%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818073834+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818073834+01'00') /Title (Russia?s First World War. A Social and Economic History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4674 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Russia?s First World War. A Social and Economic History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The First World War is Russia?s ?forgotten war?. After the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of the war was subsumed into the history of the revolutionary process. The war was a difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject for the new rulers of Soviet Russia, since they viewed it as an expansionist conflict, embarked upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Russia ? and the other European Great Powers ? as an inevitable consequence of their imperialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions. Despite the death of some two million Russian soldiers during the war, the Bolshevik regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated on the events of 1917 in their historical treatment of the period, seeing the war as almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidental to the triumphal progress of the revolutionary movement. Western historians too have given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively little treatment to Russia?s war; the volumes published by the Carnegie Foundation in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s remain the most comprehensive treatment of Russia?s First World War in all its aspects. The military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side of the war was well covered in Norman Stone?s )] TJ ET BT 289.292 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Eastern Front)] TJ ET BT 377.960 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1975\), but until now there has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no satisfactory modern treatment of the social and economic aspect of Russia?s First World War. Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gatrell?s book is therefore especially welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gatrell draws on a very wide range of scholarship ? both Russian and western ? to provide the first single-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume history of the impact of the war on Russian economy and society. He is able to combine discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the national war economy with analysis of the war?s impact on ordinary Russians and thus to give a well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rounded picture of Russia between 1914 and 1917. The book begins with an account of the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension of the war, analysing not just Tsarist military performance but also the direct impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilisation on the population. Gatrell is well placed to appreciate the social impact of the military disasters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that befell Russia in 1914 and 1915: he draws on his outstanding earlier book, )] TJ ET BT 410.984 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Whole Empire Walking: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refugees in Russia during World War One)] TJ ET BT 239.336 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bloomington, 1999\) to discuss the enormous population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(491)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Gatrell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0582328187)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pearson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Waldron)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7861 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displacement that accompanied the Russian retreats of the first two years of the war. More than one fifth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia?s railway wagons were involved in evacuating people and equipment in the summer of 1915 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over half a million peasant households were displaced. Military reverses had a direct impact on the ordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people of Russia and Gatrell gives a vivid depiction of the chaos and confusion that ensued from defeat, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant families had to abandon their farm machinery and other basic items of rural life. This ability to link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wide and seemingly abstract elements of the war to the experience of ordinary Russians is one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengths of Gatrell?s book and gives his narrative an immediacy that brings the experience of war to life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book considers the ways in which the different sections of Russian society reacted to the war, laying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular stress on ?educated society? and the traditional elites. Gatrell suggests that the war again showed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how far apart the government was from educated society, but he is careful not to labour the point. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian social elite remained committed to achieving victory in the war and made significant efforts to assist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the national war effort. Urban and rural local government united around the Union of Towns and the Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Zemstvos, while business established war industries committees to help in the mobilisation of the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. The civilian administration was much less inclined to cooperate with these efforts than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military, allowing the divisions between Russian elites to deepen. The government?s attempts to mobilise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public opinion in support of its conduct of the war had very mixed success. Gatrell suggests that the state?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts merely concentrated the public?s mind on the hardships and difficulties that they were enduring and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the tone of government propaganda was misjudged. Unofficial street literature helped to accentuate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular negative perceptions by focussing on issues such as Rasputin and on the Empress?s German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background, both of which proved difficult for the government to counter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gatrell provides close analysis of the economic elements of Russia?s wartime problems. In some ways, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia was in a strong position to withstand the stresses that war placed on its economy: it had rich reserves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of raw materials and fuel that could have enabled it to provide the additional industrial output that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to sustain its military campaigns. Difficulties arose, however, in transporting raw materials to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main manufacturing centres: the Russian economy was dependent on the railway network and the railways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved unable to cope with the twin demands of transporting soldiers and materials to the front and keeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian manufacturing industry supplied. Labour supply was also a continuing problem for Russia?s war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries. The army took many skilled workers and the stresses on those remaining in factories grew as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war progressed. The First World War was an expensive conflict, requiring sustained expenditure on arms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and military equipment by the state. It cost Russia fifteen times more than the Russo-Japanese war of 1904?5 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the government had to resort to financing the war by taking out loans and printing money. As a result, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inflation roared ahead: Gatrell shows that retail prices in Moscow doubled in the first two years of the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then accelerated dramatically in 1916 and early 1917, more than trebling in twelve months. Russia?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indebtedness grew significantly as the government needed additional finance to keep its war effort going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the policy was also storing up problems for the post-war period. The Bolshevik repudiation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia?s debts after 1917 had a financial, as well as an ideological motive. Russia was able to survive in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite of the problems it encountered with industrial production and the state?s finances. Food supply, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, presented more severe difficulties. The agricultural labour force fell significantly during the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this drop also concealed important changes in the composition of the workforce. By 1916, women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outnumbered men by more than two to one, with many of these men being those who were too old to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscripted into the army. Gatrell shows that, despite this, the levels of agricultural production did not fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatically during the war. Food supply problems arose because government intervention to ensure the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army was fed and to control prices disrupted a sophisticated system of grain distribution. The changes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution of the population brought about by the concentration of the army in the west and the movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of refugees destabilised the distribution system for food. Local authorities attempted to prevent grain leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own regions, while government price controls meant that some peasant farmers were unwilling to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market their grain. Even though, as Gatrell pointed out, there had been more severe food shortages in Russia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the previous twenty-five years, the problems experienced during the war were blamed firmly on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequacy of the government. The demonstrations in Petrograd that sparked the collapse of the Tsarist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime in February 1917 were by people protesting about the regime?s inability to keep them fed. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution that overwhelmed Nicholas II appeared to offer the opportunity for Russian society to coalesce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the new Provisional Government. The political pressures that destroyed any consensus during 1917 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7853 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been exhaustively analysed elsewhere, and Gatrell shows how these strains were reflected in economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues. Ordinary Russians turned on the state and the social elite as political and economic anarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensified across the empire. Their actions were reciprocated: Gatrell quotes Riabushinksii, a prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialist, as arguing that only the ?bony hand of hunger? would quell popular discontent. The failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Provisional Government was comprehensive and opened the way for the Bolshevik seizure of power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October 1917. Four months later, Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in the First World War ended, but civil war and foreign intervention meant that Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia continued to be at war until early 1921. Russia?s withdrawal from the First World War did not give it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any form of economic advantage. The Bolshevik regime was ostracised by the rest of the world and the links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia had developed with Britain and France during the war were broken so that Russia?s trade and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finances were shattered. Gatrell shows how, overall, Russia?s national income dropped by a third during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war years and how gross industrial production halved between 1913 and 1918, with the decrease occurring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely in the final two years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halvy wrote that ?the world crisis of 1914 was not only a war ? the war of 1914 ? but a revolution ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution of 1917')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.504 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.504 583.491 m 139.496 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.496 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Gatrell?s book exemplifies the problems that this conjunction of events presents. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The intertwining of revolution and Russia?s exit from the war makes it very difficult to draw conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the longer-term impact of the First World War on Russia?s economy and society. The disruption that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engulfed Russia after the February revolution and the toppling of the Tsar accelerated a process of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social collapse that had gathered pace during late 1916, but it is impossible to disentangle this from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects of military uncertainty in the wake of the revolution. The ?dual power? of Provisional Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Soviets helped to destabilise Russia?s armed forces, but any judgement on how the Russian army and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy would have performed if revolution had not intervened is pure speculation. Gatrell recognises these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties in his penultimate chapter by concentrating on the issues that were affecting the Russian people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the war progressed: casualties and public health; overall economic performance and the nature of Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of the First World War. His conclusion adopts a comparative perspective, and suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia?s experience during the war was far from unique. Gatrell argues that most of the problems that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia encountered during the war were common to the main combatant states. Each of them had difficulty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in making the change to a war economy and shortages of equipment were not confined to Russia. Food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply was also a problem, especially in Germany and Italy, while violence and revolution were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined to Russia at the end of the war. The German and Austro-Hungarian monarchies collapsed under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight of military defeat; civil war engulfed Ireland and Finland in the aftermath of war while Hungary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced a short-lived revolution. The First World War also exacerbated social tensions across Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gatrell suggests that antagonism grew between social groups as ordinary people grew more and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resentful of the privations that they were enduring, while traditional elites prospered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This comparative framework is in the tradition of writings that explained the war itself as the product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European-wide movements, but while Gatrell recognises that Russia was different from other combatant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states in experiencing a successful revolution, a ?total transformation? \(p. 274\), his explanation for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniqueness is all too brief. He suggests that the revolution of 1905 had left many problems unsolved for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian society, but does not link this argument firmly enough to the effects of war. Gatrell?s impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of evidence about the impact of the war on the economy and society of Russia between 1914 and 1918 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that, while other European states experienced some of the same difficulties as Russia, no other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country endured such a range and intensity of problems. Russian industry found it difficult to transform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself to a war footing, the rural world was hit by the conscription of peasant men into the army and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transport system proved to be inadequate to cope with transporting millions of soldiers and all the equipment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and material they needed to fight a prolonged war. Refugees streamed eastwards during 1914 and 1915 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their tens of thousands, further disrupting a society already strained by war itself. Price inflation intensified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during 1916 and 1917, deepening the economic crisis for ordinary Russians. Gatrell is right that 1905 failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to resolve any of the questions that confronted the Russian state at the beginning of the twentieth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the First World War introduced a further set of political, economic and social issues that made it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible for the Tsarist regime to survive. Russia was unique in both the range and the depth of problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it faced during the war, so that the collapse of political authority after February 1917 was accompanied )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.5037 583.8055 139.4957 595.6855 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 2074 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by economic meltdown and social atomisation. The Bolsheviks found it difficult to commemorate the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the millions who died during it, not just because the October revolution superseded the war, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it was inconvenient to recognise that their own revolution had occurred through the suffering of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary Russians during the war. Bolshevik memorialisation of their revolution stressed the heroic actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their supporters in October 1917, not the privations endured by Russians during years of war that Gatrell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes so well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Halvy, )] TJ ET BT 118.004 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Crisis of 1914?1918: An Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 360.680 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1930\), p. 7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.328 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.328 658.275 m 517.316 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.157 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 588.175 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 570.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 570.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/491)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 569.001 m 322.316 569.001 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.024 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2854)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.3277 658.5895 517.3157 670.4695 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 569.3155 322.3157 581.1955 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/491) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000005366 00000 n 0000005475 00000 n 0000005585 00000 n 0000005694 00000 n 0000009255 00000 n 0000009383 00000 n 0000009467 00000 n 0000009532 00000 n 0000017446 00000 n 0000017530 00000 n 0000025436 00000 n 0000025466 00000 n 0000025594 00000 n 0000025630 00000 n 0000025721 00000 n 0000027848 00000 n 0000027976 00000 n 0000028031 00000 n 0000028159 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28254 %%EOF