%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141030161256+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141030161256+00'00') /Title (Royal Inauguration in Gaelic Ireland c.1100?1600: a Cultural Landscape Study) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4758 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Royal Inauguration in Gaelic Ireland c.1100?1600: a Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Landscape Study)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For many medieval historians, royal inauguration means a coronation ceremony, generally at a long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established church, often a cathedral. In Ireland however, inauguration ceremonies mostly took place at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special open-air assembly places. This volume is particularly concerned with the nature of these sites and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their location in the Irish landscape, rather than the attendant ritual; as the author puts it, the focus is 'on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage, rather than upon the plot, props and players of royal election ritual' \(p. 1\). In this the work succeeds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirably; Dr FitzPatrick has produced a volume which successfully synthesises earlier work and distils a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large amount of original research, providing a number of useful insights into the topic, always with an eye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on comparative material from Britain and the Continent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There has been considerable interest in later medieval Gaelic society in recent years; the two modern classics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the field by Kenneth Nicholls and Katherine Simms are still in print and are cited several times in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.332 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.332 167.265 m 113.324 167.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 113.324 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( FitzPatrick is particularly interested in the nature and use of assembly sites and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably fair to say that she has made this topic her own. Several articles on the subject have appeared from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her pen and the year of publication of the present volume also saw articles on 'Parley sites of Nill and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domhnaill' and 'Royal inauguration mounds in medieval Ireland: antique landscape and tradition'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.780 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.780 124.497 m 517.772 124.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Royal Inauguration in Gaelic Ireland)] TJ ET BT 214.004 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a rewritten version of her PhD thesis \(Trinity College Dublin, 1998\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central argument of the book is that inauguration-sites, and indeed the entire paraphernalia of king-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making, were chosen to reinforce the legitimacy and credibility of the candidate by reference to the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mythological associations of the site and props. This idea is familiar to all scholars of inauguration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(498)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth FitzPatrick)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0415289637)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Zumbuhl)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.3317 167.5795 113.3237 179.4595 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.7797 124.8115 517.7717 136.6915 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7456 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ritual. In the medieval Gaelic world, both Ireland and Scotland, the concern to express royal status was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed in many texts, especially tiologies, genealogies and king-lists, composed or modified in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of the ruling elites to bolster their legitimacy. This monograph offers us a glimpse into some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical and spatial expressions of royal status which hitherto have not been discussed in such detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work is organised into six chapters plus a prologue and epilogue; appendices tabulating attested and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible inauguration-sites, footprint stones at church and secular sites; and an additional appendix by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael J. Simms 'Provenancing the Chair of Clann Aodha Buidhe'. The chapters have rather colourful titles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\('The Hill of the Shoutings', 'The Mountain Seat of Fionn'\) which stand in contrast to the book's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforwardly utilitarian title. The narrative is fluent and enjoyable to read; FitzPatrick engages closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with written sources, quotations from which provide additional interest beyond the fieldwork descriptions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The prologue presents a summary of the Irish ceremony of royal inauguration. The biggest difficulty is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources for what actually took place at such ceremonies are scarce. There are no historical accounts of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inauguration ceremony pre-dating the arrival of the English, though there are references to certain practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in literary texts. Many of these pertain to kings in the legendary past, and must be used with the utmost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caution. No text specifying what should be done in such a ceremony has survived, and there is very limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence for the adoption of a royal anointing ritual, though Michael Enright has argued such a case \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed suggested the origins of European royal anointing lie in Ireland, an idea which has not been popular\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 528.723 m 48.008 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The later medieval sources are descriptive rather than prescriptive, observing ceremony rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordering it. There are some points of commonality in the surviving accounts, but it is clear that we should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think in terms of varied rather than uniform practice. FitzPatrick argues that the common regalia of throne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and crown were not adopted by Irish kings and chiefs, and indeed they are largely absent from the limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of medieval visual portrayals of kingship which survive. She is keen to stress that the apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplicity of imagery and ritual was not a sign of archaism, and that inauguration-practice did move with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, even if it was different to much European practice. This sentiment is in line with historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in the last three decades which have seen primitivist and nativist