%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721190654+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721190654+01'00') /Title (Revolution and Counterrevolution: Class Struggle in a Moscow Metal Factory) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4509 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Revolution and Counterrevolution: Class Struggle in a Moscow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Metal Factory)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For many years, just two simple narratives dominated the history of the Soviet Union. The first story was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime's account of itself. In this account, socialism had been established from 1917 onwards. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisiveness of the Bolshevik Party in arguing for the October Revolution had created the possibility of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist system. From October onwards, the story of the Soviet Union was a story of successive party-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led initiatives: the adoption of the New Economic Policy in 1921, the shift to collectivisation in 1929. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were no breaks, no accidents in this story. The hegemony of the Communist party could be traced back to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917 or, even before then, to Lenin's adoption of the model of democratic centralism, which was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary precondition for the Party's later success. No one outside the leading circles of the Party had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played any significant role in the historical process. The Party represented the historic interests of the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class. The Bolsheviks were entitled to speak on behalf of the proletariat. Workers had given their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consent decisively in 1917; their support could also be assumed in earlier and later periods. Workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared in 'socialist' art as a backdrop: an audience watching its leaders in permanent support.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Britain and America, a surprisingly similar narrative dominated. The leaders of the revolution, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed, had been both disciplined and successful. The key to their victory was the fanaticism of a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of hardened revolutionaries: the loyalty demanded by a party of a new type. More was made of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions in some of Lenin's early writings on the party. Close textual analysis of documents written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1902 and 1903 was conducted to 'prove' that in 1917 or 1923 the Bolsheviks had still been a party of middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class intellectuals lauding it over the proletariat. The stages of the revolution were again flattened together: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the capture of power, the early period of libertarianism, the bitter civil war, the NEP and collectivisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(496)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Murphy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1571814299)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berghahn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Renton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7626 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin's purges, the killings of the 1930s, were all portrayed as stages in the working out of Lenin's vision. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once again, the flower of the Communist system was shown to have been present in the seed. When the real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of events seemed to contradict this straightforward narrative it was left out, to make the story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simpler. I well remember, during the course of a semester spent teaching Soviet history at a university in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern England, remarking that for six months after the revolution, the Bolsheviks had governed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition with another party, the Left-Wing Social Revolutionaries. The students responded to this point with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visible anxiety and confusion: that could not be true, could it? Set against the substance of the books in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(college library, such a detail did not any make sense at all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the 1970s and early 1980s, frustration with the common implausibility of both stories had encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new generations of writers, such 'new social historians' as Alexander Rabinowitch, David Mandel, S. A. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith and Steve Cohen, to attempt to investigate the actual roots of dictatorship. Most perceived some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(falling-apart of the revolution: a break between 1917, when workers had been enthusiastic supporters of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second revolution, and 1929, when the regime had set about dismantling the workers' few remaining chances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for self-expression. There was an interesting discussion about how long workers' democracy had lasted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before being crushed beneath the iron hand of autocracy. Common to all these writers was the idea that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-revolution had taken place. Such more complex narratives formed a radical counterpart to the self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticisms of the new Soviet leaders, including above all Gorbachev. Yet with the collapse of the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union, and the eminent contempt shown by many workers for the 'socialism' under which they had lived, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such social history was again marginalised. Where it continued, it did so differently, by arguing some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shadow version of the very different claim that Stalinism had enjoyed degrees of popular legitimacy. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were shades now, perhaps, of what the East Germans dubbed Ostalgie. Far more common, however, in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East and West, were revived forms of the old Cold War history, with the Western variant in the ascendancy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The best sign of this reversion of analysis was the success of Orlando Figes's )] TJ ET BT 406.124 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A People's Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 500.012 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends in 1924, suggesting that the substance of Stalin's dictatorship was by then in place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem with all these accounts was a common lack of archival basis. For British or American scholars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was little choice: where Soviet records had fallen into foreign hands, as during the Civil War, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records were indeed combed assiduously. But no Western expert was allowed full access to the party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives. Nor indeed did Soviet scholarship seem capable of such deep honesty. All independent-minded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars knew the limits of what they could write safely. The real curiosity is to see how little has changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Western scholars of Communist parties outside the Soviet Union took an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate interest in the archives of the Communist International. Yet historians of the revolution in Russia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been slower in making use of the Communist Party's archives. As Kevin Murphy observes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction to )] TJ ET BT 108.020 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution and Counterrevolution)] TJ ET BT 272.684 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 'fifteen years after the doors to the archives swung wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open, not a single source-driven study has supported either of the contending speculative arguments ? