%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 32 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021025438+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021025438+01'00') /Title (Counterflows to Colonialism: Indian Travellers and Settlers in Britain, 1600?1857) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5501 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Counterflows to Colonialism: Indian Travellers and Settlers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain, 1600?1857)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While reading Michael Fisher's new book, )] TJ ET BT 240.476 323.219 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Counterflows to Colonialism: Indian Travellers and Settlers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain, 1600?1857)] TJ ET BT 128.024 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which details the diverse experiences of South Asians in Britain, I often found myself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminded of Tayeb Salih's 1969 novel )] TJ ET BT 219.488 294.707 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Season of Migration to the North)] TJ ET BT 378.500 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.496 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.496 293.313 m 391.496 293.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 391.496 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The figure at the heart of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable story, originally written in Arabic, is Mustafa Sa'eed, a man who leaves his native Sudan to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attend school first in Cairo, then in London, where he eventually becomes lecturer in economics. It has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that Mustafa's journey northward, and his turbulent life in Britain, should be seen as an attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverse the dominant 'flow' of European imperialism, and that the novel itself effectively presents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postcolonial 'counter-narrative' to the paradigmatic account of the European imperial project, Joseph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conrad's )] TJ ET BT 79.172 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heart of Darkness)] TJ ET BT 167.828 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the narrative within )] TJ ET BT 271.808 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Season of Migration)] TJ ET BT 369.812 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is recounted from along the banks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the river Nile, rather than upon the river Thames, for example\).\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.600 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.600 193.521 m 347.600 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.600 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Counterflows to Colonialism)] TJ ET BT 172.712 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is in many ways the historical equivalent to Tayeb Salih's novel. Fisher sets out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to trace the 'counterflow' of South Asians to Britain during the rise of British imperialism, the ways these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and women 'participated variously in British society', and how their very presence 'compelled British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses' \(p. 1\). Arguably, Fisher presents in this book a kind of precursor to studies of the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaspora, somewhat in the vein of recent examinations of historical 'globalisation'.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.284 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.284 110.241 m 438.284 110.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.284 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Certainly, at times, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can perceive in the book distant echoes of contemporary debates over asylum and immigration, as when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European sailors complained in the eighteenth century that Asian seamen were taking work away from them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 73\). Some of Fisher's previous work has also touched upon the theme of the early Indian 'diaspora' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe: he has written a biography of Dean Mahomet, an Indian sepoy who settled in Ireland in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(492)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Fisher)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8178241544)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Permanent Black)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delhi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Dodson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.4957 293.6275 391.4957 305.5075 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.5997 193.8355 347.5997 205.7155 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.2837 110.5555 438.2837 122.4355 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8017 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, and later in England, marrying an Anglo-Irish woman, and \(perhaps most importantly\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening the first 'curry house' in London ? the Hindoostanee Coffee House in George Street. Fisher is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the editor of much of Dean Mahomet's writings.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.808 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.808 766.563 m 274.808 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.808 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real strength, and pleasure, of )] TJ ET BT 200.636 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Counterflows to Colonialism)] TJ ET BT 339.332 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are the largely unknown and very interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories of South Asian men and women, and their entangled lives in Britain, which Fisher relates in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail. Fisher is clearly interested, both in this book and in his wider writing, to reassess 'empire' as a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex, fluid, and contested set of practices than is often acknowledged. Indeed, the geographical focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, and the unravelling of 'empire' in Britain, neatly demonstrates that imperialism incorporated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of exchange, negotiation, and contestation \(however uneven\), often in the most unexpected of ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher divides )] TJ ET BT 104.684 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Counterflows)] TJ ET BT 169.364 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into three chronological sections \(1600?1790, 1790?1830, 1830?57\), each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative, he argues, of a particular era in the character of empire. That is, Fisher envisions a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progression from the seventeenth and eighteenth century, with its relatively fluid identity boundaries, to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century which imposed increasingly restrictive identity conditions upon non-Europeans. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked by Fisher to the concordant rise in British imperial self-confidence, territorial expansion, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validation of images of European ascendancy. Yet one of the key arguments Fisher wants to make is that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many cases, throughout much of this period, British perceptions of Indians' 'class', as well as their 'gender', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were often more important determinants of South Asians' social and cultural empowerment, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disempowerment, in Britain than, necessarily, their status as subjects of a 'colonised race'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I agree fundamentally with Fisher's programme in this book, namely, his desire to see empire and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism in a wider perspective, with a greater attention paid to the dynamicism of power, the diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agendas of individuals, and the differential outcomes for different historical actors, which are so often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscured 'underneath' the catch-all umbrella of 'empire'.