analyses of early Irish society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected by most scholars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 1 is an essay in sources and method. It summarises the evidence for locating inauguration-sites, here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided into documentary and toponymic categories. The opening section argues convincingly that the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Gaelic order in the Tudor and Jacobean periods was the important break in use and awareness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location of inauguration-sites. Whereas other important places such as tower houses and churches were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted by plantation society, assembly sites had no place in the new order; indeed, the Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration attempted to ban the practice of open-air assembly early on. Knowledge gradually faded, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was not until the nineteenth century that serious efforts were made to locate such places: the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges the important debt modern scholars owe to John O'Donovan and the Ordnance Survey Letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as sources of information.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems to me that there is something of a theoretical problem, or at least ambiguity, present in this chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and elsewhere. This is the question of how one may define 'assembly' and 'inauguration' sites. Pages 15?29 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refer now to evidence for assembly sites, now to evidence for inauguration-sites, and other chapters similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mix terminology. As the author is well aware, it is not easy to make a clear distinction between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories, particularly as some of the attested inauguration-sites had multiple functions. General assemblies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have been held at inauguration-sites, but could inaugurations be held at a site previously only used for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembly or parley? The evidence does not allow the questions of functions and categorisation to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answered definitely, but a clear statement of the issues would have been welcome. This book in fact includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a good deal of information about assembly sites in general, rather than narrowly focusing only on places of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inauguration; a strong point in its favour, but not one immediately apparent from the title.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The basic methodology employed is to find citations of inauguration-sites in the documentary record and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where possible to locate them in the modern landscape. In many cases such identifications can be made with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence; in a roughly equal number of instances the identifications are tentative or conjectural. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous references in Irish sources, particularly chronicles, hagiography, bardic poetry and genealogy. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 529.0375 48.0077 540.9175 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7449 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sources of English origin also occasionally refer to inauguration-sites, particularly from the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century as the effort to eliminate Gaelic practices gained momentum. From the very end of the period under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration a number of Tudor maps record such sites. To these sources can be added modern folkloric or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral testimony which may identify sites not recorded elsewhere but which must also be used with particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care. There is also the evidence of place names, particularly the incidence of elements which may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestive of assembly. The usual problems of onomastic investigation apply here, particularly the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which coinages had specific technical meanings concerned with assembly or inauguration rather than more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly descriptive ones. Given that elsewhere in the book Dr FitzPatrick is appreciative of practices in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaelic Scotland, the absence of reference to Scottish toponymy is notable, given that many of the elements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified also occur in Scotland, such as tulach \(often appearing as tilli/tilly- on modern maps\). There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also differences between the Irish and Scottish onomastic packages for Gaelic assembly sites and this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly an area for future research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From an archaeological point of view, we must ask whether inauguration-sites can be identified on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situational and morphological grounds, in other words, whether fieldwork alone could spot a site that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent from the documentary record. The answer is a qualified 'perhaps'. FitzPatrick argues that inauguration-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sites do tend to share certain features, principally some degree of elevation, but with convenient access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(generally they are not at very great elevations\), and commanding views of the landscape around, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of prominent features with their own historical/mythological associations. But the actual nature of the sites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which have been definitely located on the ground varies considerably: some were artificial mounds \(which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be re-used prehistoric monuments\), some rocky knolls, others natural terraces. There is no one set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features definitely diagnostic of assembly-functions. FitzPatrick concludes that the mound \(enclosed or not\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the most common type, and chapter 2 examines a number of such sites in detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FitzPatrick notes that the origins for inauguration at mounds are 'presumed to lie in late prehistory' \(p. 43\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but counsels caution against assuming any continuity of practice into the middle ages. Some have assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaugurations to have taken place at prehistoric ritual centres \(such as Tara/Temhair and Navan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fort/Eamhain Macha\) but archaeological evidence for such activity in late prehistory is absent and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary evidence is of much later date. She suggests instead that the practices of the known medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingships more probably reflected the circumstances in which they came to power. This is very probable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though of course for the early middle ages there is no evidence of how most Irish kingships came to be. