%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722044057+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722044057+01'00') /Title (Sexuality in Medieval Europe: Doing Unto Others) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4549 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sexuality in Medieval Europe: Doing Unto Others)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a reviewer who regards himself as a pioneer in the study of medieval sexuality, I judge this book as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best short introduction to medieval sexuality that I have read. The first chapter is an outstanding examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the problems of writing about sex in medieval Europe. The comparative lack of sources for medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual conduct is compounded by the fact that the sources themselves differ. One view, mainly promulgated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by extant church writing, is a negative view regarding sex as a pollutant and a threat to the soul. Opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this strict and sin-wracked image stands an earthier one. Lusty priests seduce the women who confess to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them; noblemen keep mistresses; monks and nuns engage in secret liaisons while peasant couples copulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind the hedgerows: such texts present a lustful, playful version of sex. For Karras, both views are true.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both views are also heavily gendered, and Karras feels that the more negative ideas were especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevalent in discussion of women. In recounting medieval sexuality, Karras is an advocate of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructionism, if only because it is more helpful when describing a past in which sexual issues were seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an entirely different viewpoint from that of the twenty-first-century. An essentialist, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would argue that a pederast is a pederast wherever and whenever such individuals are found while the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructionist would hold that the sexual and social identity of a man who has sex with underage boys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depends on the culture in which he lives. By looking at sex in its social context, she can give readers a useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of sexuality within the context of the wider medieval society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She also holds that to look at the medieval evidence for particular forms of sexuality is to open a can of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worms. The bulk of the extant documents surviving from the Middle Ages were written by monks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergyman who had taken vows of chastity and did not have the same views of sex as the non clergy. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of what we know is what theologians and canon lawyers thought, and not what the sexually active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(497)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Mazo Karras)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0415289637)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vern Bullough)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6769 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common people thought and did. In addition to the legal and religious writings, however, there are also other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewpoints. There are, for example, a number of medical texts, although it is also true that many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical writers were also members of religious orders. This meant that medicine was never entirely separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from theology. Still other information sources come from artistic illustrations, but it is not always possible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know the meaning. In the Bayeux tapestry, for example, a man with an erection is portrayed chasing a naked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman. What does it mean? Is the man threatening the woman or are they engaged in foreplay? What did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who embroidered the tapestry think, especially since they might well have been nuns? We are also not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sure how medieval people would have interpreted this illustration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medieval people also tended to write with an emotionality that would seem out of place in discussions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between lovers, simply because they understood the bonds of love and friendship differently from the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we do today. They regarded sex acts as a transitive activity, something someone did to someone else, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a mutual thing, a point emphasised by Karras in her subtitle )] TJ ET BT 341.660 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Doing Unto Others)] TJ ET BT 434.324 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Gender, nonetheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed a fundamental organising role in medieval sexuality. The experience of any heterosexual act was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different for the man and the woman because they were conceived of as doing different things.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In discussing medieval sex, it is also important to keep in mind that attitudes towards sex changed during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of the Middle Ages. There was far more regulation in the later Middle Ages than the earlier. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to recognise that there were a variety of peoples in the medieval period and not all people were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian. Some were Christian heretics, but others were members of the Orthodox Church, or were Jewish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or were Muslim. One of the things that Karras does is to look at variations. Though eastern European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic sources are even scarcer than their western counterparts, there are still enough to find differences. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orthodox Christianity, if only because priests were married, has quite different ideas from Roman Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity, or, for that matter, from Judaism and Islam. Islam, especially in Spain, was part of the Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West while Jewish groups were widely dispersed. How did each religion influence the other? The one thing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that all three groups agreed upon was that sexual relations between members of the different groups were to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be discouraged, although the Christian exempla are full of stories of men marrying and converting Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even Saracen women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karras argues that medieval attitudes toward sexuality were conflicted and complicated since there was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal and hegemonic agreement, that the identities in the Middle Ages were different from those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today, that the dichotomy between active and passive partner played a major role in the way that medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people thought about sexuality. With this as background, Karras explores several ways of looking at sex. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One theme is the sexuality of chastity, a life dedicated to not having sex. She uses the term chastity instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of celibacy because technically celibacy means not being married, a condition which in itself does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily imply chastity. Another major discussion is on sex and marriage. Here she points out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degrees of kinship were important since marriages were not to take place unless there were at least four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degrees of kinship involved. Marriage without some official church action was not to take place if the couple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared the same great-great grandfather. Decisions about this relationship were to be made before marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since dissolving a marriage, even an illegal one, was difficult, and spouses could only be allowed to separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if it should not have taken place in the first place. Impotence was a ground for separation but it had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proven, for example, by testing the husband?s ability to get an erection by exposing him to other women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While marriage was regarded only as a second best solution for life?s problems, it was still only permitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for those who could not or would not live up to the ideal virtue of chastity. The main purpose of marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to reproduce although the church in the West placed limitations on when coitus was allowed. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liturgical calendar was full of feast and fast days on which marital intercourse was forbidden; in addition it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was forbidden on Sundays and sometimes other days of the week. Couples were also not supposed to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex during the woman?s menstrual period.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6252 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the medieval medical point of view it was the semen of the man not the penetration that caused sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure in the female, so that release of semen becomes all important and simple penetration was a minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue. Men, however, were regarded as active and women as passive. Usually intercourse took place in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dark since candles were expensive and Karras feels this helps explain why there are a number of medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of ?accidentally? getting into bed with someone who was not their spouse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book looks at the sexual activity both within and outside of marriage and points out that standards for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(females were far stricter than those imposed on males. Women were regarded as preservers of family honour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a woman?s misbehaviour reflected on her whole family while that of a man only reflected only upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself. There were also marriages of convenience, as among the aristocracy, which were made to form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliances and pass on property, and the men in such marriages as well as others often took on concubines in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite of church prohibitions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prostitution was omnipresent in the medieval world and although the ecclesiastical and even secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities might consider prostitutes fallen and depraved women, their peers among the working people of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the towns did not adopt that attitude. Moreover, church authorities often used prostitutes to act as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temptresses in trials of men charged with impotence. While rape undoubtedly occurred frequently, it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily a matter of great concern. Proving rape was difficult, and implicit in the general sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the time was that the idea that the man takes what he wants, and there was not much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention given to whether the woman consented or not. There was also a real fear of women?s sexuality, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this ultimately was a factor in the development of the concept of witchcraft which appeared near the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medieval period when there was a widespread belief that all witchcraft came from carnal lust.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her section on male sex life outside of marriage, Karras includes a very intelligent discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuality. She points out that often charges of homosexuality were simply charges against the outsider, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example of the English against the Normans or Christians against Muslims. Interestingly, although in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledgments Karras expresses her indebtedness to John Boswell, she basically does not agree with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis about church toleration of homosexuality nor with many of his translations of laws and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents. In fact she more or less ignores him; however, she does mention the possibility of a homosexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage \(adelphophilia\), which Boswell also postulated, but tends to believe it was a kind of brotherhood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many points at which I can disagree with Karras. For example, she says that medieval people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delayed marriage until their twenties; while this might be true of the male aristocracy, I am more inclined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept early marriage or settling in at twelve to fourteen years old for most people, and especially women ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the age stipulated by canon law. Interestingly, she ignores the writings of John Riddle who has published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely on birth control and abortion in the medieval period and if she had consulted him she might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give a different interpretation. She does not cover all forms of sexual activity. She ignores sado-masochism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, passes lightly over transvestite saints and individuals, mentions but does not develop the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes toward masturbation, pays little attention to canon law, and says little about the early Confessional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature. In spite of these and other deficiencies, I hold that she has written a remarkable book and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who read it will have a much better understanding of medieval sexuality than they had before. She also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes a good bibliography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 163.759 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 145.979 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 145.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/497)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 144.585 m 322.316 144.585 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 119.608 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 105.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2868)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 144.8995 322.3157 156.7795 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/497) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000543 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000005226 00000 n 0000005335 00000 n 0000005445 00000 n 0000005554 00000 n 0000009115 00000 n 0000009243 00000 n 0000009327 00000 n 0000009392 00000 n 0000016214 00000 n 0000016298 00000 n 0000022603 00000 n 0000022731 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 22826 %%EOF