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.248 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.248 459.699 m 312.248 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 312.248 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) This, certainly, is a step forward from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis upon the variety and extent of colonial power which has for some time been a principal focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historiography of empire in South Asia \(in the work of Bernard Cohn, for example, but more particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in that of Nicholas Dirks\). Yet I would want to raise some concerns about the structure which the book tends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to follow, in order to emphasise these sorts of 'negotiations'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular, the transition from the pre- or early colonial period to the 'high imperialism' of the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century is substantiated by reference to some well-worn historical 'moments' and texts, such as T. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Macaulay's 1835 'Minute' on education \(which emphasised the superiority of English education\), and I am )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not sure that such an easily formulated periodisation is warranted. Indeed, Fisher's book is, overall, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testament to the fluidity and complexity of what is supposed to be a burgeoning 'age of empire', which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the periodisation he pursues here something of an enigma. In other words, a conception of empire as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('fluid', 'contested' and full of 'tension' belies easy formulations of a 'friendly' imperialism in the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century \(such as we see in William Dalrymple's )] TJ ET BT 266.132 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(White Mughals)] TJ ET BT 339.128 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which clearly regards selected inter-racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships as being indicative of the British empire's overall character\), or a 'high' imperialism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth. Certainly I think that Fisher often acknowledges as much when he notes, for example, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the early nineteenth century, increasingly 'self-confident colonialism' made Indian servants in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear more as 'potential welfare problems' than hitherto, though simultaneously, 'the lived experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such servants varied widely, and reflected their individual negotiations' \(p. 215\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, within this broad narrative of British imperial strengthening and consolidation, Fisher emphasises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displays of Indian agency in order to highlight what he describes as the 'multiple sites of contestation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperation as well as the inconsistencies and contradictions' inherent in colonialism, and by extension, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian experiences in Britain \(p. 13\). As I have said, one must have some sympathy for this project, given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the often-prevalent historiographical focus upon 'colonial power'. Yet simultaneously, I am not convinced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this is the best way of seeing empire as a complex set of phenomena. In essence, invocations of Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('agency', set against a backdrop of 'colonial power' do not necessarily intimate any sort of substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity. In particular, Fisher sometimes provides little depth to his discussions of Europeans, or their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of imperial ideologies, for example, relying upon straightforward invocations of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudice. As such, the search for Indian 'agency', in certain instances, might have been de-emphasised in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.8077 766.8775 274.8077 778.7575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 306.2477 460.0135 312.2477 471.8935 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7186 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to pursue in more depth a stronger sense of Indian-European entangledness, compromise and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inner conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section of Fisher's book details the lives of Indians in Britain during an early period of increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade and nascent imperial consolidation, 1600 to 1790. Fisher is here concerned to detail the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians were relatively free to be able to 'negotiate ? identity and relationship' \(p. 49\) with British society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and culture, given Britain's unfamiliarity with India, and the lack of an overtly imperial relationship. Also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important in this respect was the ability of Indians to adapt and adopt elements of British class structure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their benefit, as well as to take advantage of economic opportunities as they presented themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lascars \(lashkar\), for example, Indian sailors who travelled to Britain aboard the East India Company's ships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as gang-hired labour, demanded high wages consonant with those paid to British sailors in the seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and in the eighteenth, organised to keep control over the supply of much needed maritime labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(though their wages were as often appropriated by an intermediary Indian labour contractor, the ghat serang\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lascars also successfully petitioned the East India Company's directors for redress on occasions where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ship's captain withheld wages or other promised provisions. Once in Britain, many lascars were unable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afford to return to India. While the Company's directors most often accepted some financial and moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for these men, lascars also expressed their grievances through petitions to the crown, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one case, by 'desecrating' the image of Queen Anne in St Paul's cathedral in 1679.