%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001065411+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001065411+01'00') /Title (Fertility, Class, and Gender in Britain 1860?1940) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3979 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fertility, Class, and Gender in Britain 1860?1940)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Szreter's remarkable and very important book argues, in effect, that coincidence has deceived the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of family sexuality in the period 1860 - 1960. The birth-rate per family in England and Wales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declined ever more steeply in this hundred yea r period, and it declined with roughly the same timing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speed in most other European countries. Historians would dearly love the whole story to be one unitary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon, and indeed this is how it is normally understood. Now Simon Szreter has come alon g, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admonishing the historians that their cherished unitary fertility decline is riddled with coincidence. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of one effect linking bedrooms of 1860 with those of 1960, and English bedrooms with those in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finland and Spain, is illusory, accordin g to Szreter. If he is right, he has completely rewritten this tract of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English social history, and also created a model for enquiry into the subject which will be influential for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have somewhat exaggerated the degree of belief, among historians, in a unitary fertility decline. For a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time it was indeed supposed that around 1860 married couples had started doing most of the things to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent conception which they do for tha t purpose nowadays. More recently historians have come to doubt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if late 19th-century birth-control was in fact achieved by barrier methods. They have also performed close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 September, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Szreter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521343435)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(110.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(725pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521343435)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Mason)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7278 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of particular groups which suggest that there was great diversity within the courtship and bedroom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices \(including those affecting fertility\) in English society at any one time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Szreter complains, such developments in the historians' thinking should have shaken the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical edifice of a pan-European homogenous fertility decline to its foundations, but they have not. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now recognize that pre-20th-century birth-cont rol was not a matter of modern-minded couples taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage of newly available rubbergoods and chemicals, but we still assume that the greater part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fertility decline \(at least from around the beginning of this century down to our present\) )] TJ ET BT 457.616 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(was )] TJ ET BT 479.288 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon. The continuing attractiveness of this story has much to do with its relevance to the world's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currently developing countries, and the power of the international agencies concerned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact our whole mistaken picture of a monolithic uptake of birth-control across modern Europe goes back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a very celebrated early official attempt to demonstrate that there had been a steady and beneficial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diffusion of such techniques through Englis h society. The census of 1911 is often called the 'fertility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census', because the census-forms contained special additional questions. Households had to report on how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many children had so far been born into unions. Over the next decade or so Dr T.H.C. St evenson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superintendent of statistics at the General Register Office, worked on the answers to these special questions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to analyse the figures according to a particular categorisation of English social classes. This class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scheme was to prove momen tous beyond anything Stevenson could have foreseen: for him at the time its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to fertility was simply a very pleasing confirmation of what he had already believed about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation's sex-life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stevenson's scheme was nothing less than the five-tier, one-dimensional, occupation-based division of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes which remains, in essence, orthodox and official in the present day, eighty years later. Stevenson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version went as follows: I Professional, II Intermediate, III Skilled Manual, IV Intermediate, V Unskilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manual. There have been lots of complaints from historians over the years about the inadequacy of this list, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but with slight revisions it remains ascendant. Stevenson's emphasis on occupati on and skills had at first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a response to the agenda set by eugenicists, whose hereditarian theories were being increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resisted, according to Szreter, by a 'confident, revitalized and more comprehensive environmentalist analysis' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in institutions of social policy such as the GRO. The eugenicists said that low skills and high fertility were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked, leading to 'race suicide'. Given his environmentalist views, Stevenson may have been dismayed when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he saw that the linkage predicted by the eugenicists in fact held. But he also saw an alternative line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, which accepted the linkage but overtrumped the hereditarian explanation with an impeccably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmentalist one. Birth-control was the key. It was 'diffusing' slowly from the educated and pro sperous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a gradient through the less educated and poorer ranks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Szreter's very detailed and densely expounded account of these events in Whitehall around the years of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great War takes up just a third of his extraordinarily wide-ranging book. He goes on to tackle the much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeper questions which the operations of the fertility census of 1911 so clearly raise. The ideology informing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the census would be a matter of very restricted historiographical interest if Stevenson's claims about a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spreading culture of birth-control had been correct. Still, a less tigerish and ambitious historian than Szreter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been content to let the matter rest there. That is not Szreter's style. He asks head-on, 'Was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stevenson right?')] