and that he had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?positive? influence on that discourse is a little more unexpected.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-French rivalry was, of course, a long-standing feature of European diplomatic and commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations during the eighteenth century, to the point where some historians refer to the Napoleonic Wars as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last phase of the ?Second Hundred Years? War? that only finally, and decisively, came to an end at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle of Waterloo.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.328 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.328 188.649 m 138.320 188.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 138.320 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One of the more interesting aspects of this rivalry is that, according to Semmel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon, and to a lesser extent France, provided Britain with a yardstick by which it could measure its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national character. Napoleon, argues Semmel, ?unsettled Britons? certitudes about their enemy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves? \(p. 6\). Indeed, Napoleon?s own character and ethnic identity were so open to interpretation that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is said to have inaugurated a ?new, more equivocal phase in British thinking about France? \(p. 6\) in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process. It was almost as though Napoleon was held up as a kind of mirror and that, depending on who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking into it, the image was seen as either a positive or a negative reflection of the British political system. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Put another way, Napoleon was such an ambiguous character that political commentators in Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depending on whether they were radicals or loyalists, could see in him either tyrant or liberal, either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate or illegitimate ruler, either sans-culotte or destroyer of the Revolution. In fact, the British found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(490)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 December, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart Semmel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0300090013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Dwyer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.6357 329.2675 388.6277 341.1475 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.6677 315.0115 254.6597 326.8915 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.3277 188.9635 138.3197 200.8435 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7534 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many different ways of interpreting Napoleon, but let me focus on just a few examples from Semmel?s work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, Napoleon complicated British thinking about its own national identity. In the opening chapter of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, the reader gets a detailed analysis of the types of epithets that were used to describe Napoleon. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Corsican usurper? was one of the more common. This questioned Napoleon?s legitimacy not only because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his ethnic origins ? he was born outside of France ? but also the means by which he had attained power. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That much is pretty straightforward. Semmel takes this a little further, however, by arguing that as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence, Napoleon ?unsettled relations?, and complicated the ?traditional dichotomies drawn between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and France? \(pp. 15?6\), and in so doing, blurred British conceptions of national identity. If we accept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semmel?s argument, reasonable enough in itself, we are left wondering what implications this has for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of British national identity. If Napoleon threw Britons? \(and by this he essentially means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English \(pp. 7?9, 15?7\)\), perceptions of themselves into doubt, if Napoleon raised questions about Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own destiny, then this is important, according to Semmel, because it was at the origins of a debate about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political legitimacy and constitutional reform in Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Questions over Napoleon?s legitimacy ? largely arising out of the manner in which he came to power, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, through a coup, and what the British referred to as the transformation of a republic into a military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorship ? led radicals and reformers to question George III?s right to rule, but it also led to questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the English Revolution of 1688, as well as the Hanoverian succession. The British, after all, went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through their own crisis of legitimacy, in part brought about by George III?s mental illness, when a regency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was established in 1811. British radicals thus used Napoleon ?as a cudgel? with which they rebuked their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own rulers \(p. 135\). Indeed, they continued to question their own rulers even after it was evident that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon was defeated. One of the last chapters in the book \(pp. 175?99\), covering the period between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon?s first abdication \(1814\) and his death while in exile on St Helena \(1821\), roughly coincides with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a period of radicalism and protest against state corruption in Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Loyalists \(as opposed to radicals\), on the other hand, were often able to use Napoleon to defend the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, but even they seem to have been permeated by self-doubt and anxiety. Loyalist pamphlets during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the invasion scare of 1803, for example, often questioned the nature of the English character \(the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of chapter 2\) to the point where Semmel concludes that the British self-portrait was ?ambivalent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic, and troubled? \(p. 40\). In this part of his study, Semmel uses contemporary English broadsides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and caricatures \(most of them anti-Napoleonic\) as a window not only onto popular English conceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon, but also onto the ?deep unease of the loyalist mind? \(p. 54\). As the author is all too aware, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, these broadsides \(many examples of which are given\) were not of the people, but rather addressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to them. It is difficult, therefore, to get a sense of what people thought of either the broadsides or Napoleon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the broadsides seem to express an underlying fear that Britain had somehow reached its peak and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was now in decline \(p. 66\). The conclusion drawn by Semmel is that a ?deep, seemingly inescapable anxiety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the state of the British nation ran rampant? in the early years of Napoleon?s reign \(p. 70\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just as the British had trouble defining Napoleon politically, not to mention his national identity, so too did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have trouble understanding his religious significance, largely because he refused to fit into any simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category. Was he anti-Catholic? His behaviour in Italy in 1796?7 led some to think so, but then how does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one account for the Concordat? Was he restoring Catholicism or destroying it? Certainly, Napoleon?