%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902053604+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902053604+01'00') /Title (Ten Pound Poms: Australia's Invisible Migrants) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4854 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ten Pound Poms: Australia's Invisible Migrants)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Australian launch of Hammerton's and Thomson's history of postwar British migrants to Australia took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place at the end of a one-day symposium held at the Migration Museum in Melbourne. The speakers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme for this event boasted the names of most of the significant researchers in this emerging field: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sara Wills, James Jupp and Mark Peel, to name half of them. Since the 1970s the experiences of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to Australia from Europe in the postwar migration boom have been studied at length. By contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published research focused on British immigrants to Australia ? the largest cohort of arrivals in this period ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has only recently begun to appear. Although not the first of these publications, the breadth and quality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research in )] TJ ET BT 89.324 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ten Pound Poms)] TJ ET BT 171.320 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will ensure that it becomes an essential point of reference both for scholars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postwar British migration to Australia and for those pursuing oral history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Jupp, the pre-eminent scholar of the history of Australian immigration, published )] TJ ET BT 459.308 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia)] TJ ET BT 78.692 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 2004. His chapter 'Bringing out the Britons' comes closest to )] TJ ET BT 388.004 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ten Pound Poms)] TJ ET BT 470.000 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering an overview of the postwar migration scheme, and provides important analysis of the machinations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of politicised Britons and the Australian politicians instrumental in shaping the services and opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they received. However, an account of the aspirations, satisfactions and disappointments of the individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for whom the effects of these machinations became most meaningful are necessary for fleshing out Jupp's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical framework. In )] TJ ET BT 153.320 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ten Pound Poms)] TJ ET BT 235.316 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( their life stories, complex both in their own fashioning and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retelling and in the authors' piecing together of biographical evidence, people this history in a way that defies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional assumptions about the ease with which Britons adapted to life in Australia. This reveals much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about twentieth-century phases in the British-Australian alliance, which is so often taken for granted. Jupp's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(494)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 January, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. James Hammerton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alistair Thomson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(071907133X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Kevin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8136 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work places post-war British migration in two contexts: that of migration from other countries and a longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of British free-settlers in Australia. He argues that a form of post-war exhaustion drove those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escaped Britain for Australia soonest after the war and that members of this relatively recent cohort were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more skilled than many of those who had gone before them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.304 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.304 752.307 m 336.296 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.296 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thomson and Hammerton add detail and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuance to this analysis, giving Jupp's conclusions weight in the form of a collection of complex narratives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which also point to the mix of motivations for coming to Britain and to the varying value placed on the skills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that British migrants brought with them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sara Wills and Kate Darian-Smith have published a number of articles, which share Hammerton and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson's interest in ethnic and national identity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 273.836 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 273.836 669.027 m 287.828 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.828 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Wills and Darian-Smith use the British community in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankston, outer Melbourne, as a case study. Their work offers sophisticated theorisation of the ongoing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes of identity formation and relies less on interview material than )] TJ ET BT 385.628 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ten Pound Poms)] TJ ET BT 467.624 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The anchoring of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its discussions in one community, and in particular the event of Britfest, organised primarily by and for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, is one of its strengths. This enables the kind of sustained and contained analysis that, in its best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarnation, develops a very critical and detailed engagement with individual and community practices as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes to terms with the inconsistencies, impositions and divisions entailed in the performance of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities. Hammerton and Thomson are slightly less critical, perhaps one small cost of them casting their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(net so widely. They are alert to inconsistencies and defensiveness, as Wills and Darian-Smith are, but are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more concerned with the emotional journeys of a broad cross-section of this migrant population. Sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitivity to differences of age and sex are a feature of their broad sweep.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not the first time Hammerton and Thomson have shown us their abilities to use oral history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitive and revealing ways. Thomson's )] TJ ET BT 232.820 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anzac Memories: Living with the Legend)] TJ ET BT 430.472 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1994\) is one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving examples of Australian war history and relies heavily on interviews for its considerable insights. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joining forces with Hammerton, Thomson further extends the argument for the importance of oral history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both its content as transcribed and interpreted, and analyses of its performance. While reading )] TJ ET BT 487.916 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ten Pound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poms)] TJ ET BT 60.680 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I frequently felt transported to the lounge rooms and porches of those interviewed, an observer of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodied story-telling techniques and their non-verbal responses to the interviewers' investigations. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to oral histories, interviewees revived some fascinating material for public consumption, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters, postcards, diaries and scrapbooks. One of the most memorable examples is a collection of thirteen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reel-to-reel audiotapes containing messages from each member of the Good family. Made in 1963 and 1964, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these tapes were sent to England to the children's maternal grandparents along with slides and letters. Gwen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Good's 1964 ABC radio broadcasts describing her migration to Australia shed additional light on her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and the ways in which she chose to construct it for particular audiences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the many contributions that this text makes to the history of British migration to Australia is its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in the images, language and embodied experiences of mid to late twentieth-century homesickness. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While confrontation with the Australian bush, and other factors in the alienation of nineteenth-century free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlers, have been examined in some detail, the particular psychology of later versions of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homesickness has not, to my knowledge, been explored in the detail that it is here. The authors' subjects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often use the term 'homesickness' in a way that 'simplifies or conceals a complex experience'. It is considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by many to be a condition afflicting women much more than men, and is indeed most often reported by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. Yet Hammerton and Thomson detect a 'hidden form of male homesickness'. They find abundant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clues for this in the testimonies of wives and children who have observed the 'emotional and physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakdown of their menfolk' \(p. 289\). These testimonies contribute to a general undermining of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistic model of homesickness, which explains it as something that passes or is grown out of. Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ten Pound Poms)] TJ ET BT 116.012 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contends that it is a condition that often returns and is deeply connected to the way that life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is experienced in the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion of hope, loneliness and disappointment that this analysis of homesickness entails runs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book. It begins with a detailed treatment of emigration: the official, popular and personally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivered messages that fed the imaginations of those who saw Australia as a place to make a new life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poverty, the effects of war and the breakdown of family relationships in England were all reasons to escape. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunshine, better wages and the possibility of adventure were inspirations to take the long journey to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.3037 752.6215 336.2957 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 273.8357 669.3415 287.8277 681.2215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6276 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia. The experience of leaving loved ones is explored, as are the complex ways in which emigration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions were arrived at and the difficulty of communicating these decisions to those who would be left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind. The physical wrench or the energised and excited anticipation, which characterise the feelings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with travel out of villages and cities on trains and then boats, is described. A fascinating analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of transitional identities follows as the authors' interview material and written sources reveal long boat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journeys made sense of through the images and stories of Empire, particularly as liners docked in the ports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Egypt, Aden in the Suez and Ceylon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, the class structure that would be reconfigured in Australia is emphasised by many in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories of this passage between two worlds. Some struggled to find 'their sort of people' aboard the ships, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while others made close friendships but worried that these would not last in the face of forced dispersal by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Australian authorities once they had reached their destination. Others still enjoyed the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assisted passage meant that conventional British class segregation was disrupted by the fact that agreeing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scheme meant agreeing to eschew social distinctions expressed through graded accommodation aboard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ships.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the 1960s, passenger jets made flying a real alternative to a sea voyage to Australia and an increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of emigrating Britons took the plane. This was incorporated into the government scheme at no extra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cost. From the early 1970s the jumbo jet began to spell the end of migration by boat and in 1977 the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shipload of British immigrants docked in an Australian port. For those who flew to Australia, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who took this option soon after it became available, the sense of a rite of passage that came with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lengthy voyage was often replaced by a feeling that theirs was a pioneering experience, that it entailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelty and adventure. One interviewee, John Hardie, decided that the event of his first flight warranted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collar and tie. By the time the Hardies arrived in Melbourne they were 'elated, exhausted and filthy' \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(118?9\) Many, given the choice, chose the four-week sea voyage over a flight and Hammerton and Thomson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the point that the variety of experiences enjoyed by many voyagers are remembered vividly as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of a lifetime, whereas flights rarely feature. They also suggest that the loss of the time a sea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage gave people to reflect on the decision they had made and to imagine their life in Australia was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative effect of travel time being cut dramatically short for those who took the plane.