%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 15 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 11 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 12 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818230034+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818230034+01'00') /Title (Ernest Gellner) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 13 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3623 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ernest Gellner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ernest Gellner, who died on 5 November 1995, was one of the great polymaths of the century. Many of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenty books were concerned with philosophy, sociology and anthropology. Yet at the core of his work was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an historical question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His own life, poised between thought systems and cultures, had put him in an unique position to appreciate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'great transformation' of modernity. This he described in an interview in 1990 as follows. \(Interview with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Davis, May 1990, published in )] TJ ET BT 210.680 118.763 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Current Anthropology)] TJ ET BT 321.044 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,vol.32, no.1, Feb. 1991.\) 'The difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the agrarian religious world and the industrial scientific one has always been for me absolutely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to understanding the world.' 'The emergenc e of an open system in north-western Europe...is a central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact about the world, about the human condition. There have been transitions from societies based on a stable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology, a stable faith, hierarchical organization, cultural stratification, and all the rest of it to societies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 September, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ernest Gellner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(225pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamish Hamilton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ernest Gellner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(260pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Macfarlane)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 14 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 16 0 R >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Length 7573 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based upon economic growth, a kind of universal bribery fund with a commitment to secure material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement. That involves an unstable occupational structure, which in turn involves a measure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egalitarianism, a homogeneous culture, because people have to communicate with each other, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involves nationalism.' This he thought was 'the enormous transition which I think is the central fact about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our world' and was 'my central preoccupation'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gellner had made a number of attempts to understand this 'great transformation'. The most extended of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in his book )] TJ ET BT 112.016 698.933 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Sword, Plough and Book)] TJ ET BT 236.048 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1989\). There, in a section headed 'Conditions of the Exit' he gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a check- list of 'factors' which might have enabled the west to 'escape'. There are fifteen of them, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Feudalism as the matrix of capitalism' through 'the restrained state' and 'the direct Protestant ethic thesis' to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a national rather than civic b ourgeoisie'. Most are thought-provoking, and some, such as 'the availability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ex-panding bribery fund', are original. But none is determining and Gellner is too auto-critical to be really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convinced by any of them. The best that he can draw from this analysis is a list of possible ingredients. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise weightings are not specified nor the ways the elements should be combined. We are left, as Gellner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is himself, unsatisfied. It is still a miracle, the way through the gate is still obscure. This obscurity has now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been partially cleared away by the essays and book reviewed here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the period of the collapse of the Soviet Union Gellner wrote essays on the 'Origins of Society', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Culture, Constraint and Community', 'The Highway to Growth' and 'War and Violence', subsequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published as part of )] TJ ET BT 131.336 530.117 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Anthropology an d Politics)] TJ ET BT 263.696 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He later wrote )] TJ ET BT 341.336 530.117 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(The Conditions of Liberty)] TJ ET BT 469.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesized and extended the thought of a lifetime. There are, of course, weaknesses in his work. Many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the assertions are undocumented, some are exaggerated. He largely ignores eastern Asia and America. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposes too neat and tidy a three-stage model on the past. Yet it is a privilege to watch this brilliant mind, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had deeply engaged with the history and structure of three civilizations, Islamic, Communist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Capitalist, reflect on how the last of these emerged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One area in which he expanded his analysis was in relation to the religious system. Like Weber, Gellner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not suggest that Protestantism intentionally or directly )] TJ ET BT 322.016 418.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(caused)] TJ ET BT 356.684 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( capitalism. Firstly the famous ascetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtues of hard-work, honesty, saving were an accidental by-product of the Reformation. Thus 'one may also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept the Weberian argument that virtues which could only initially emerge as the by-product of bizarre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious conviction, because their beneficent effects were not known and were anticipated by no one, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless become habit-forming and are perpetuated, once their place in a modern economy is properly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and widely understood.' \(Gellner, Liberty, 202\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part of what Protestantism did was to push to one extreme a general tendency in much of western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity towards an attack on a magical and ritual embededness. Part of the explanation for the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an unusual thought style in the west from early on lies in Christianity, that is to say 'the impact of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationalistic, centralizing, monotheistic and exclusive religion. It is important that it was hostile to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulative magic and insisted on salvation through compliance with rules, rather than loyalty to a spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage network and payment of dues.' \(Gellner, Grove, 36\)As can be seen, this ascetic streak tended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become overlain in Catholicism with a world of miracles and magic and Protestantism was the extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to restore it to its original anti-magical cleanliness. Compare the ex cesses of ritual Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism with 'a monotheistic, iconoclastic, puritanical, nomocratic world: a distant, hidden, rule-bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rule-imposing, awe-inspiring God has proscribed magic, ritual, ecstasy, sacred objects, and enjoins a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule-bound morality on his creature s, and similarly, imposes law-abiding regularity on all nature. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates all sacredness in Himself; piety is henceforth to be manifested in sober orderly conduct, in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undiscriminating observance of rules.\(Gellner, Grove, 39\) This is moving towards a 'disenchanted' world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is an ideal background for orderly science and orderly capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gellner has a second line of argument which does not focus on the nature of religion, but on its power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to the State. Puzzling on how mankind escaped from the joint domination of priests and kings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gellner began to develop the idea that it was because the two fell out. The 'normal' situation in agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilizations was described by Durkheim, who 'sketched out what is really the generic social structure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agro-literate societies, namely government by warriors and clerics, by coercers and by scribes. In his version, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7372 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two ruling strata ha ppen to be conflated, and top clerics were meritocratically selected from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorized thug class.' \(Gellner, Grove, 37\)Yet instead of this usual Caesaro-Papist concordat, the tension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Church and State is a peculiar western characteristic - as compared, for instance, to India or China. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gellner quotes David H ume's explanation for the toleration in England or Holland; 'if, among Christians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English and the Dutch have embraced principles of toleration, this singularity has proceeded from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steady resolution of the civil magistrate, in opposi tion to the continued efforts of priests and bigots.' This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points in the right direction, but why were the civil magistrates, unusually, opposed to religious extremism?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The key, Gellner suggests, may have been in the stale-mate between a powerful Church and a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State, both seeking a monopoly yet neither able to obtain it. 'The separation of, and rivalry between, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two categories of dominators may well constitute one of the important clues to the question of how we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed to escape from the agrarian order. Priests helped us to restrain thugs, and then abolished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves in an excess of zeal, by universalizing priest-hood. First Canossa, then the Reformation.'\(Gellner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grove, 58\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Calvinists were far from tolerant. Yet in their battle with their co-religionists of the national Churches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and with the State, they finally preferred a compromise. Seeking for tolerance for themselves, they had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give it to others. There was an 'ideological stalemate'. 'For virtue to be privatized, what may be essential is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the practitioners and preachers of uncompromising, absolute and enforced virtue, and the practitioners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the old rival, socially rooted and socially adaptive ritualistic religion should terminate their conf lict in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stalemate, and so in mutual toleration, as happened in England.'\(Gellner, Liberty, 78\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a subtler formulation than the crude interpretation sometimes drawn from Weber, that 'Calvinism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused capitalism'. If Calvinism was too successful, as in Scotland or Geneva, it could destroy the liberty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed for capitalist development just as effectively as the Counter-Reformation. It was only where it made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some progress, but then was checked and fused with alternative traditions that, like a moderate dose of d )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isinfection, it cleaned out the system. In England \(and Holland\) there were the checks to prevent its total )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory. The English continued that tradition, represented by Becket, of a Church prepared to stand up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the State but not pre pared to enter into an agreement to dominate. The separation of religion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics is one of the central constituents of modernity and it was achieved by accident and through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic tension and balance of forces of an unusual kind and over a long period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of Gellner's explanation lies in the relation between the political and the economic. His first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premise is that as societies develop into what we call 'civilizations', predation \(politics\) will dominate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production \(economy\) and c onstantly restrict its development. It is a kind of Malthusian law of power. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through some accident or discovery, wealth is increased, it will lead to a rise in predation which will reduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mankind back to that world of violence from which momentarily it seemed to be lifting itself. Indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two ki nds of Malthusianism are linked, for, as Gellner sees it 'Agrarian society was inescapably Malthusian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with population constantly pressing on resources; the distribution of those resources could not but be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invidious, and hence required a good deal of coercive enforcement, often very brutal.' \(Gellner, Grove, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(59\)Thus the growth of population, as Malthus suggested, led to violence \(war\). But the war also led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of population. 'The need for production and defence also impels agrar ian society to value offspring, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which means that, for familiar Malthusian reasons, their populations frequently come close to the danger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point.' \(Gellner, Grove, 34\) It was indeed a vicious, and apparently inescapable, circle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What has happened is neatly summed up thus. 'As an initial, stark hypothesis, I would propose a new law of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three stages: at first, violence was contingent and optional. In a second stage violence became pervasive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mandatory and normative. Military skills became central to the dominant ethos. In the third stage, which we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are at present entering, violence becomes once again optional, counter-productive and probably fatal.