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Asian elites at this time were able to move through British society with relative ease. Fisher recounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the life of Joseph Emin \(1726?1809\), an Armenian, who wrote in English of his journey from India and life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain. A recurring theme of Emin's autobiography, Fisher notes, is his belief that 'his personal courage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and willingness to adapt to British values would \(and should\) earn him the admiration of British audiences' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 73\). Emin apparently encountered 'few preconceptions about his ethnicity' \(p. 75\) and so was able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiate his identity in Britain largely without encumbrance. Emin befriended Edmund Burke, and was later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronised by the Duke of Northumberland. According to Fisher, Emin was able to move in such circles due )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his 'Armenian patriotic sentiments' and his 'indomitable quest for liberty for his oppressed people' \(p. 76\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, Fisher relates how Hanumantrao, a brahman, and emissary of the Maratha Peshwa \(king\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received the support of Edmund Burke when he arrived in Britain in 1781, eventually gaining gifts from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King George III and travelling costs from the East India Company's directors. Yet it would appear that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favours received represented less the esteem in which he and the Peshwa were held by Britons generally, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather more were the result of the usefulness which Hanumantrao played in Burke's own political wranglings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the power of the East India Company. Indeed, Hanumantrao bolstered Burke's persecution of Warren )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings, by condemning before parliament Hastings's 1775 public hanging in Calcutta of Nandakumar, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critic of the Company's administration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century, then, Indians in Britain, though subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of discrimination, were able to negotiate elements of their social identities, to express agency in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms, often by working within Britain's structures of class. Fisher argues in the second section of his book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, which covers over four chapters the period approximately 1790 to 1830, that 'colonial patterns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensified' \(p. 9\). This section includes chapters on Indian lascars and servants in Britain. Fisher argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fortunes of lascars tended to decline during this period, due largely to the imposition of increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrictive structures 'within the context of developing British colonialism in Asia' \(p. 138\), while servants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and slaves could fare somewhat better, due to the Abolitionist Movement, for example. There are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed chapters on Indian elites which tend to emphasise their gradual disempowerment in Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of particular interest are the experiences of Indian teachers of Persian who travelled to Britain in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century in order to offer their services to young men expecting to travel overseas. These teachers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher notes, did not possess a sense of inferiority to Europeans, but rather, 'remained staunch advocates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own religion and customs' \(p. 106\), and felt that they represented an 'authentic' expertise \(in contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Jones, for example, whose Persian grammar they decried as being defective\). Yet over time this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('authentic' expertise was devalued by the Company, in favour of European methods of teaching.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7990 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher describes the lives of four Indians who were employed by the East India Company at two educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions during the early decades of the nineteenth century: Haileybury College, which trained civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants, and Addiscombe, for military cadets. These men took positions of responsibility and authority over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons, and held in British society the status of professional gentlemen. Sheth Ghoolam Hyder, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first Persian Writing Master at Haileybury, drew a salary of 200 annually, and also employed British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants. Further teachers recruited directly from India demanded very high salaries indeed, at 600 a year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plus expenses, which exceeded what the British professors were paid. Moreover, these men were able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extract from the Company further salary raises and housing benefits, in order to maintain what they viewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as appropriate standards to their social class, and in several cases married British women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher sees, however, a gradual marginalisation of this Indian linguistic expertise. In one case, Hassan Ali, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was employed at Addiscombe, completed in 1812 a )] TJ ET BT 308.648 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grammar of the Hindoostanie Language)] TJ ET BT 504.644 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of seeking professional 'advancement'. The )] TJ ET BT 243.620 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grammar,)] TJ ET BT 293.948 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( however, was judged to be little more than a 'literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curiosity' by orientalists Charles Stewart and Alexander Hamilton, who also noted that it had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('surpassed' by the publication of other European-authored grammars. 'Native speakers', in other words, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced in the Company's educational institutions in Britain, as European-authored grammars and lexicons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were considered more suitable or authoritative. Certainly, from 1823 onwards 'college authorities had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided that the alleged disruption these Muslim Indian men had on a student's moral education outweighed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their linguistic advantages as "native speakers"' \(p. 131\). The one 'native speaker' employed by the Company )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain from the late 1820s, in order to ensure that students attained as high a level of fluency as possible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an Iranian, Muhammed Ibrahim, who knew Persian but no Indian languages. Apparently one significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor which recommended this man to the Company was that he had considerably Anglicised himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(unlike the Indian teachers who went before him\): he had adopted European dress, had no objections to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eating with Europeans, and reportedly had a good knowledge of English.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher's argument is that during the 'transitional' period of c.1790?1830, Indian teachers were initially able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiate relatively high social standings for themselves in Britain because of their class background in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, and the knowledge they possessed, though over time this status diminished as Indian languages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures were increasingly disparaged in Britain, and considered of less consequence than the impartation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian, and British moral values. The mechanism by which this happens is left quite vague, however. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher refers to Macaulay's 'Minute' on education, as well as 'the force of colonialism' \(p. 108\), 'increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparaging colonial attitudes towards Indians generally' \(p. 131\) and 'growing British sentiment against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians as the inferior colonized' \(p. 125\). It is arguable, at least in the Indian context, that Macaulay's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Minute' was more effective in the promotion of Orientalist \(or 'constructive Orientalist'\) educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodologies. Policies of extreme Anglicisation were understood by Governor-General Lord Auckland as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being unworkable and unrealistic, and the adaptation of Indian languages and knowledge within government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education opened up interesting opportunities for Indians to draw upon their expertise, and critically engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the host of colonial representations disseminated there.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.640 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.640 260.115 m 307.640 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 307.640 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Methodologically, the framework of unvariegated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('colonial power' and 'colonial ideology' set against sporadic displays of Indian agency seems inadequate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account for the complexities of lived experiences in this context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last part of )] TJ ET BT 110.000 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Counterflows to Colonialism)] TJ ET BT 248.696 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which also incorporates four chapters, deals with the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1830?57, marking the last decades of Company rule in India. This period culminates, Fisher argues, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians and Britons identifying 'themselves and each other as opposing peoples' \(p. 7\). Here Fisher describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian diplomats sent to Britain, who often sought to circumvent the Company's government in India to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal directly to the Company's directors in London, or to the British Crown. These included the famed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindu reformer Rammohun Roy, who came to Britain in order to petition for a better pension on behalf of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Mughal emperor. While in London, Roy reportedly lived lavishly, conversed with James Mill and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Bentham, and attended the coronation of King William IV. Roy was no fool. He researched the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes and failures of former Indian diplomatic missions to Britain, as well as the nature of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance, and came prepared with extensive documentation. In any case, he often met with hostility from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons, and his early death in 1833 put an end to further negotiations on behalf of the emperor. Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Maratha Maharaja Pratap Singh of Satara sent a series of delegations to London in the late 1830s in order )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.6397 260.4295 307.6397 272.3095 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7564 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to counter what he perceived as continued persecution by the Company's local government in Bombay. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While in London, these ambassadors used the British press to generate enough controversy to force the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company to account for its actions against Satara, though, as Fisher notes, these ambassadors lacked 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force to reverse the direction of colonialism' \(p. 279\). In other words, they were largely unable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully press the Company in London to take corrective action, despite their limited public relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher also describes Indians who came to Britain during this period not for political gain, but rather for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose of augmenting their personal status. Particularly interesting here is the case of one of the sons of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mysore's \(in\)famous ruler Tipu Sultan, a figure vilified in the late eighteenth-century British press by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance to the Company's expansion in southern India. Mahomed Jamh ood-Deen travelled to London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early in 1835, and entered into British high society as 'the Prince of Mysore' \(p. 306\). He met with both King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William IV and Queen Victoria, playing up their shared 'royal status' \(anticipating the post-1857 elaboration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a 'royal cult' in the rule of India\).\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.628 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.628 612.003 m 214.628 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 214.628 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Jamh ood-Deen also successfully pressed some of his demands in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London for an enhanced pension, due to him under the terms of the defeat of Mysore. Similarly, a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians travelled to Britain in order to further their knowledge and education. In 1845 a group of four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced medical students travelled from Calcutta to London with Henry Goodeve, professor of anatomy at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Calcutta Medical College, to study at University College London. Goodeve recognised that the students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competed along 'national' lines against their British peers, and though they generally did very well in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, Goodeve also is thought to have cast them collectively in the emerging stereotype of 'intelligent but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effeminately weak, physically and morally' \(p. 371\). One student, Soojee Comar Chuckerbutty, converted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity in Britain, and became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons. Chuckerbutty's apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicisation, and his high educational attainments in Britain, allowed him to return to India as assistant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surgeon in the service of the Bengal government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would certainly seem, therefore, that the rise of colonial sentiment in the nineteenth century proved but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little impediment, in isolated instances at least, to the advancement of individual Indian aspirations. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly so in cases where Indians adapted to British society through strategies of Anglicisation, or class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiance. Yet in the last chapter of his book, Fisher also highlights the declining fortunes of working class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians in Britain. Doubly disadvantaged by class and race, they built an integrated community in London's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East End. Lascars, in particular, were left without financial protection following 1834 as the Crown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withdrew the Company's monopoly on seaborne trade with India, and hence their responsibilities to support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or repatriate them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, there has not been space, even in this forum, to consider all the chapters, and to do justice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the full extent, of Michael Fisher's )] TJ ET BT 201.824 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Counterflows to Colonialism)] TJ ET BT 340.520 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is a long book, at nearly 500 pages, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choosing elements from the wide array of interesting material presented here has been difficult. I