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FitzPatrick's broader argument is that Irish kings were interested in ancient monuments in what she terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ceremonial' landscapes \(p. 52\) because by possessing them royal dynasties gained the aura of antiquity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which we know from other sources \(principally genealogies\) to have been a requisite of royal status. Several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locations are discussed in detail, including Magh Adhair \(Co. Clare\), inauguration-site of the Dl gCais and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(U Bhriain, and Carn Fraoich \(Co. Roscommon\), inauguration-site of Sol Muireadhaigh and U )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chonchobhair. In both cases landscapes with existing historical or mythological/heroic associations were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriated by Irish royal dynasties. The argument is convincing, though the suggested dates in each case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must be considered conjectural; though the rise in political fortunes of Dl gCais provides a good context for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the production of their genealogy and the adoption of Magh Adhair, definite evidence is wanting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FitzPatrick also discusses 'the invention of tradition' which may have occurred when political changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required rulers to adopt a new inauguration-site; one argued instance is the later medieval lordship of Tr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fiachrach in north Connacht. FitzPatrick appears to make a distinction between 'genuine' claims of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations between royal ancestors and sites on one hand, and 'fabricated' traditions on the other. I do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see that it is useful to make such a distinction, for it seems to be based on a difference between sites used in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier medieval period and those which appear later \(p. 68\). 'Traditions' such as those connected with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape around Carn Fraoich are no more 'genuine' for having been created centuries earlier than those for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some other sites.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 3 and 4 are particularly concerned with stones and stone chairs, attested as furniture at several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inauguration-sites. FitzPatrick summarises some of the literary evidence for significant stones \(principally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lia Fil at Tara and Leac Chathraighi at Cashel/Caiseal\) and considers evidence for leaca\(stones\) at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attested sites, starting with place names containing the word. Again, there is variation: the term might refer )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7900 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to an actual dressed stone at the site, or simply exposed bedrock; the later medieval period saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of the stone chair \(cathair\). FitzPatrick suggests the variation is partly due to changing historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances as the kings of early Gaelic society were gradually reduced to the status of lords. The general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle is sound but the case for the adoption of stone chairs reflecting the self-perceptions of later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Gaelic chiefs is difficult to prove given that there are very few examples, most of them in Ulster.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of inauguration leaca is incontestable; the obvious point of comparison is the Scottish 'Stone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Destiny', but FitzPatrick refers to other examples from around the world. She devotes a long discussion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the significance of footprint-marks observed in several stones, though the evidence is rather inconclusive; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this segues into a discussion of the practice of the 'rite of the single shoe' which is definitely attested in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifteenth and sixteenth centuries among the U Chonchobhair and Mig Uidhir. This section, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting, does stray somewhat from the author's intention to focus upon the stage rather than the plot, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given that the evidence connecting any rites with footprint-marks is extremely slight \(as is admitted\) some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the material is of questionable relevance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 5 is titled 'By consent of God and man: the influence of the Church'. It appears that FitzPatrick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscribes to Francis John Byrne's view that ecclesiastical influence on Irish kingship amounted to 'little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than enamelling' as he put it, at least in terms of inauguration ceremonies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.124 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.124 557.235 m 429.116 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.116 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Her main reason for so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing is that throughout the period inaugurations seem to have remained at traditional secular sites; their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional appearance at churches or cathedrals were infrequent diversions. This stands in contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream European practice in the period. FitzPatrick accepts that clerics were probably present at most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaugurations; the question of the extent to which they officiated is more complex, but the evidence does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that normally an important vassal lord, or an ollamh \(chief poet\) held the office of inaugurating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king, rather than a churchman. The main contrary evidence here is the so-called Second Life of St Medc )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Ferns, written probably in the twelfth century but preserved in a later manuscript. This describes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor or comharba of the saint officiating at the inaugurations of the kings of Brifne and Leinster, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes ecclesiastics carrying the reliquary known as the Brecc Medic \(which survives to this day\) three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times around the candidate. This was perhaps an adaptation of a secular ritual to an ecclesiastical context, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other texts describe the candidate himself performing a thrice righthandwise turn \(deiseal\) as part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremony, a gesture for which there are analogues elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FitzPatrick argues that where we see the greatest level of ecclesiastical influence on inauguration practice we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are