%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R 52 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922083937+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922083937+01'00') /Title (A Woman's Place: An Oral History of Working Class Women 1890-1940) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4021 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Woman's Place: An Oral History of Working Class Women 1890-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1940)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No history of class or industrialisation is taught now without the demography of the household, the value of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic labour, the items of working class consumption, the texture of sexual difference. Elizabeth Roberts' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fine oral history of the everyday lives of "ordinary" working class women in Lancashire between 1890 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940 has provided a detailed study of these themes since its first publication in 1985. The reprint is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome. Through Roberts' analysis of the transcripts of the 160 respondents from Barrow, Preston and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancaster we know more now about the hidden lives of mothers and grandmothers of those of us born mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century in Britain. The story is a bleak one. Women's lives were repetitious and hard - in the idiom of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time and place - all "work and bed." "The women they worked and worked" Roberts was told, "They had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(babies and worked like idiots. They died. They were old at forty." Among the poor, wrote Ada Neild Chew, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade union organiser and suffragist in Lancashire before the first world war, were "women who had not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 65.912 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 65.912 93.729 m 79.904 93.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not a feminist history, Roberts insists, because she found no evidence of patriarchy among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working classes of Lancashire. Women blamed poverty not men for their plight, and women had power - of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 March, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Roberts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780631147543)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(237pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0631147543.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sally Alexander)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 65.9117 94.0435 79.9037 105.9235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7357 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sort - in household and family. The mother/daughter bond was the "linch-pin" of the family. Roberts also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resists feminist history's fixation - as she sees it - on suffering. Yet she finds no other word to describe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's often harsh experiences of marriage, childbirth, their labours and love for children alive and dead. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, the women "knew their place, were secure in it, and gained much satisfaction from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements" which were, Roberts tells us crisply, in the manner of the sociologist, the management of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family budget, the education and socialisation of large families, and the upholding of the family and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhood mores. Roberts reasons respectfully with the research of fellow historians, but she takes her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cue from the words of her respondents on the survival of kin, the centrality of the wage to women, the spread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of birth control knowledge among married couples, the moral economies of the communities which made up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial Lancashire. Continuity and change is her theme, and although she is only partially convinced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation theory \(Lancashire had been industrialised for generations\) she concludes that "modern" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes were haphazardly established by the 1940s. The book is offered as a memorial to the women who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodied - she tells us - a way of life that has disappeared.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Blair would agree with her. His generation he assured Sue Lawley on Desert Island Discs earlier this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year, born in the 1950s, children of the welfare state, have no memory of the first decades of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the formative decades of the Labour Movement - "old Labour" as Ross McKibbon among others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has put it - so the institutions of old labour are neither appropriate or adequate to deal with modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(injustices. No-one wants to return to the thirties - in Lancashire Winifred Holtby wrote in 1933, a "war was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being waged" against poverty and unemployment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.880 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.880 526.467 m 288.872 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.872 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And anyway, Labours? old institutions had little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer women, and often obstructed their demands, for example, equal pay, family allowance, or birth control. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So why the lament from the old leftabout New labour?s willed forgetting of them ? Does anything remain of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these lives? What should we remember about them ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Woman's Place)] TJ ET BT 118.568 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tells the story of a conformist generation, obedient to tradition, their emotional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material wants narrowed by poverty and fatalism, their manners and morals disciplined by Christian values )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(not doctrine\). They inhabited a moral world of sharing, duty to others and a sense of fairness which derived, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts repeats, from Christianity and working class custom. Children had "transmitted to them," as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were growing up, " a working class culture, a complete design for living and a set of rules to be learned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 'proper' behaviour".