%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818114508+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818114508+01'00') /Title (Conservative Governments, Morality and Social Change in Affluent Britain, 1957?64) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4428 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Conservative Governments, Morality and Social Change in Affluent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain, 1957?64)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In July 2004 Tony Blair attacked the 'liberal consensus' of the 1960s, claiming that it had helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermine respect for law and order in Britain. It was hardly the first time that Blair had borrowed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument from the right wing of the Conservative Party, but this speech set new standards of audacity. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last piece of patchwork in Blair's blanket condemnation of 'Old Labour', implying that the party had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved nothing of note between 1951 and 1997. There was a personal aspect, too; clearly Blair had not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been deterred by the prospect that his speech would be interpreted as an onslaught on the legacy of Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins, his recently deceased mentor and friend whose name is invariably associated with social reform in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1960s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blair has never been a stickler for historical detail, and would probably have clung to his thesis even if Mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jarvis's book had been available in July 2004. However, anyone who really wants to understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between politics and social change in contemporary Britain will profit from this well-written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and perceptive study. Not the least of its virtues, indeed, is the extent to which the book subverts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artificial distinction between social and political history. The author acknowledges the work of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars in this field, notably Martin Francis and Andrew Holden; but a book-length study of a relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short period is a new departure, which opens fresh perspectives on what remains a controversial topic. Using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unexploited archival material, Jarvis demonstrates that Labour was not alone in promoting the 'permissive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution', and that the chief responsibility should be shared between Jenkins and R. A. Butler. Indeed, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings suggest that the attempt to identify permissiveness with specific individuals or parties has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misconceived. He shows that, for the most part, politicians were merely responding to perceived social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(493)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Jarvis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0719070821)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Garnett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6297 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments, rather than trying to generate changes in society. On this view, the 'liberal consensus' was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of post-war affluence, to which politicians of all parties were forced to adapt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the Conservative Party between 1957 and 1964, evidence of a general improvement in living standards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was distinctly double-edged. On the one hand, it could be cited in support of Conservative economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies. The party could claim that Britain had benefited from the removal of socialist controls, and that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change of government would put these gains in serious jeopardy. At the same time, though, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives were disturbed by the thought that traditional moral standards were being eroded by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swelling tide of prosperity. Crime was increasing fast in the late 1950s, and 'juvenile delinquency' was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(headline-grabbing headache for the party leadership. If affluence was breeding lawlessness, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives were faced with the prospect that one half of their electoral strategy would undermine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other; they could only retain their popularity as guarantors of economic progress at the expense of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation as custodians of social stability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the relative brevity of his book, Jarvis discusses a wide range of themes, including gambling, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drinking and pirate radio as well as crime and sexual issues, and provides a persuasive account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varying responses to social change. Some senior figures within the Conservative Party were clearly divided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on ideological grounds, between those who wished to accommodate new trends and others who hoped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resist them. By contrast, the evidence on this subject provides new insights into Harold Macmillan's habitual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunism. In June 1959, for example, he suggested to the government's Steering Committee that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme of social reform should be presented as a recognition by the Conservative Party that individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were capable of making decisions for themselves: 'like children growing up we can all now be trusted to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more of what is right.' It was this approach which had allowed Macmillan to introduce premium bonds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during his earlier spell at the Treasury, while Labour had denounced them as another form of gambling. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Macmillan was still frightened that the grown-up children might make the wrong choices at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election-time if reform on sensitive issues was badly timed. Thus in 1961 he argued against proceeding with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Bill to change the law on suicide, even though the existing legislation was indefensible in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary context. Even more cynical was the party's treatment of commercial television, which it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced in 1954. While Conservatives railed against the effects of other media output \(particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornography\), its reliance on vested interests meant that it refused to countenance any evidence that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent broadcasting was undermining traditional moral standards.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the most charitable view, Macmillan's attitude to social reform could be described as 'pragmatic'. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rab Butler genuinely believed that there should be a relaxation in laws which he once described as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Victorian corsetry'. Whatever one thinks of the permissive period, the principled nature of Butler's stand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves wider recognition; after all, it did him no good at the time, bringing him into regular conflict with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan and causing serious difficulties during his annual speeches to the Conservative conference. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jarvis shows, Butler was heavily influenced by the liberalising arguments of the Bow Group ? in keeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his habitual desire to monitor the thinking of younger people. While his own reform agenda was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively limited, the long-term effect of his five-year tenure of the Home Office \(1957?62\) should not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underestimated. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the outlook of the department was transformed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that time, so that the Home Office became willing to recognise social change rather than trying to repress its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symptoms. His two immediate successors \(Henry Brooke and Labour's Frank Soskice\) were far less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative, but they failed to shake the new ethos. Although Roy Jenkins felt it necessary to restructure the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home Office when he arrived in December 1965, he would have encountered more institutional obstruction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if Butler had never held the post.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 3654 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the Conservatives were beaten in the 1964 general election, Butler was entitled to feel vindicated. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, he might have felt that he had not gone far enough, since a key factor in his party's defeat was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense that Conservatives were out of touch with modern Britain. This impression, however, was most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively symbolised by Alec Home, who had become prime minister in 1963 largely because Macmillan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was determined to block Butler. But Macmillan himself had seemed hopelessly adrift from modernity during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Profumo scandal, which seriously damaged his project of moulding a changing electorate into a lasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vehicle for Conservative victories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this perspective, Jarvis's book gives rise to interesting speculations about the likely course of events if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butler, rather than Macmillan, had taken the leadership in 1957. While Butler himself was hardly at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cutting edge of sixties society, he would surely have been better equipped to handle the Profumo affair than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan proved to be. Equally, though, it can be argued that the Conservative Party would still have faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious dilemmas on social issues. One might even say that it owes its survival as a serious electoral force to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that none of its post-war leaders have paid serious attention to the underlying causes of social change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain. Thanks to their historical blind spots, Mrs Thatcher and John Major were able to portray the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative Britain of 1951?64 as a place of social harmony; for them, as for Blair, sin had been invented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Labour returned to office. In opposition since 1997, the Conservatives have finally been forced to re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the complex relationship between economic and social freedom. But their ageing membership still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acts as an effective obstacle to clear thinking of these crucial issues. Thus Jarvis's book has significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary resonance, as well as marking a valuable contribution to historical scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank Dr Garnett for his review; at present, he has no futher comments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 444.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 426.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 426.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/493)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 425.193 m 322.316 425.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 400.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2859)] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 425.5075 322.3157 437.3875 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/493) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000005139 00000 n 0000005248 00000 n 0000005358 00000 n 0000005467 00000 n 0000009028 00000 n 0000009156 00000 n 0000009240 00000 n 0000009305 00000 n 0000015655 00000 n 0000015739 00000 n 0000019446 00000 n 0000019574 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 19669 %%EOF