seeing the outcome of strong reforming tendencies. The first period considered is the twelfth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the Gregorian reform movement arrived in Ireland, sponsored initially by the U Bhriain kings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munster. Reflexes of the reform movement seem to appear in a note describing an idealised inauguration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremony at Cashel \(p. 178\). FitzPatrick follows Donnchadh Corrin in seeing the note as a propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise rather than reflection of actual royal practice, but suggests that the mention of two locations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cormac's Chapel and Lis na nUrlann nearby may be suggestive of a triumphal procession from one venue to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another, a ritual for which there are analogues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FitzPatrick also devotes a good deal of space to inauguration-ritual in the kingdom of the Cinal gConaill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(roughly present-day Co. Donegal\), for here there is strong evidence for the transfer of inauguration to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church sites. Raphoe Cathedral was the inauguration venue of the ruling Domhnaill king in 1258 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FitzPatrick would point the finger at Maol Pdraig Scannail, bishop of Raphoe and reforming Dominican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friar. Here too I find the argument persuasive, though the case for Carraig an Din as the traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inauguration-site is more doubtful, given the almost total lack of evidence. There are no further records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domhnaill inaugurations for over two centuries and when they reappear in 1461 the venue is another church, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kilmacrenan/Cill Mhic Nenin, which is quite close to the putative original site at Carraig an Din.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.968 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.968 134.067 m 524.960 134.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 524.960 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of inauguration there emphasise the ecclesiastical aspects of the ritual, but these are particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in rubbishing the infamous account of bestial king-making in Cinal gConaill penned by Gerald of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales in 1185x8 and republished by Camden in 1602. This narrative is familiar to many medievalists who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise do not concern themselves with Ireland. FitzPatrick is agnostic as to whether Gerald's account was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a distorted memory of past practice or in some way reflective of then-current reality; as scholars in the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have noted, some elements chime with other Irish sources while others seem most unlikely. Overall, I think )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.1237 557.5495 429.1157 569.4295 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.9677 134.3815 524.9597 146.2615 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 7278 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is scope for a further look at ecclesiastical influence ? though secular sites remained the norm, clerics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have wielded more influence than is allowed for here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 6 examines political geography: how inauguration-sites related to other centres of lordship, and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres related to landholding patterns. These are very important topics, but only a limited amount of space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been given to them. The business of mapping out the centres of lordships and their relationships with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of landholding is a difficult one and as a field of research is underdeveloped, partly because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is often patchy in geographical and chronological distribution. That political geography varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatly over time makes the task even more formidable and this perhaps is one reason why the coverage is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat limited. FitzPatrick offers us several short case studies from Ulster during the last decades of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth century, a period for which there is a good deal of documentary evidence for landholding. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly highlights the importance of the lucht tighe, a term originally signifying a king's household but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later referring to the area of land which was to provide for it. Estates in these lands belonged to the ruler's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important vassals \(in some cases reflective of their earlier position as providers of food and hospitality\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inauguration-sites often lying in lands held by clients who possessed the office of inaugurator. Sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this office could change from one family to another, without the landholding pattern changing, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications for the relationship between ruler, official and site.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FitzPatrick considers the residences of ruling families to have been their main centres and, in the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century at least, these were generally located close to inauguration-sites. In examining the diachronic picture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FitzPatrick asserts that while inauguration-sites generally remained fixed, residential centres moved with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing political circumstances. She rightly questions whether the concept of caput regionis existed, and if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it should be equated with the lord's main residence, inauguration-site or other site where assemblies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held. To some extent these discussions convey a static image of lordship. In the early medieval period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itinerancy was an essential feature of kingship. Even in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries when rulers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived mainly in one defended castle and attached settlement, they were often on the move and in the field; so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in one sense the centre was wherever the lord was. FitzPatrick includes a discussion of the ramifications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internecine feud among Gaelic families, which often led to competition for the traditional inauguration-site, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or occasionally to the adoption of different sites by different factions. This discussion would have been most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant also to the question of residences and political centres ? for example, one wonders to what extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central residence was attached to the office of kingship \(as was some mensal land\) or was