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part two, 'Britons in postwar Australia', the authors offer fascinating descriptions of people's early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters with the Australian landscape, social and commercial practices, and housing. Of the alien natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment of Hobart, Margaret Scott wrote:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I didn't find it beautiful. I found it threatening. The mountain rose menacingly above the Hill's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoist. The land had no history that I could read from it. Everything looked untended, shabby, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peeling, dry and horribly powerful as though the bush or the sea might suddenly rise up and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casually flatten all the little wooden houses. And here too was the misery of the loss of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known, not of network and ritual but of familiar places and the sense of possession that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiarity bestows. Later I felt unhappy that I couldn't, without resorting to books, open the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape for my children as my mother had opened Gloucestershire for me. \(pp. 133?4\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later in this section of the book Scott is quoted again:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I had no idea where to buy cheese or where to get shoes mended ... When, in January 1960, I got )] TJ ET BT 64.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to our New Town flat and found that a tin I'd bought in a strange supermarket held )] TJ ET BT 64.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unground beans, I tried to grind them in the washing machine. \(pp. 141?2\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other testimonies speak of the strange ways in which Australians communicated: not only the way they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-organised and re-invented the English language but also the segregation of social events along gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines. While Hammerton and Thomson remind us regularly that every migrant's experience was different, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6781 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text is consistently attentive to the variables shaped by gender and age. While many migration narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(featured friendship and support from Australians, the experiences of prejudice are just as apparent. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors note that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adjustment to a new school system, was hampered by racist taunts and bullying; indeed the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ferocity of the Pommy bashing suffered by many British children in postwar Australian schools )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is shocking \(p. 148\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, in 1964 when Ann Hawkins' children came home from their first day at school in Radcliffe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(near Brisbane, one had a cut-lip and black eye. The other asked her, "What's a Pommie bastard mum?" \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(148\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The complex and often difficult process for Britons of making a new life in Australia seems incongruous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the Australian government's commitment to coaxing as many of them to its shores as possible. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adds a fascinating dimension to understandings of Australian national identity at the time. The visit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth II in 1954 brought hundreds of thousands of Australians flocking for a glimpse of their queen. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia's longest-serving Prime Minister, Robert Menzies, who was openly enamoured with the royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family and Britain, dominated this period of mass migration. It must be remembered though that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australians had misgivings about what could be interpreted as Britain's abandonment of Australia in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pacific during WWII. Less than two decades later, when Britain joined the common market, Australia was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left to find its own trading partners and, by the late 1960s, started to rethink its White-Australia policy. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this suggests some shifting of alliances but it could easily be argued that at this ground level, many Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Celtic Australians recognised and identified strongly with a British inheritance. Yet it was also at this ground )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level that prejudices brewed and translated into taunts and exclusions metered out to late arrivals from 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Motherland'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For some immigrant Britons, these taunts compounded homesickness, financial stress and a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility to those left behind. Hammerton and Thomson tell us that estimated numbers of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned to Britain average just over 25 per cent. As early as 1954, the Australian government was anxious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough about this phenomenon to commission an official enquiry into the problem of returning immigrants. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last part of the middle section of this book looks at the experiences of those who eventually said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goodbye to Australia's shores. )] TJ ET BT 181.160 339.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ten Pound Poms)] TJ ET BT 263.156 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( argues that the decision to return must be understood in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full context of life histories and that family dynamics are almost always a central component of the decision-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making process. It also shows that at different ages the question of where to call 'home' raises different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerations. The young and single could often return to Britain after a few years and frame their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australian story as episode and adventure. For some who invested a substantial period of time in Australia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retirement meant a new freedom to return to Britain. For others, by this late stage, children and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandchildren had transformed Australia into home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final third of this text, 'Migration, memory and identity', begins by examining the narratives of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who returned to Britain. In the more positive of these Australia is framed as providing a period of adventure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and character building; an episode that left an indelible mark on people; broadened their horizons. In others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a sense of regret; of missed opportunity. This is particularly so for those whose lives in Britain did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not provide the improved circumstances that they hoped for as they left Australia. For some, Australia had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused the breakdown of family relationships. One particularly tragic account is of a woman who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied her family to Brisbane and after two years of aching homesickness returned to Britain. