%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141126105539+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141126105539+00'00') /Title (The Hanged Man: A Story of Miracle, Memory, and Colonialism in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4539 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Hanged Man: A Story of Miracle, Memory, and Colonialism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hanged Man)] TJ ET BT 118.004 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a fascinating account of a miracle and its context. Robert Bartlett, a medieval historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well known for his earlier work on ordeal, conquest, the expansion of Europe and the lives of saints, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combines his many fields of expertise in order to analyse the story of one man's death and alleged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resurrection. Bartlett writes for the wide public, while at the same time maintaining rigorous standards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship. It is the best kind of popular history book, combining a reliance on all the scholarly tools of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian's craft with a language accessible to the non-specialist. Indeed, the book is one that I would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happy to recommend to undergraduates, interested general readers and medieval historians alike.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is based on the story of a Welshman, William Cragh, hanged on the orders of the lord of Gower, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William de Briouze. Detailed eyewitness accounts survive of the event, because the evidence was collected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and used in the early fourteenth century in the canonisation process of Thomas de Cantilupe, bishop of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hereford: William Cragh, it was claimed, was miraculously brought back to life through the intervention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas de Cantilupe, thus providing proof of Thomas's sanctity. Robert Bartlett uses the story as 'a window )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the wider medieval world' \(p. xi\). He analyses the story of the condemnation and hanging of William, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighting the contradictions contained in the different accounts. While Lady Mary de Briouze )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised William Cragh as a notorious Welsh brigand, her stepson, William de Briouze junior, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described Cragh as a Welsh rebel who participated in the war between the Welsh and King Edward I of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. The witnesses did not agree on the exact date of the hanging either, placing it fifteen to eighteen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years before the date of their deposition in 1307. They similarly disagreed over the period it took for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Cragh to recover fully. One crucial contradiction concerned the nature of the miracle. Cragh, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(495)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Bartlett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0691126046)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nora Berend)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7297 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to other witnesses, indicated soon after his miraculous revival that a bishop in white garments had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped him while he was hanging from the gallows. Cragh in front of the questioners denied this; instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, he recounted a vision that he had seen before his execution, and his invocation of the saint on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to execution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartlett describes the inquisitorial process accompanying canonisation: as in all such cases, the witnesses did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not offer their testimony spontaneously, but were questioned by the ecclesiastics appointed to gather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, according to a questionnaire. This obviously had consequences for shaping the responses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses. For example, the witnesses gave lengthy detailed descriptions of the hanging and of the dead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corpse, as well as of the miraculous resuscitation of the dead body, because it was a key aspect of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canonisation process to establish that the victim could not have survived due to natural causes. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features of the invocation of saints as well as thanksgiving after a miracle are also described, e.g. measuring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the length of the body to make a candle of the same height for the saint, and the journey of thanksgiving to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the saint's tomb. The author provides a brief history of the development of canonisation procedures to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualise the one concerning Thomas de Cantilupe. The analysis of the witnesses' answers in the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas sheds light on the practical difficulties that could be encountered during the hearings. The key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness, Cragh himself, spoke only Welsh, others used Latin, French and English. Interpreters were needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to interrogate Cragh, and ultimately everyone's deposition was rendered in Latin by the notaries, introducing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another degree of separation between the experiences of the witnesses and the accounts as we have them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both some of the contradictions and some of the agreements between the testimonies are striking, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartlett convincingly argues that the latter may be due to witnesses influencing each other, either at the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the execution and miraculous revival, or during the journey that some of the witnesses made together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before giving their testimonies in 1307. They probably discussed the events of the past and therefore recast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of their experiences in light of the others' memories of these events. Since the time that elapsed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the hanging and resuscitation and the accounts given by the witnesses in front of the three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastics gathering evidence for Thomas's canonisation was very long, one can easily understand how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories of the events could fade and/or be reformulated in the meantime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For further context, Robert Bartlett gives a detailed analysis of hanging, a common punishment at the time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as of the consequences of such a death in the appearance of the dead body. He also provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context for the miraculous revival, by using a study on miraculous salvations from hanging that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates a changing trend: before 1100, the majority of those saved were presented as guilty, whereas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after that time, at least 60 per cent were presented as innocent. Cragh himself claimed to be innocent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homicides of which he was accused, while other witnesses disagreed over the issue. Bartlett also points out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Cragh's case was not simply one of miraculous intervention to save the condemned from hanging, but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miraculous resurrection; a type of miracle especially frequent among the miracles attributed to Thomas de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cantilupe and a type that grew more common over the later medieval period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interesting evidence is revealed about the society itself: how people measured time, not by counting in years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but by the distance of an event from the present, its relation to memorable occasions, and finally by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical feasts to determine the day of the event. Measuring duration was based on the canonical hours )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and on counting in terms of how long it took to walk a given distance. Subjective ways of measuring time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and space prevailed over the use of fixed scales of measurements, although the latter did exist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The interaction between the key figures in the drama, notably Cragh and William de Briouze, would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to understand without the historical analysis of the social context. Bartlett provides an expert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of