a reflection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which branch of a dynasty held the office at the time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The epilogue considers the official attempts to ban Gaelic practices in the Tudor period, and the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Nine Years' War \(1594?1603\) on election practices and inauguration ritual. In the period leading up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Battle of Kinsale in 1601, Nill and Domhnaill, the leading Gaelic rulers of the day, travelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely in Ireland rallying support, removing opposing chiefs from office and on several occasions installing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more amenable candidates in their stead. These interventions often involved disregarding traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice, and it is an interesting 'what if' question to wonder whether any of these changes would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persisted if the old Gaelic order had survived beyond the first decade of the seventeenth century. In the event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it did not, and with the changes in society accompanying the new political scene and the plantations, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inauguration-sites were abandoned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This review copy is handsomely produced and free from errors of typesetting or typography, with a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptions \(the bottom line of p. 26 is repeated at the top of p. 27; p. 43 'Limavaddy' for 'Limavady'; p. 132 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('seantman' not capitalised; p. 211 'Thigearnn' for 'Tigearnn'\). In covering the period from 1100?1600, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are issues as to where one uses Middle Irish and Early Modern Irish orthography in representing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names; generally FitzPatrick goes with the conventional break c.1200 but there are occasional odd hybrid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms \(p. 131 'Noghiallach'; p. 211 'Tigearnn', better either Tigernn or Tighearnn\). Figures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs are well-reproduced, even at small scales. The accompanying maps, mainly by Catherine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin, are clear and well-executed. The appendices are useful, though one has to refer to footnotes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main text to recover references to the sources for this information. Oddly, though there are indexes of names )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(of places, persons and groups\) there is no general or subject index.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 5958 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A few minor points which may aid prospective readers \(particularly those without Irish\): the poem cited on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 21 is not translated in full; on p. 90 no date is offered for the composition of )] TJ ET BT 413.984 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Betha Meic Creiche)] TJ ET BT 509.960 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps of the twelfth century\); on p. 100 Leac Chathraighi is not translated; it means 'Stone of Patrick' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is mentioned by Trechn in the late seventh century )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.308 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.308 740.307 m 302.300 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 302.300 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; on p. 112 'Munter-Malmore' is an Anglicisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muinter Mhaol Mrdha, an early name of U Raghallaigh of East Brifne; on p. 178 FitzPatrick follows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byrne's translation which omits a clause from the Lecan text: insert 'in Cashel' after 'Lis na nUrlann', which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has implications for FitzPatrick's suggested identification of that site on p. 179.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the archaeologist, the book does a great deal to contextualise the significance of inauguration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembly sites in medieval Gaelic society. For the historian and literary scholar, the volume highlights the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of sites not just as significant locations in themselves but as parts of a complex landscape. Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FitzPatrick's book is a significant contribution to our understanding of the Gaelic world in the later medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 550.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 550.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. W. Nicholls, )] TJ ET BT 142.676 550.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gaelic and Gaelicized Ireland in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 381.644 550.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd edn, Dublin, 2003\); K. Simms, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 535.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Kings to Warlords)] TJ ET BT 182.360 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.340 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.340 534.483 m 340.328 534.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 521.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appearing in )] TJ ET BT 130.004 521.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regions and Rulers in Ireland, 1100?1650: Essays for Kenneth Nicholls)] TJ ET BT 477.332 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards, \(Dublin, 2004\), pp. 201?216; and )] TJ ET BT 275.324 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Assembly Places and Practices in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 523.280 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Pantos and S. Semple, pp. 44?72 \(Dublin, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.340 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.340 491.715 m 367.328 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. J. Enright, )] TJ ET BT 133.352 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iona, Tara and Soissons: the Origin of the Royal Anointing Ritual)] TJ ET BT 450.368 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berlin, 1985\). \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.672 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.672 463.203 m 179.660 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. J. Byrne, )] TJ ET BT 122.684 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Kings and High-kings)] TJ ET BT 253.688 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd edn, Dublin, 2001\), p. 255.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.344 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.344 448.947 m 465.332 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though as FitzPatrick points out, in 1399 Mac Suibhne was inaugurated at Kilmacrenan at the behest )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Domhnaill, which suggests it was already the U Dhomhnaill inauguration-site. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.980 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.980 420.435 m 525.968 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Patrician Texts in the Book of Armagh)] TJ ET BT 270.344 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. L. 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