learned a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lot from Fisher's book, it has to be said. I had not realised the extent or importance of the Indian presence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain prior to 1857, having focused like so many of my colleagues on the colonial experience within South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia itself. I have highlighted a methodological problem, as I see it, in the book, but in practice, Fisher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless still manages to instil in the reader a sense of the historical dynamicism which this context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is worth pausing, however, to consider in the context of Fisher's book, and the chronological development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he has used, whether we want to view empire, and imperialism, as necessarily the gradual extension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of power over the structures of rule \(economic, social, cultural, and political\), accompanied by a narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidation, powerfulness and decline. Or is it preferable to conceptualise empire as always a procession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of contradiction, ambiguity and vagaries of conflict? Does the assignation of 'periods' by reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant perceptions of relative power relationships obscure the interstices of colonialism, its 'ever-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fractured gaze' \(to paraphrase Homi Bhabha\)? Ultimately I think that Michael Fisher's )] TJ ET BT 450.248 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Counterflows to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colonialism)] TJ ET BT 92.696 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( still presents us with an important contribution to understanding the British Empire beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard narratives and standard historiographical conceptualisations. By shifting our focus to Indians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressions of empire within Britain, and by stressing the negotiations Indians undertook there, Fisher has )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.6277 612.3175 214.6277 624.1975 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 5061 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delineated important aspects of what emerging histories of imperialism might look like.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tayeb Salih, )] TJ ET BT 127.676 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Season of Migration to the North)] TJ ET BT 286.688 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Denys Johnson-Davies, transl., Portsmouth, NH, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1969\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 715.299 m 149.000 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For considerations of )] TJ ET BT 169.004 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Season of Migration)] TJ ET BT 267.008 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, see, for example, E. W. Said, )] TJ ET BT 415.976 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture and Imperialism)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1993\), p. 211; S. S. Makdisi, 'The Empire Renarrated: "Season of Migration to the North" )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Reinvention of the Present', in )] TJ ET BT 250.160 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Critical Inquiry)] TJ ET BT 325.832 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 18.4 \(1992\), 804?820.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.152 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.152 672.531 m 492.140 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Globalization in World History)] TJ ET BT 280.688 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. G. Hopkins \(New York, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.320 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.320 658.275 m 522.308 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Fisher, )] TJ ET BT 116.684 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The First Indian Author in English: Dean Mahomed \(1759?1851\) in India, Ireland, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England )] TJ ET BT 107.684 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Delhi, 1996; 2000\); and )] TJ ET BT 257.996 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Travels of Dean Mahomet: An Eighteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journey Through India)] TJ ET BT 175.340 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. Fisher \(Berkeley, Calif., 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.648 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.648 615.507 m 419.636 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World)] TJ ET BT 444.344 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. F. Cooper and A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Stoler \(Berkeley, Calif., 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.328 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.328 586.995 m 280.316 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, M. S. Dodson, 'Re-Presented for the Pandits: James Ballantyne, "Useful )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knowledge," and Sanskrit Scholarship in Benares College during the Mid-Nineteenth Century', in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Asian Studies)] TJ ET BT 170.012 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36.2 \(2002\), 257?298.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 282.332 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 282.332 544.227 m 336.320 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, D. Cannadine, )] TJ ET BT 159.332 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire)] TJ ET BT 407.336 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.328 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.328 529.971 m 499.316 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.853 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 459.871 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 442.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 442.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/492)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 440.697 m 322.316 440.697 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 415.720 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.320 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2856)] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.920 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 715.6135 148.9997 727.4935 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 438.1517 672.8455 492.1397 684.7255 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.3197 658.5895 522.3077 670.4695 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 365.6477 615.8215 419.6357 627.7015 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.3277 587.3095 280.3157 599.1895 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 282.3317 544.5415 336.3197 556.4215 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.3277 530.2855 499.3157 542.1655 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 441.0115 322.3157 452.8915 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/492) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000598 00000 n 0000000701 00000 n 0000006254 00000 n 0000006363 00000 n 0000006473 00000 n 0000006582 00000 n 0000010143 00000 n 0000010271 00000 n 0000010355 00000 n 0000010483 00000 n 0000010519 00000 n 0000010647 00000 n 0000010683 00000 n 0000010811 00000 n 0000010847 00000 n 0000010938 00000 n 0000019008 00000 n 0000019136 00000 n 0000019172 00000 n 0000019300 00000 n 0000019336 00000 n 0000019401 00000 n 0000026640 00000 n 0000026724 00000 n 0000034767 00000 n 0000034895 00000 n 0000034931 00000 n 0000035015 00000 n 0000042632 00000 n 0000042760 00000 n 0000042796 00000 n 0000042929 00000 n 0000048043 00000 n 0000048170 00000 n 0000048206 00000 n 0000048334 00000 n 0000048370 00000 n 0000048498 00000 n 0000048534 00000 n 0000048662 00000 n 0000048698 00000 n 0000048826 00000 n 0000048862 00000 n 0000048990 00000 n 0000049026 00000 n 0000049154 00000 n 0000049190 00000 n 0000049318 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 49413 %%EOF