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers were either terrorised by the early Soviet state or impressed with Stalinism'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Murphy makes good this absence by means of a careful history of one particular plant: the Guzhon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metalworks in Moscow, later renamed the Hammer and Sickle Factory. In 1900 the plant was already the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largest metal factory in Moscow; for each of the next three decades, it offered enough work to employ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between two and four thousand workers. Marxist theory made much of the trend towards the concentration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of labour in ever-larger factories. Lenin's own original contribution to Marxism began with his argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry was displacing agriculture in the Russian economy \(it followed that Marxism and not populism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should lead the Russian left\). The Guzhon factory thus offers a case study to explore first, the processes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to 1917, and second, the factors behind Stalin's rise to power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Murphy's account of the first of these processes is relatively familiar. He shows the relative weakness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolsheviks in Moscow, as a result of successive waves of repression following 1905. He documents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the Lena Goldfields massacre in restoring workers' confidence to strike. He detects an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antipathy among male workers to the employment of women alongside them: a fear and distrust that broke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down rapidly in 1916. He demonstrates that the Social Revolutionaries had more support than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolsheviks in this factory, at least until summer 1917. What first transformed the politics of the factory was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the determination of the employers to smash the workers' movement. In June 1917, Guzhon made a series of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7257 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to close the plant. The workers remained in occupation. Ultimately, the Provisional Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was forced to agree to the resumption of production, not as a result of any pro-worker sentiment, but for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunistic reasons: to maintain military production. The attempted lockout was the key factor in fuelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands for workers' control. The highs and lows of workers' activity, as Murphy detects them, correspond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely to those suggested many years ago in Leon Trotsky's )] TJ ET BT 327.476 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Russian Revolution)] TJ ET BT 489.476 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of Murphy's book is not unoriginal; rather it confirms the existing, brilliant analysis of a key participant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the most powerful sections in the first half of Murphy's book come when the author attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantify Bolshevik support in the factory. Prior to 1917, the number of card-carrying Bolsheviks was low: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost as soon as a cell was formed, its members would attempt to lead political strikes. These culminated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently, in the agitators' expulsion from the workplace. As late as April 1917, the number of Bolsheviks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Guzhon may have been as few as nine. By September 1917, the Bolshevik-dominated metal workers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union claimed 3,000 members in the factory. Regular factory meetings drew crowds of between 500 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(800. The factory's donations to other workers' strike funds were the highest in Moscow. Yet the number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(card-carrying Bolsheviks was still low: attendance at Party meetings within the factory increased to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(average of 22 in 1920 and 26 in 1921. Another source estimated the Bolshevik contingent as just 60 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members in 1921. This raises an interesting point, to which Murphy never provides a direct answer: why did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bolsheviks not recruit more supporters in the plant?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in the second half of the book that its originality really shines through. Drawing on the reports sent back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the party archives, as well as the archives of the political police, OGPU, Murphy is able to document the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent and durability of trade union organisation in the period after 1917, the extent of support for the state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the extent also of dissent. Many surprises emerge. There were mass strikes in May 1923. Again, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August, management proposed pay cuts and were rebuffed by an angry mass meeting of some 1,500 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers. Well into the 1920s, Murphy shows, unions continued to meet and organise independently of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management. In the first half of 1925, there were 220 disputes between unions and management: roughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one for every ten workers then in the factory. Systems of semi-compulsory arbitration tended to reduce the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers of strikes, but did not end them. They also compelled the supposed organisations of the workers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unions and Communist Party, to actually take the side of labour. The Communist Party cell was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently compelled to follow the workers and support them against management. In 1925, the Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backed workers' demands for short-term loans from the factory to pay for holiday. In 1926, the Party again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backed workers' demands for a 125 per cent pay rise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Workers raised money for international causes, and, for example, donated 27,000 rubles to support the 1926 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British general strike. In Britain, we know, such donations were assumed to be the forced levies of corrupt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and bureaucratised unions, masquerading as independent, but in fact the creatures of state repression. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Murphy's history, it is clear that the donations were given freely. There are also vivid accounts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting where Communist officials were charged with explaining to the workers why the general strike had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed. Questions cut through the bland Comintern assurances that British workers were just on the point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking power, if only their leaders would allow them. 'Comrade speaker', one rank-and-file worker asked, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('what kind of guns do the English workers have?')] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Workers in the Hammer and Sickle factory retained an idealistic way of judging the world. We might call it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a 'socialist' consciousness, if we mean the term in Karl Marx's sense: as a philosophy of solidarity between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different oppressed people. Such politics was all the more powerful because it led the workers to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions different to those of the Party. In 1928, questions from workers in this factory were brought to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention of the information department of the Party's Central Committee. The issue at dispute then was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced requisitioning of food from rural areas. 'Tell us comrade', one worker asked, 'what is the danger of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organising a peasant union, and will it be organised?' A second worker asked, will 'there be equality for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone living in the Soviet Union, and if so when?' A third spoke in defence of the maligned richer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants, the kulaks: 'even if a peasant has one horse, one cow, or several sheep, then you consider him a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kulak.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We described earlier how the main schools of historiography tend to homogenise the history of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6933 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, arguing that Lenin introduced the Soviet system \('totalitarianism', in the eyes of most Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars\) in response to the Civil War of 1918?21, and that little of real significance changed afterwards. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes it is agreed that the first six months after October were libertarian; more rarely is it allowed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any similar experimentation continued after 1918. A pattern of terror, it is argued, was in place by 1919, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1921 or 1924 and then remained. In Murphy's workplace history, nothing happens like that at all. The early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of NEP are shown to be a tumultuous period, in which many of the original inspiring ideas of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution were re-learned. They were only dismantled later. So, for example, the women's organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zhenotdel reached its peak as late as 1926 in the Hammer and Sickle factory, organising a meeting for 400 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers, including a lecture on abortion. Just two years later, the women's network was a shell and women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spent International Women's Day 1928 protesting against their low pay. The early 1920s were a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular scepticism towards religion, when minorities were tolerated, and the hostility of the Orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church to the Revolution was widely discussed. By 1928, atheism meant a bureaucratic campaign to force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people to work through the Christmas holiday. In a key phrase, Murphy describes 1928 as 'the decisive year' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for democracy both in the plant and, by implication, in the whole Soviet Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Every dissident network from the anarchists, the Workers' Group and Workers' Truth onwards was able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieve some base in the plant. The Workers' Opposition captured the party organisation in the factory for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief time. The Left Social Revolutionaries retained a presence until 1923: many of their members reappear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as loyal Communists after 1927. The Trotskyist Opposition and then the United Opposition were both able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to generate support. In 1926, Murphy judges their backing to have been 'widespread, but passive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ephemeral'. In 1927, by contrast, loyalist speeches denouncing the Opposition were met with tumultuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applause.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the late NEP, the unions were already sliding backwards, at least in the Hammer and Sickle factory: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Murphy makes this argument, citing E. H. Carr and R. W. Davies as his guides. He also draws a parallel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Western workers, whose strike figures showed similar falls in 1926?9. What destroyed the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for the workers to restate their independence was the shock work movement, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged migrants to the cities to compete with established workers, demonstrating that they could double )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or treble the rate of labour, in return for modest advances of pay. In the Hammer and Sickle works, older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilled workers resisted the shock labour system, refusing to volunteer. Yet by March 1930, their battle was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost. 'Thirteen years \(almost to the day\)', Murphy writes, 'after the factory committee was created to defend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers' interests, it was formally transformed into its opposite: a management tool for raising productivity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working longer hours and lowering costs. In the spring of 1930 shock workers replaced 80 percent of factory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committees nationally, and 51 percent in Moscow'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is often said that the Russian proletariat vanished between summer 1918 and spring 1921, perhaps not as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of repression, but because workers were used by the Bolsheviks as their vanguard in the Civil War. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volunteering for the Red Army, the flu epidemic, the inadequacy of rations and the declining city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, all are said to have tamed the independent habits of Russian labour. We have no higher authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on this question than Lenin himself, who complained through 1920 and 1921 that the old Russian working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class was no more. The compelling message of Kevin Murphy's book is that Lenin was wrong: workers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation outlasted the tumults of the Civil War period and much of the NEP. If Lenin is wrong, then of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, so are the other authorities with which this review began. The NEP should not be seen as just another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage in the inevitable creation of Russian Communism or Soviet autocracy. We see, rather, the continuation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of workers' struggle, and its tolerance in Soviet life. From the workers' perspective, the early and mid-1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were a time of disappointment not dictatorship. When Stalinism came, it was a product of the late 1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 75.967 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 58.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 58.187 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/496)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 56.793 m 322.316 56.793 l S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 57.1075 322.3157 68.9875 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/496) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2866)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000584 00000 n 0000000666 00000 n 0000005227 00000 n 0000005336 00000 n 0000005446 00000 n 0000005555 00000 n 0000009116 00000 n 0000009244 00000 n 0000009328 00000 n 0000009393 00000 n 0000017072 00000 n 0000017137 00000 n 0000024447 00000 n 0000024531 00000 n 0000031517 00000 n 0000031643 00000 n 0000031738 00000 n 0000031803 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32161 %%EOF