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took her two sons with her and hoped her husband would follow. He never did. One of her sons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently moved to Australia \(p. 316\). For others Australia had meant the beginning of a new family that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had made the return journey with them. Memories of Australia are at times filled with the difficulties that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made return the most sensible option at the time of departure. The relief felt on return was often tinged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the anger and disappointment borne of feeling harshly treated by Australian authorities and others who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed to have supported British migration. To some degree these memories continue to make sense of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 5461 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final section, of 'Migration, memory and identity', the authors pull back from extended first-hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts and offer an overview of the meaning of this migration narrative for those who belong to it, and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. This section looks at the ways postwar British migrants to Australia have managed an 'evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of belonging'. Recognising that the issue of national identity is never fixed or resolved, or shaped by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one thing, Hammerton and Thomson capture some of the complexity of migrant subjectivity through their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of their subjects' self-representations in relation to their sense of themselves as British-Australian. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here the ways in which British and Australian loyalties are juggled and manifest in attitudes to an Australian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic, sporting teams or a concept of multiculturalism are explored. The crucial role of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships in shaping migrant loyalties and identities is given close examination, as is the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return visits for providing crucial phases of reassessment. The strong impression of a variety and instability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of migrant identities is hardly surprising given the range of reasons for leaving Britain and for staying in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia. This chapter places the experiences of 'Ten Pound Poms' in the contemporary social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape. It helps us to see the importance of migration history for an understanding of what it means to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australian today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ten Pound Poms)] TJ ET BT 129.008 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hammerton and Thomson pull together a vast and ranging collection of sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handled deftly to give ample voice to British migrants in the post-war period, while offering a sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of these migrants' self representations and the broader history to which they belong. This text will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make a lasting impression on individual readers and the scholarly field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Jupp, )] TJ ET BT 125.012 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Australia )] TJ ET BT 245.696 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, Port Melbourne, 2004\), p. 131.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.676 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.676 448.947 m 511.664 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sara Wills and Kate Darian-Smith ?Beauty contests for British bulldogs? Negotiating \(trans\)national )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities in suburban Melbourne?, )] TJ ET BT 234.332 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultural Studies Review)] TJ ET BT 350.336 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9 \(2003\), 65?83; and Sara Wills, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Passengers of memory: constructions of British immigrants in post-Imperial Australia?, )] TJ ET BT 492.980 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Politics and History)] TJ ET BT 213.356 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 51 \(2005\), 94?107. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.676 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.676 391.923 m 367.664 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors are very appreciative of this extremely thoughtful review, which highlights many key themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they wanted the book to explore.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political Review Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/AJPH/R_0004_9522_276_1006148.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 296.643 m 470.996 296.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 473.996 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 293.311 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 275.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 275.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/494)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 274.137 m 322.316 274.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 249.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2861)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/AJPH/R_0004_9522_276_1006148.asp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.6757 449.2615 511.6637 461.1415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.6757 392.2375 367.6637 404.1175 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 296.9575 470.9957 308.8375 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/AJPH/R_0004_9522_276_1006148.asp) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 274.4515 322.3157 286.3315 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/494) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000556 00000 n 0000000638 00000 n 0000005544 00000 n 0000005653 00000 n 0000005763 00000 n 0000005872 00000 n 0000009433 00000 n 0000009561 00000 n 0000009645 00000 n 0000009736 00000 n 0000017925 00000 n 0000017955 00000 n 0000018083 00000 n 0000018119 00000 n 0000018149 00000 n 0000018277 00000 n 0000018313 00000 n 0000018378 00000 n 0000024707 00000 n 0000024772 00000 n 0000031606 00000 n 0000031711 00000 n 0000037225 00000 n 0000037353 00000 n 0000037408 00000 n 0000037536 00000 n 0000037572 00000 n 0000037699 00000 n 0000037832 00000 n 0000037960 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38055 %%EOF