what he calls 'colonial Wales' \(p. 68?79\). Although one might argue about the use of the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('colonial' for the medieval period, the analysis itself focuses on all the key aspects of the English conquest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its consequences in Wales. The situation in the lordship of Gower, divided administratively between an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('English' and a 'Welsh' part, was particularly complex. The administrative division did not reflect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division of the population, and Welsh continued to live in 'English Gower'. Native Welsh rulers and Marcher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lords fought each other for the extension of their own territories, with alliances and hostilities cutting across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic lines. In the case of Gower, not only threat from the Welsh, but also disputes about succession )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7289 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between members of the de Briouze family complicated the picture. Edward I's intervention provoked large-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale war and resulted in the creation of the Principality of Wales, a royal dominion. Rhys ap Maredudd, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initially an ally of Edward I, rebelled against the king and it was in the course of this rebellion that William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cragh participated in an attack leading to his capture and condemnation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartlett also traces the career of William de Briouze, one of the English Marcher lords in Wales, and of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. Dedicated royalists, the family's fortunes fluctuated according to the events affecting the king's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power in the thirteenth century. William's role in the case of Cragh was one manifestation of the rights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marcher lords who claimed 'royal jurisdiction' \(p. 93\) in their domains. Another feature of aristocratic life is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also highlighted: litigation within the family for property. In this case, William de Briouze's third wife, Lady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary, and her stepson were involved in extended litigation over her dower. Lady Mary, the wife of the man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who condemned William Cragh to die, and condemned him to a particularly cruel death, stipulating that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be hanged by his own relatives, interceded for Cragh before the execution. It is impossible to know what her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motives were, but it is clear that all the male members of the family and the wider entourage thought it was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bad idea to try to rescue Cragh. When she failed to influence her husband, she still continued her efforts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(save Cragh, this time by invoking Thomas de Cantilupe, who proved to be more accommodating to Lady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary's wishes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book closes with a chapter on the new saint, Thomas of Cantilupe, and another on the aftermath of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events recounted in the story of Cragh. Thomas's tomb in Hereford Cathedral, to which his remains were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved in 1287, quickly became a focus of pilgrimage. Given the de Briouze family's extensive connections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Hereford Cathedral, it is not surprising that members of the family, and indeed other locals, turned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas for help. The final decision on his canonisation only came in 1320, through the official papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaration. Clearly, however, many already regarded Thomas as a saint prior to that date. Finally, Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartlett outlines the subsequent careers of the papal appointees who gathered evidence for the canonisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process: William Durand, Ralph Baldock and William de Testa, and of the de Briouze family. The former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three continued in prominent positions, often in papal service. The de Briouze family, however, was nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed due to the ambitions of Hugh Despenser the Younger, Edward II's favourite. Their estates were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seized and given to Hugh, leading to a rebellion of the Marcher lords against the king. By an ironic twist of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fate, William de Briouze junior's son-in-law, John de Mowbray, who took part in the rebellion, was hanged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His widow and young son eventually regained possession of the de Briouze lands after the Despensers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat in 1326.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Bartlett successfully allows 'the voices of many dead men' and women 'to speak again' \(p. 142\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through his analysis of their depositions at the canonisation process. One condemned man's story is dissected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to demonstrate its relevance to topics as disparate as the subjection of the Welsh to the English, medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saints' cults, and relations within an aristocratic family. This book is an intriguing example of microhistory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that encapsulates political, social and religious history alike.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have few critical observations overall. I found the use of a few terms jarring and anachronistic: racism \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(73\) ? although mentioned as not being the cause of certain actions ? and ethnic cleansing \(p. 74\) in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not seem to fit into a medieval context, because no explicit medieval ideologies underpin their existence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although prejudice, ideas of inferiority and mass murder were of course known in the Middle Ages. I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also prefer to restrict the use of 'colonial' to modern history. The analysis of William Durand's role at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council of Vienne and of his views on crusading is oversimplified. Finally, I was frustrated by the system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references \(which was also used in Robert Bartlett's )] TJ ET BT 285.452 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Europe)] TJ ET BT 393.776 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The text contains no footnote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers. Instead, at the end of the book, the author provides notes, including references to primary sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arranged according to the order of the text and signalled by page numbers. This arrangement means that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers do not know whether or not a particular part of the text is footnoted, unless they keep flipping the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages as they read. Although this system is not likely to cause problems for general readers, it is annoying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the academic audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these criticisms, I wish to emphasise again that this is a superb book. The story of the hanged man is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in itself an excellent one, the kind of story many medievalists would wish to find during the course of their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1142 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research. The analysis Robert Bartlett provides makes it even more appealing, placing it in such a varied and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide context so effectively. Finally, the author displays another admirable and enviable trait: the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well written, infused with a dry sense of humour and very enjoyable to read.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 722.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 704.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 704.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/495)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 703.545 m 322.316 703.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 678.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2863)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 703.8595 322.3157 715.7395 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/495) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000005254 00000 n 0000005363 00000 n 0000005473 00000 n 0000005582 00000 n 0000009143 00000 n 0000009271 00000 n 0000009355 00000 n 0000009420 00000 n 0000016770 00000 n 0000016835 00000 n 0000024177 00000 n 0000024261 00000 n 0000025456 00000 n 0000025584 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25679 %%EOF