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From childhood - which was short-lived and never clearly demarcated from adult lives - girls learned the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(habit of obedience, seldom criticised their parents, and submitted their wishes to family need. Families had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to abide by one another to survive. Waged work brought little pleasure, and only a glimpse of independence; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual knowledge was dangerous and a source of shame; marriage the universal expectation. Marriage was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life-long partnership, and as one man told Elizabeth Roberts, the "height of anyone's life was how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked after their family ". "All women hoped to be able to feed, clothe and house their families" Roberts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes, to have failed would have meant death. A "woman's place" was in the home, where she was both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provender of need and the "prevailing" authority. "I was fifty-six before I answered my mother back", one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Preston woman remarked. "Talk of the subjection of women" Helen Bosanquet wrote of the London poor in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1906 and Roberts quotes her approvingly,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I doubt if the bare idea of father being equal to mother in rank and authority ever entered the mind of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child under sixteen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children remembered their parents' authority as absolute. The vivid recall of instruction, refusal, warning - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("don't ask where babies come from"; "don't show your nakedness"; "say nothing about the blood;" "keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silence"; "you know too much" undermined feminine self-esteem. Obfuscations and euphemism made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conception and birth, not to mention desire, mysterious and shameful processes about which it was better to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know nothing. Bodies were hidden, their parts and functions unnamed. Only when dead could the body be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked at and touched. Among the labouring poor, Roberts reminds us, appearances were everything: hands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faces, outer clothing, doorsteps and entrances were kept spotless, as were reputations. Death offered a rare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and valued opportunity for display. All but the destitute aspired to the horses, ostrich plumes and procession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the funeral cortege, while the laying out of the body, visitors coming to call, look and touch, were the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.8797 526.7815 288.8717 538.6615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6077 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gestures and rituals of a communal spectacle which formed a carapace of feeling. Rules to govern behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thought were intended to stifle curiosity, to suffocate desires. But although only the most "brazen" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defied their parents' authority, the young remained remarkably true to the inventions of their peers: zips and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belly buttons rather than silence and old wives tales.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Scant knowledge" - one of Elizabeth Roberts' telling phrases -formed one of the bonds between mothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and daughters, unbroken through adult life. Mothers it seems, right through to the 1940s, had known as little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as their daughters did at their age. They had been awakened by marriage, and the shock of birth, as Ellen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross has documented for women of the London poor before the first world war.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.944 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.944 683.283 m 431.936 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.936 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Mothers refused to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlighten their daughters, Roberts believes, for fear of the consequences of such knowledge: babies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandonment, poverty and loss of respectability. Women strove for respectability and respectability once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant, Roberts reminds us, respect from others, an aspiration which made sense in a world in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhood and kin gave affiliation. Respectability was measured by cleanliness, provision for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, an absence of shame - ruthless taskmasters in conditions of overcrowding, irregular pay, long hours )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hard physical labour, the unpredictable advent of births and deaths.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The consequences of extra-marital sexuality were dreaded: "My mother went mad"; "I would have drowned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myself"; "my father would have murdered me". A fathers' word was law: "One word from my father"... If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this violent imagery refers to a mythical power, then the myth in this case seems to follow Freud's model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having been founded on some real event. )] TJ ET BT 233.972 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Woman's Place)] TJ ET BT 318.524 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( records two startling pre-second-world-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories of avenging violence: one of a pregnant bride stoned at the church; the other, a father beating his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pregnant daughter to death. Some pregnant women drowned themselves. Such memories give chilling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resonance to the phrase reiterated by the respondents: "we were as innocent as the grave".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether the deaths were apochryphal or not they reinforced the prohibition. Illegitimacy over the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained remarkably constant at about 5%. And they endorsed a climate of fear and shame, the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotions most readily admitted to by the women \(John Burnett too found fear and shame the universal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotions of working class autobiography in the nineteenth century\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.640 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.640 416.931 m 375.632 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.632 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Shame extended beyond the act to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate outcome. Women hid themselves when they were pregnant, as one woman said, explaining her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-consciousness, "I knew that they would think what I had been doing". A Mrs. Harris summed up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atmosphere of the urban villages where everyone knew everyone else, which made up industrial Lancashire: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was tolerance and pity, but the shame too which came from being talked about.