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Szreter is confident that Stevenson was wrong, even on his own showing. The argument involved here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat elaborate. Stevenson, and demographers ever since, have held that true birth-control - in the sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of full sexual relations between partners performed with the deliberate adjunct of devices and substances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed to prevent conception - will most clearly show up in the statistics in the 'stopping' rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('spacing' of births. Large numbers of couples will be detectable as at first produc ing children at something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the biologically maximum rate - and then producing no more. Stevenson claimed that stopping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour was discernible as 'diffusing' in the English social classes across time. The published data of 1911 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not permit Szreter to check this claim for couples who through ageing or death had finished having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families by this date \(the larger category\), but he is able to perform the neat trick of checking it for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller category of younger couples who were still producing chil dren. We can work out if this group, at )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7445 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least, was 'spacing' or 'stopping'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were spacing. They do not exhibit the hallmark of birth-control required by Stevenson. There is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious way to rescue Stevenson at this point, in his own despite. Why can't spacing be a token of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artefactually controlled conception, just as much as stopping? Szreter does not rest his case only on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refutation of Stevenson, on his own terms. He agrees that spacing of births could in principle be the result of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birth-control. But he has drawn a further and more profound observation from the publish ed tables of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1911 census. This is that low fertility achieved by spacing correlates with late marriage. Couples of child-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bearing age who were conceiving rather infrequently were also likely to have postponed getting married.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is probably the most important single result to emerge from Szreter's research, and it paves the way for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own general theory of family sexuality in the years around and after 1911, which occupies the final third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his book. It was, according t o Szreter, a 'culture of abstinence', influential right through to Philip Larkin's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1963 \('Sexual intercourse began'\), which mainly drove down the fertility of England and Wales. On this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account, diffusionism is out of the window. There was no wisdom about obtaining and using certain devices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and substances which needed to percolate down from the privileged to the less privileged. Moreover, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking which impelled couples to resort to birth-control via 'abstinence' was, according to Szreter, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which w ouldn't yield a simple correlation with social rank. Couples took steps to reduce numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions in response to the 'perceived relative cost' of childbearing. This pivotal concept in Szreter's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole argument is developed by him with great subtlety to suggest how fertility-control will crop up in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more complicated, sporadic pattern than that predicted by Stevenson's diffusionism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 'perceived relative cost' of having a child may be a 'cost' in the purest economic sense, that is, whether a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child will earn or lose its parents money, but also a 'cost' in a more rarefied sense: how much prestige )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attaches to fatherhood, for instan ce. This approach to the analysis of fertility is not novel. It is a respectable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory in modern demography, and has been applied previously to the 19th-century data. Szreter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneering in the way he has put the perceived relative costs approach to wo rk in detail right across English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, while exploiting the full range of the powerful notion of 'costs'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have invoked Larkin's 1963, and it may appear that what Szreter has done in this book is simply to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic support for a familiar modern clich about English sexual culture in the 20th century, namely that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual ignorance and repression was widespread until about twenty years after the outbreak of World-War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II. This clich coexists with an older chronological model, which locates the end of repression around 1900. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is still orthodox to call repressive sexual attitudes 'Victorian', even whe n they are detected in the 1950s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Szreter's book is not an annexe to the new view, or at least is not conceived by him to be such. To start with, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he insists that his 'culture of abstinence' was not driven by negative feelings about sex, such as guilt, fea r, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disgust. As I have explained, for him abstinence was the English way of adjusting fertility in response to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived relative costs of having children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, he seeks to erase the Victorian/20th century divide more thoroughly than is ever envisaged in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular demonizing accounts of 20th-century sexuality before P.J. Proby and Christine Keeler. His book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be thought of as an 'anti-1911' text in three respects. As well as debunking '1911', in the narrow sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fertility census, on ideological and statistical grounds, Szreter would also like to draw a radical corollary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the fallaciousness of Stevenson which has been somewhat shunned. Szreter wants to insist that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stevensonian account is a fantasy, about past, present )] TJ ET BT 293.972 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 314.972 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( future in 1911. He is convincing on how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations which appeared to confirm Stevenson - most notably the Royal Commission on Population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1944-9 - fa iled to pick up the true extent of English couples' resort to mere refraining from intercourse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(coitus interruptus)] TJ ET BT 119.024 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Nothing at all happened in 1911, according to Szreter. The failure of historians who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should know better to face this thought is p erhaps linked to the continuing general prestige of the 'modern' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment represented by the pre-Great War years. This is when Cubism, Dada, Relativity and Quantum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theory, )] TJ ET BT 74.672 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rite of Spring)] TJ ET BT 162.344 