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination of the Catholic Church after 1804 ?cast a shadow over British discussions on the rights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic Catholics? \(pp. 78?9\). But the point Semmel makes is that contemporaries could interpret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon?s religious policies virtually any way they wanted. The onslaught of an atheist Republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government against the Catholic Church, both within France and in other European countries, did not do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything, for example, to appease the anti-Catholic Francophobia that dominated much of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlet and broadside literature of the day. On the contrary, there had been a tendency to displace the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional popular association of the Antichrist with Rome onto Republican France \(p. 76\). It did not take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of a leap, once this pattern had been established, to then project the image of the Antichrist onto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon. It was an image, moreover, that flourished in most parts of Europe, and certainly in Spain and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia after the French invasion of those countries. In Britain, one pamphleteer by the name of Lewis Mayer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? who today would best be categorised as belonging to the religious loony fringe, and who was the author of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 6658 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts like )] TJ ET BT 80.684 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bonaparte, the Emperor of the French, considered as Lucifer and Gog)] TJ ET BT 419.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1806\), and )] TJ ET BT 481.304 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The prophetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mirror or a hint of England, containing an explanation of the prophesy ? proving Bonaparte to be the Beast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1806\) ? counted the number of emperors, popes and heads of state ?alluded to by the horns of St John?s first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beast, Rev. 13? and came to the conclusion that there had to date been 665 ? Napoleon was the 666th \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(83\). It is a delightful example of the identification of Napoleon, or at least Napoleonic France, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devil, and it was not an isolated one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Napoleon was loathed by most loyalists during the wars, all of this was to change after his fall from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power. Increasingly, he came to be seen in a more favourable light by just about everyone, it would seem, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British society. Exile to St Helena and the conditions in which he was kept in captivity had a great deal to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with that. A similar phenomenon was taking place in Restoration France, that is, Napoleon was undergoing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation in the public eye from despot to liberal, largely in reaction to the unpopular Bourbon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.340 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.340 626.259 m 108.332 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 108.332 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In his years in exile \(Napoleon died in 1821\), the British establishment came under fire from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicals \(the subject of chapter 7\) for the manner in which Napoleon was treated. At the heart of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism seems to have been a fear that the Prince Regent would want to imitate his continental counterparts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and undermine the constitution. Napoleon?s exile, in other words, was seen as a threat to existing British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties ? he had been judged and sentenced without any recourse to the law. \(No doubt in contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society Napoleon would fall under some sort of anti-terrorist legislation.\) Critics were unsympathetic to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to detain Napoleon, but even most of those who conceded its necessity objected to the conditions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he was kept. What matters to Semmel, however, is not the actual conditions under which Napoleon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered, but rather the controversy that it created in England at the time and the debate that raged between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicals and loyalists \(p. 212\) over this question. In exile, Napoleon took on renewed interest as a focal point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for political discontent, but this time around he began to be used in moral and even aesthetic questions as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well \(p. 226\). By the 1840s and 1850s, plays, poems and the literature praising Napoleon had become much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more commonplace. The nation that once reviled him now admired him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly an examination of Napoleon?s place in British political and cultural discourse after Waterloo is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable thing ? there is little of any note on this subject ? but it is a shame that the process by which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon was transformed from ogre to popular icon could not have been explained in a little more detail. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That is perhaps my only criticism of this book. Otherwise, Semmel does not fall into the trap of simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepting the print culture of the day ? mainly newspapers and political pamphlets but also caricatures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poems, plays, engravings, paintings and letters ? at face value. There is a thorough analysis of the texts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images selected, and there are many, many examples chosen to illustrate the points that he wants to convey. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is clear from this book is that Napoleon was a subject of controversy in Britain, and had an influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on British political discourse, in ways that we do not see repeated today in the face of the pervading fear in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English-speaking world ? terrorism and the threat of radical Islam. Does this mean that Britain in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century was a more healthy, vibrant, open and democratic society than it is today? That is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking things a little too far, but certainly the lack of a vigorous political opposition, plus the lack of serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introspection, to governments? attempts in the English-speaking world to whittle away long-held individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights before the law, in the name of protecting society from terrorism, is discouraging to say the least. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly, neither the United States nor Australia seems to be wracked with self-doubt and anxiety about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity and one?s place in the world. Is Britain? If only we could hold up our enemy before us in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to reflect on who we are and what our place is in history in the same way that Britons did two hundred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years ago.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.075 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 94.3397 626.5735 108.3317 638.4535 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 5086 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Gerald Newman, )] TJ ET BT 169.316 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of English Nationalism: A Cultural History, 1740?1830)] TJ ET BT 481.676 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1987\); Stella Cotrell, ?The Devil on Two Sticks: Franco-phobia in 1803?, in ed. Raphael Samuel,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patriots: The Making and Unmaking of British National Identity)] TJ ET BT 374.024 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(1989, 3 vols.\), i. 259?74; Linda )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colley, )] TJ ET BT 102.020 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707?1837)] TJ ET BT 297.032 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven and London, 1992\). These works can be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complemented by Robin Eagles, )] TJ ET BT 223.004 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Francophilia in English Society, 1748?1815 )] TJ ET BT 439.004 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2000\). For the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romantic literature see Simon Bainbridge, )] TJ ET BT 272.000 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon and English Romanticism )] TJ ET BT 448.004 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 709.539 m 118.004 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See David A. Bell, ?Jumonville?s death: war propaganda and national identity in eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France?, in ed. Colin Jones and Dror Wahrman, )] TJ ET BT 296.300 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Cultural Revolutions: Britain and France, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1750?1820)] TJ ET BT 118.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Berkeley, 2002\), 33?61; Frances Acomb, )] TJ ET BT 328.640 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglophobia in France: An Essay in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Constitutionalism and Nationalism)] TJ ET BT 283.388 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Durham, NC, 1950\); and its opposite, Josephine )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grieder, )] TJ ET BT 106.664 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglomania in France, 1740?1789: Fact, Fiction, and Political Discourse)] TJ ET BT 464.984 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Geneva, 1985\). )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For British reactions to the Revolution see Norman Hampson, )] TJ ET BT 364.664 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Perfidy of Albion: French )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perceptions of England during the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 322.664 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.972 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.972 609.747 m 470.960 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Franois Crouzet, ?The second Hundred Years? War: some reflections?, )] TJ ET BT 501.224 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 10 \(1997\), 432?50.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.336 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.336 581.235 m 251.324 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Sudhir Hazareesingh, )] TJ ET BT 190.652 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Legend of Napoleon)] TJ ET BT 308.984 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.976 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.976 566.979 m 400.964 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Dr Dwyer for his thoughtful review, and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviews: General Interest Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.napoleon-series.org/reviews/general/c_semmel.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 485.955 m 342.308 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.308 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 482.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 464.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 464.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/490)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 463.449 m 322.316 463.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 438.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2852)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.napoleon-series.org/reviews/general/c_semmel.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 709.8535 118.0037 721.7335 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.9717 610.0615 470.9597 621.9415 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.3357 581.5495 251.3237 593.4295 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.9757 567.2935 400.9637 579.1735 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 486.2695 342.3077 498.1495 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.napoleon-series.org/reviews/general/c_semmel.html) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 463.7635 322.3157 475.6435 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/490) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000527 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000005835 00000 n 0000005944 00000 n 0000006054 00000 n 0000006163 00000 n 0000009724 00000 n 0000009852 00000 n 0000009936 00000 n 0000009965 00000 n 0000010093 00000 n 0000010129 00000 n 0000010158 00000 n 0000010286 00000 n 0000010322 00000 n 0000010351 00000 n 0000010479 00000 n 0000010515 00000 n 0000010580 00000 n 0000018167 00000 n 0000018251 00000 n 0000024962 00000 n 0000024992 00000 n 0000025119 00000 n 0000025155 00000 n 0000025274 00000 n 0000030413 00000 n 0000030540 00000 n 0000030595 00000 n 0000030723 00000 n 0000030778 00000 n 0000030906 00000 n 0000030961 00000 n 0000031089 00000 n 0000031144 00000 n 0000031271 00000 n 0000031383 00000 n 0000031511 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31606 %%EOF