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sex other than for procreation was something that only men indulged in. The double standard was stronger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Lancaster than Barrow and Preston. No-one tells of a man being punished. The closest the respondents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to the mention of pleasure, was by admitting either that "some took the risk", or that someone, usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a father or husband, was or was not "a lustful man". One woman quotes her husband as saying, "if they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen this squad" referring to his six children in the 1920s, "anyone would think we had had a wonderful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time". No-one of course used the word sex - it wasn't needed: "flying their kites"; "tasting their soup before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was ready"; "doing wrong" or "dirty" were some of the phrases. "Don't go all the way to Blackpool" was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one bus conductor's caution; "he just came home to sort of make us" was a child's account of her father's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence; "it was him as was playing the game", was the lament of an aggrieved wife.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.9437 683.5975 431.9357 695.4775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.6397 417.2455 375.6317 429.1255 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7407 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the mental atmosphere of conformity, fatalism, shame and fear, Roberts is hard put to explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline in family size between 1890 and 1940 - the most profound change in the period, and arguably the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defining feature of twentieth century modernity. "Family limitation" is "formidably complex" she argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and oral evidence doesn't help much since it is "bedevilled by inhibitions, ignorance and reticence about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality". Roberts runs through the familiar explanations for fewer children: higher aspirations, and rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculation \(Habbakuk\); no single causal explanation \(Banks and Gittins\). Roberts herself follows Gittins in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favouring a multiple explanation with differential strategies according to occupation, education and degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of communication between husband and wife. She rejects as too simple the assumption that "all women, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only they had not been so ignorant or fatalistic, would have limited their families". The emotional economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these women, she outlines, was a protean mix of devotion to children, constant worry, the admission that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex was something to be avoided, and the acceptance of whatever God sends. As one mother of six told her,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Well, I mean, we never thought of it. They just came and that was it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts' findings are contradictory however. She does find a correlation between the infant mortality rate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and family size as Habbakuk had suggested, although as Carol Dyehouse demonstrated, this was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily linked to women's waged work. There had been no incentive to limit family size when babies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died as often as they had done in the 19th century. She also finds that among the couples who defied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("tradition" and overcame "ignorance" at least one of them valued either education or leisure and a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfortable standard of living. A "malthusian determination to match family size to material resources" can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be found among the labouring poor in the inter-war years, presumably because relative living standards were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rising, though not as fast as material expectations. People began to limit families because "I was too valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working", and "there was no family allowances then you know". But this - not quite Habbakuk's rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculation - was retrospective wisdom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How families were limited is also a puzzle. Roberts found no evidence from the respondents that either birth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control propaganda, nor books, nor doctors were sources of information; neither did the knowledge filter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down through the middle classes as historians once believed. If that had been the case, then the families of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic servants could be expected to be smaller than average, and they were not in her sample. Roberts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemns the British government's refusal to make \(birth control\) information available until 1931 when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Practitioners could offer limited advice to married women if their health was threatened. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government prevarication reinforced the attitude strongly held by some women that artificial limitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(births was both immoral and distasteful \(though several women confessed to lying about limiting their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families\). Birth-control did not become respectable until after the second world war. The Lambeth Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issued only a cautious approval in 1930, and all three towns had sizeable Catholic minorities. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is evidence from the respondents, admittedly often oblique, of determined attempts to limit family size )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in spite of the very uneven knowledge of methods. Mechanical appliances were expensive, breastfeeding, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and coitus interruptus - as every woman knows - were not foolproof. Withdrawal and abstinence were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most frequent resort - one woman's response to her daughter's persistent questioning was, "He didn't do it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often but when he did he made a good job of it". Most women improvised. They slept in separate beds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleaded illness, a stonemason's wife sat on the window ledge until her husband fell asleep. Some took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desperate risks. They pushed needles inside themselves, they used washing soda, slippery elm bark, quinine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Epsoms salts and hot baths - "everybody tried that". No woman admitted to having had an abortion, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many repeated stories \(usually when their husbands left the room, or the tape recorder was turned off\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home-abortions, imprisonment and death. If women did "accept what came " they did so it seems only when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all else failed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The unwillingness of demographic historians to hear women's wish to refuse the dangers of child-birth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stresses of raising children on no money now seems extraordinary. Sixty years into the literature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family limitation, only Diana Gittins in the mid-eighties and Simon Szreter and Wally Secombe recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have recognised the strength of women?s own wishes to avoid too many children.