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 168.344 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sons and Lovers)] TJ ET BT 247.676 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and so on, all happened. We can't quite shake off the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction that there was a revolution in sexuality too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is important to grasp what Szreter means by 'abstinence'. He thinks of it as closely affiliated to marriage-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7394 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postponement, as I have mentioned. He )] TJ ET BT 226.652 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(also)] TJ ET BT 246.656 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( thinks of it as essentially the same kind of behaviour as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(coitus interruptus)] TJ ET BT 119.024 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the la tter being a compromise arrived at by couples when an intention to abstain was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found achievable: 'couples in British society who engaged in a regime of coitus interruptus were involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially the same "game" of sexual self-restraint as those p ractising the various forms of conscious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstinence'. This is an unorthodox and arresting way to see the matter, but surprisingly persuasive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Couples do not have to be all that abstinent, in order to achieve a useful reduction in fertility. We perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tend to think of coital frequency as involving a threshold, as far as the chances of conception go. We assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that some sex is just as likely to produce a conception as a lot of sex. This is a fallacy. The relation between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantity of sex and conceiving is continuous. Even if you only manage to restrict yourself to sex once a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(week you will still manage to postpone conception by eight months fro m when it could be expected if you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have sex four times a week. If you can bring the rate down to once a fortnight you are buying eighteen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conception-free months.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So in many respects Szreter's 'abstinence' fits readily into his whole account. It was not an obsessive, overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stringent, or even completely binding sexual regime. It is feasible that it survived for about a century, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming into collision either w ith militant sexual rigour as represented by the Social Purity movement, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with sexual emancipation as represented by Bloomsbury an its heirs. It is perhaps feasible that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed to achieve reduced fertility when the perceived relative costs of c hildren made this desirable. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there must be doubts about this crucial point of convergence in Szreter's whole structure of argument. )] TJ ET BT 524.420 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Will)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you be abstemious in sex, even in the qualified way outlined by Szreter, simply to achieve fertility-contro l? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does there not need also to be cultural encouragement from a climate of antagonism to sex?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I quote Szreter discussing why 'a culture of sexual disinclination' was not a prerequisite for his 'culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstinence': "the balance of the demographic and cultural evidence appears to point to the greater importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of deliberate, negotiated birth regulation as a positive motive, albeit one that was mediated through a culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of anti-sexuality". There is something fudging about the last clause. What is it to 'negotiate' sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstinence 'through' anti-sexuality ? Either couples agreed to refrain from doing something they both liked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they didn't want too many children, or they felt \(perhaps mutually and explicitly, perhaps not\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex was a bit repugnant. Szreter's combination of the two kinds of behaviour does not seem workable. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot imagine a contribution from 'anti-sexuality' which would not exclude or at least inhibit 'negotiation'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This important awkwardness in Szreter's argument is, it must be said, a result of one of the most impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and exciting features of his whole procedure. This is a book of astonishingly wide compass in the variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information it contrives to bring together. It ranges from the technicalities of population statistics through to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the literature on the qualitative aspects of English sexuality in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th and 20th centuries \(with an important piece of civil servi ce history thrown in for good measure\). I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can think of no book which goes so far to break down the formidable barriers between the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches to the history of family sexuality. Here is a trained statistician who is also completely versed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the n on-quantitative literature, and eager to bring the two into connection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Szreter could simply have ducked the problem of how late 19th-century 'anti-sexuality' bears on his picture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of abstinence 'negotiated' between partners in the interests of an affordable number of conceptions. He could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have quietly skipped over the Soci al Purity movement and the associated literature, but this would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been foreign to his voracious, embracing style. This is a militant book, but also very generous-minded for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way in which so many co-workers in the field, some of them writing in a ve ry different vein, are warmly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited and accommodated in its argument. In such a catholic atmosphere one must be struck by )] TJ ET BT 488.276 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in)] TJ ET BT 497.612 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Foucault, whose )] TJ ET BT 152.672 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Sexuality )] TJ ET BT 251.000 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not once cited. I am sure this is not a mischievous omissi on, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but simply the fault of the vacuousness of that celebrated but little-read book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 78.223 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 60.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 60.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/5)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 59.049 m 310.316 59.049 l S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 59.3635 310.3157 71.2435 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/5) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 305 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/131)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000004672 00000 n 0000004781 00000 n 0000004891 00000 n 0000005000 00000 n 0000008561 00000 n 0000008689 00000 n 0000008773 00000 n 0000008838 00000 n 0000016169 00000 n 0000016234 00000 n 0000023732 00000 n 0000023816 00000 n 0000031263 00000 n 0000031389 00000 n 0000031482 00000 n 0000031547 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31904 %%EOF