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Gellner, Grove, 160\) The violence took various forms. There was the Machiavellian dynamic: the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get in your defence first, 'the simple principle of pre-emptive violence, which asserts that you should be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first to do unto them that which they will do unto you if they get the chance, inescapab ly turns people into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivals.' \(Gellner, Grove, 34\) There was that preference for the exciting short-cut to wealth through seizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other people's productive surplus, once shown in war and now in the stock market. There was the jealousy of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7185 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the powerfu l who are threatened by alternative sources of power, the 'vicious circle which in the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliged power-holders to suppress successful accumulators of wealth, as an imminent political menace.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Gellner, Liberty, 78\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, from time to time, the relations of production and predation are reversed, and there is a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and cognitive growth, as in Greece or the Italian city states. 'Under favourable circumstances, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power had very occasionally mo ved from thugs to traders even in earlier periods: but as long as there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of ceiling on economic development, the shift did not proceed too far, and either reached a limit beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it could not go or was eventually reversed.' \(Gellner, G rove, 168\) In general, looking over the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of mankind up to the middle of the eighteenth century, it seemed true that 'political considerations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trumped economic ones and the economic side of life simply could not be granted full au tonomy - in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, a market society was impossible - because the economy was so pathetically feeble.' \(Gellner, Liberty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(169\) The normal tendency was for wealth-producing oases to be over-run by the surrounding military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers, as happened in Italy, southern Germany or the Hanseatic League. 'Commercial city states are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragile rather than a hardy plant. Why should the free merchants of north-west Europe fare any better tha n )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their predecessors who lie buried in the historic past?' \(Gellner, Liberty, 73\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gellner makes a cunning attempt to explain what is ultimately an improbable miracle. One of the main lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his argument concerns the role of technology and science. There were two distinct phases. As the change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began, the important t hing was that there was technological power and growth, but that it was not too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious and not too great. 'So early development may well have depended on the relative feebleness rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the power of innovation. In fact, by the time the new world emerged in full strength, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications were properly understood, it was too late to stop it. It had been camouflaged by its gradualness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that was made possible by the relatively non-disruptive nature of its techniques.' \(Gellner, Grove, 131\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is why Gellner always stresses an expanding but )] TJ ET BT 293.648 446.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(feeble)] TJ ET BT 323.636 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( technology as one of his essential pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions. Among the conditions of the escape were 'above all, a fairly feeble technology, one just about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capable of improving si gnificantly on traditional methods of production, and making sustained innovation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear attractive, but not capable of very much more. A feeble technology of such a kind can be given its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head and it will not disrupt either the social order or the environment, or at any rate not too much.' \(Gellner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberty, 89\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The miracle, however, only occurred by chance because, just as this phase of wealth growth reached its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limits, as in Holland in the eighteenth century, there was a change of gear, so to speak. Suddenly, without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone being able to anticipate it, two 'revolutions' occurred, which finally coalesced and confirmed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(switch from predation to production. These were the enormous surge in know-ledge and productive power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created by the scientific and industrial revolutions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Smith and Adam Ferguson had been right to be pessimistic in the light of all that had happened in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past, yet their forecasts 'came to be invalidated by the same factor, by the tremendous expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productive power consequent on th e impact of scientific technology.' \(Gellner, Liberty, 79\) In the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, a phenomenon whereby 'commerce and production for a time take over from predation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination' for the first time in history perpetuated itself because it was 'accompanied by two other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes - the incipient Industrial Revolution, leading to an entirely new method of production, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scientific Revolution, due to ensure an unending supply of innovation and an apparently unending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exponential increase in productive powers.' \(Gellner, Liberty, 73\) Thus the 'entire shift from valuation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coercion to valuation of production was only possible because, rather surprisingly, indefinite, sustained, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuou s technological and economic improvement )] TJ ET BT 297.320 137.717 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(had)] TJ ET BT 316.664 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( become possible.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has often been observed that through history the balance between offensive and defensive weapons has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed the nature of war and peace. What Gellner is basically arguing is that for the first time in history an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even deeper technological shift occurred, whereby the weapons or tools of production became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful than the tools of predation. A rich country with a small navy and mercenary army could face down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a larger, more warlike, but poorer country. More power and wealth could be made from producing things )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7521 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than by predating on others. This is not necessarily a permanent shift, yet it is indeed a momentous one and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it rests largely on the uneven developments of the technologies of production and destruction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What happened was that a country which was pursuing the path of production for the first time in history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devised a method of becoming so rich by productive increase, that it was also able to become the politically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant power. Technological expansion became a virtue, rather than a threat. The 'fittest' were not those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who pursued the straight path of predation, but those who put much of their energies into production. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Astonishingly, the regime in which oppression and dogmatism prevailed was not merely wicked, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually weaker than societies which were fr eer and more tolerant! This was the essence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment.' Thus 'it was only )] TJ ET BT 197.672 670.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(sustained and unlimited )] TJ ET BT 323.372 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( expansion and innovation which finally turned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the terms of the balance of power away from coercers and in favour of producers. In the inter-polity conflict, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no units managed to survive and to continue to compete if their internal organization was harsh on producers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and inhibited their activities or impelled them to emigrate.' \(Gellner, Grove, 169\) The great reversal in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history was 'only aided by the strange and unusual mechanism which favoured producers over power-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seekers, by eliminating entire collectivities which produced less or grew less than their rivals.' \(Gellner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grove, 172\) Thus the 'fittest' were now those who espoused that mix of openness and technological progress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose model was England. 'The economic and even military superiority of a gro wing society then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually obliged the others to follow suit. Natural selection secured what rational foresight or restraint had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to bring about.' 'So all the states in the relevant part of the world were in the end obliged to emulate th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(e liberal path to economic prosperity, or at least some aspects of it, in the hope of augmenting their power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and relative international position.' \(Gellner, Grove, 168\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this was made possible because of the fact that Europe was split into a number of medium sized states. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(You can repress most of the people most of the time, but not all of them all of the time - unless you live in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast absolutist world as in C hina or the Communist Soviet Union. This is expressed in Gellner's inimitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throw-away style as follows. Usually an improvement in technological power will strengthen domination, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('But in Europe the process was taking place within a multi-state system, and the thugs were unable to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth to strengthen themselves everywhere at the same time and to the same extent. The various thug states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also engaged, as was their habit and joy, in conflict with each other. Those which had tolerated or w ere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for one reason or another obliged to tolerate, prosperous and non- violent producers in their own midst, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suddenly found themselves )] TJ ET BT 167.672 373.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(more)] TJ ET BT 194.324 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( powerful - because endowed with a bigger economic base - than their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivals.' \(Gellner, Grove, 167\) In huge absolutist Empires, predation will eliminate production. 'But i n a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plural state system, in which other states prosper dramatically and visibly, the throttling and throttled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems are in the end eliminated by a social variant of natural selection. In a multi-state system, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to throttle Civil Societ y in some places, but not in all of them.' \(Gellner, Liberty, 74\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hints and rather crude lists and suggestions in )] TJ ET BT 257.996 290.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Sword, Plough and Book)] TJ ET BT 385.364 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have now been developed into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more coherent argument which maintains the )] TJ ET BT 283.640 275.765 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(contingency)] TJ ET BT 344.972 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of what happened, and through another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 154.664 261.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(balance)] TJ ET BT 194.000 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( between technology, polity and economy, gives a scintillating insight into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what happened. It places the scientific and industrial revolutions at the heart of the escape, but recognises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their contingency as well. As Perry Anderson observed, 'of all the sociological thinkers of the subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epoch, Gellner has remained closest to Weber's central intellectual problems ... none has addressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves with such cogency to the core cluster of his substantive concerns.' \(Perry Anderson, A Zone of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Engagement, Verso, London 1992, p198\) Another way of putting this is to say that Gellner was asking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same question as Weber, namely how did the unique, modern, western world emerge. This is the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their shared problem and only Gellner has had the combination of philosophic, sociological and comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge to take up Weber's challenge successfully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 102.223 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 84.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 84.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/4a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 83.049 m 315.644 83.049 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 58.072 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 83.3635 315.6437 95.2435 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/4a) >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 325 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4407)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4408)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000367 00000 n 0000000404 00000 n 0000000542 00000 n 0000000624 00000 n 0000004299 00000 n 0000004408 00000 n 0000004518 00000 n 0000004627 00000 n 0000004742 00000 n 0000008303 00000 n 0000008431 00000 n 0000008515 00000 n 0000008580 00000 n 0000016206 00000 n 0000016271 00000 n 0000023696 00000 n 0000023761 00000 n 0000030999 00000 n 0000031083 00000 n 0000038657 00000 n 0000038783 00000 n 0000038877 00000 n 0000038942 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39319 %%EOF