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.956 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.956 79.299 m 440.948 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 440.948 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Feminist writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the twentieth century - Maud Pember Reeves, Ada Nield Chew, Stella Browne, Leonora Eyles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sylvia Pankhurst, Enic Charles and Marie Stopes, Eva Hubbock knew of and wrote about women's )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.9557 79.6135 440.9477 91.4935 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R 47 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 7735 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance to frequent childbirths. The records of the first birth control Clinics in the 1920s, the letters to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women's Co-operative Guild and to Marie Stopes, testify to the huge number of illegal abortions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miscarriages and suspicions of infanticide. The memories have always been there but few historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heard them. Paul Thompson in )] TJ ET BT 184.676 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Edwardians)] TJ ET BT 263.684 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( listened to one son's memory of his mother:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My mother nursed a bit of bitterness because she had a big family and would have liked to have done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different...Me mother used to be upset when she used to see her sister with only two and we'd the houseful.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 48.008 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A mother's wish for fewer children, Kathleen Woodward has shown, was printed indelibly on the minds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the young to powerful effect.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 173.648 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 173.648 657.027 m 187.640 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts' emphasis on fatalism and the tenacity of working class custom reflects her qualified acceptance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modernisation thesis. The decline in drinking \(part revulsion, part Government policy\), education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cinema and the increasing interference of the state into family life had began to break the back of working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class custom between the wars. But working class custom, insofar as it springs from social structure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions, was perhaps more fluid, more improvised than Roberts allows. Neither the populations in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three towns nor the economy were stable. Well over half the respondents from Barrow and Lancaster came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from migrant families, and of the 43 respondents from Preston, only 21 had both parents born there, or in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbouring villages. Migration, as E.A. Wrigley has pointed out, creates new people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The wage in the hands of young women was a leaven of change. A man's wage was seldom enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support a family, and young women could earn almost as much as their fathers in some places and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupations during the depression. The wife's domestic labour was often more valuable to the family's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard of living than their waged work. Some men anyway did not like their wives to work because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to reflect badly on their status as earner and Roberts found no evidence that the women disagreed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with this. Most mill-workers worked part-time after their children came. The minority who worked full-time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mills in Preston, for example, the poorest of the three towns, barely covered costs of childcare, cooked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meals and laundry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The wage did not bring immediate financial or moral independence - it was handed straight over to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother for the first years - but it did bring a change in status within the family. Immediately the young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worker, like her father, was given more to eat. Mrs. Mulholland, for instance, one of thirteen surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, became a drummer at the skating rink in Barrow aged thirteen. She earned 18s a week, when her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father earned 21s as a labourer. Her mother gave her a poached egg on toast for her tea, saying "she was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going to kill the goose that laid the golden egg.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Causes cannot be assumed, they have to be looked for, Marc Bloch wrote.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.612 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.612 281.139 m 403.604 281.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 403.604 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Oral testimony in this respect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivers few certainties. Sentences begin with a "yes" move to a "but well..." and end on a question; "I" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifts to "you" mid-clause; conversation is punctuated with sudden reversals, admissions of ignorance; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories blend hearsay with anecdote. Alessandro Portelli stakes his claim for oral history on these qualities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique to speech which expose, he argues, the truths of subjectivity, as well as the provisional nature of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical narratives.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.996 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.996 209.859 m 145.988 209.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 145.988 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The truths of subjectivity which the memory-work of )] TJ ET BT 407.624 211.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Woman's Place)] TJ ET BT 492.176 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include the enduring features of the female life-cycle - the tensions of sexual knowledge, the continuities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth and family romance, the repetitions of domestic labour - traces of female experience as indicative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human need, and as unlikely to go away, as poverty however differently formed and experienced in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epochs.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.340 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.340 152.835 m 90.332 152.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.332 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The sources of individual change are more elusive. Few women were politically conscious. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour's institutions - based on masculine collectivism and mutuality - scarcely touched women's lives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before the second world war the women of Lancashire's labouring poor lived outside the provenance of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions including the Law. The spirit of change sounds from private memory: Mrs. Hesketh's remark for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance as she described her father, a skilled man, a fitter,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He always had that little wallet at the back that wasn't ours. On a Saturday night he would get ready and put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his jewellery on, his gold chain and rings, and what not. He would turn with his back to Mum, like this, to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 48.0077 709.7335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 173.6477 657.3415 187.6397 669.2215 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.6117 281.4535 403.6037 293.3335 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.9957 210.1735 145.9877 222.0535 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3397 153.1495 90.3317 165.0295 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R ] /Contents 53 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Length 6205 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(count his money. He had an eye for the ladies when he were out. He used to go to what they called the Long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vaults... Well, we have come a long way since then.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ada Nield Chew, The Life and Writings of a Working Woman, presented by Doris Nield Chew, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virago, 1982.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 130.340 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 130.340 701.043 m 184.328 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winifred Holtby, )] TJ ET BT 149.672 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women)] TJ ET BT 185.660 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, John Lane the Bodley Head, 1934, p.190.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.968 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.968 686.787 m 444.956 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ellen Ross, )] TJ ET BT 121.688 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love and Toil, Motherhood in Outcast London, 1870-1918)] TJ ET BT 404.024 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Oxford University Press, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993, ch.4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.344 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.344 658.275 m 171.332 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Burnett, )] TJ ET BT 131.684 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Destiny Obscure, Autobiographies of Childhood, Education and Family from the 1820s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to the 1920s)] TJ ET BT 122.684 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(1982\), Penguin edn, Introduction.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.668 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.668 629.763 m 348.656 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diana Gittins, )] TJ ET BT 134.348 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fair Sex: Family size and structure, 1900-39)] TJ ET BT 350.660 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Huchinson, 1982; Simon Szreter, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fertility, class and gender in Britain, 1860-1940)] TJ ET BT 298.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cambridge, University Press, 1996, Part 1V; Wally )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seccombe, )] TJ ET BT 119.336 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weathering the Storm, Working-class families from the Industrial Revolution to the fertility )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(decline)] TJ ET BT 98.672 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Verso 1993, ch.5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.656 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.656 572.739 m 243.644 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 145.688 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Edwardians, The Remaking of British Society)] TJ ET BT 385.352 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Routledge, edn. 1992, p.43.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.012 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.012 558.483 m 551.672 558.483 l S BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 544.227 m 90.344 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathleen Woodward, )] TJ ET BT 169.652 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jipping Street)] TJ ET BT 236.648 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(1928\), Virago 1984.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 343.964 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 343.964 529.971 m 397.952 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Bloch, )] TJ ET BT 127.004 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historian's Craft)] TJ ET BT 229.592 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Manchester University Press, 1954, p.xviii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.576 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.576 515.715 m 497.564 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alessandro Portelli, 'The Peculiarities of Oral History', )] TJ ET BT 329.972 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Workshop Journal)] TJ ET BT 457.964 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, issue 12.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.964 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.964 501.459 m 559.952 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National patterns of ill-health and the cases and ages of death in Britain have returned to the patterns )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established during the 19th century industrialisation and constant till the second world war. )] TJ ET BT 504.644 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evening )] TJ ET BT 64.016 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