%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416183404+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416183404+01'00') /Title (Irish Migrants in New Zealand, 1840?1937: 'The Desired Haven') >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4893 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Irish Migrants in New Zealand, 1840?1937: 'The Desired Haven')] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angela McCarthy has written a useful book about Irish emigration to New Zealand, based upon 253 letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that passed between the two countries over a period just short of a century. This review discusses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author's methodology and findings through the perspective of two analytical tools, Alice's Letters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shanacoole Exceptionalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book derives from Angela McCarthy's doctoral studies, under the supervision of David Fitzpatrick, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose work on Irish emigrant letters to Australia forms the scholarly background to the present work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.268 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.268 259.929 m 537.260 259.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although her book embodies some of the loving detail of a dissertation, one of its strengths is an impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grasp of the scholarly literature of migration. Fitzpatrick selected 111 letters, and was able to print them in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full; Dr McCarthy relies upon apparently well-chosen quotation. Like Fitzpatrick, Angela McCarthy uses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters that travelled in both directions, and claims to have made 'a substantial contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of the Irish in New Zealand by adopting a transnational perspective' \(p. 5\). Since almost half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(118\) of the letters originated from Ireland, the focus is necessarily upon networks and connections rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the Irish experience in New Zealand pure and simple. There are clusters from Ulster and Munster in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36 sequences, and these reflect concentrations of Irish migration sources. Two thirds of the letters were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written by men and just over half by Protestants. Dr McCarthy follows Donald H. Akenson in playing down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practical distinctions between Irish Catholics and Protestants )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.652 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.652 117.369 m 360.644 117.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.644 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( although she supplies denominational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifications in an opening chapter of interesting biographical outlines. Since one of the most impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters in the book is called 'The importance of faith', perhaps the religious dimension requires more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration. As Dr McCarthy notes, it does not always make sense to generalise about 'Protestants', since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some groups, such as Unitarians, lacked facilities for worship in the colony. \(One correspondent, Sligoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(500)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angela McCarthy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1843831430)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ged Martin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.2677 260.2435 537.2597 272.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.6517 117.6835 360.6437 129.5635 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5331 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Hughes, appears to have been an enthusiastic Salvationist, to judge from references to the )] TJ ET BT 502.928 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War Cry)] TJ ET BT 544.592 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his correspondence.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angela McCarthy supplies an overview of Irish migration to New Zealand and discusses the letters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general, before proceeding to a collage of accounts of the voyage. The compulsive demands of minute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctoral analysis now sometimes jar. Three brothers from Ulster reported their comparative feats of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vomiting amidst raging seas. Dr McCarthy comments: 'Seasickness, coupled with the company of friends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a sense of adventure, must also have diverted travellers from the pain of separation' \(p. 103\). It is many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years since I last hung, retching and wretched, over the rail of an Irish Sea ferry, but I still recall that never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did my hearth and home seem so alluring as during those eternities of chundering misery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr McCarthy then proceeds to examine how migrants responded to and portrayed their new country and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working conditions, arguing that they seem to have adjusted more successfully than their compatriots in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States. Family and social networks are also traced, and Dr McCarthy leans against endorsing Miles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fairburn's 'atomisation' thesis of New Zealand colonial society.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.796 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.796 600.003 m 351.788 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.788 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The emotive word 'home' forms the core )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a chapter on relationships, which also looks at return migration. Despite the distance, migrants did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes revisit Ireland ? but they rarely stayed. Angela McCarthy finds her sample to have been relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open in discussing courtship \(although they were hardly risqu\) in comparison with Irish-Australian sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly because surviving letters often passed between young people and parent-child exchanges are under-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented. A useful chapter examines definitions of Irish identity, which was expressed in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities such as friendliness and susceptibility to alcohol. Only one Irish-language phrase appears in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters \(the hackneyed 'cad mle filte'\) and correspondents showed little interest in politics, Irish or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial. This confirms one of the most striking lacunae in the emigrant story. The political discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding Home Rule stressed the successful precedent of colonial self-government within the Empire, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we simply do not find exiles writing home to say that their new home was so well run it ought to form the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model for Irish devolution. A final chapter, on religion, has already been mentioned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of the methodology employed and the sources examined, Dr McCarthy has produced an excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, one which applies a much broader literature about the Irish diaspora carefully and sensitively in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How, then, might the discussion be widened by the specific tools of Alice's Letters and Shanacoole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exceptionalism? Alice was neither Irish nor a migrant to New Zealand. A lifelong Cockney and my mother's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closest friend, she went to Canada as a war bride. My childhood was enlivened by her ecstatic letters about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the exciting world of Winnipeg, which my mother enthusiastically recited. Years later I visited Alice and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with polite exaggeration, thanked her for having aroused my interest in Canada. It was then that she told me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her bitter unhappiness during her early years overseas. Too proud to tell her oldest friend she had made a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistake, she used her letters to put up a front of achievement and success. I have never trusted emigrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters since.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.7957 600.3175 351.7877 612.1975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 6353 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As all social historians know, families are not perfect organisms. We are used to thinking of post-Famine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland as a country that had to shed people, but by no means everybody left, and not all who did went to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends of the earth. It is reasonable to suspect that some people who put twelve thousand miles between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves and their immediate kin may have come from households, not necessarily 'dysfunctional', but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly containing frictions and jealousies which we need to take aboard. If Alice could not admit her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointment to her oldest friend, why should we trust missives to perhaps jealous siblings and unloving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents? Angela McCarthy has certainly turned up some sharp conflicts. One migrant so hated his tyrannical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father that he not only wished him dead but hoped he would spend the afterlife in a place where he would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have no problem lighting his pipe. Another was drawn back to County Limerick by a brother who pleaded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with him to come home and carry on the family name, a visit which ended in a fraternal fist fight. A third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described his sister as 'prim and precise' and there was 'hell to pay' when she somehow read the letter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the principle of the fake cheerfulness in Alice's Letters can be inverted, as Dr McCarthy points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out, so that exiles might be tempted to poor-mouth themselves to slide out of demands to fund the chain-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration of relatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If we cannot always trust the messages that the letters contained, can we place such a burden upon their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual contents that the methodology of this form of emigration history employs? Dr McCarthy draws upon a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sample that spans many decades, in which educational standards generally improved. \(One of her most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluent and engaging correspondents, Philip Carroll, wrote his letters during a visit to Ireland in the 1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after thirty years in Auckland, which he decided was his real home.\) Basic educational standards raise a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conundrum: when such correspondents use phrases such as 'old Ireland' or 'holy Ireland' \(which, in fact, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not seem to have employed very often\), were they slipping into empty formulas or should we regard their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of educational attainment as underlining the sincerity of their mild venture into the poetic? If you are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not used to wielding a pen, do you select the word 'home' because it tugs the heartstrings, or because it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short? Similar questions arise when emigrant letter-writers compare the church building at which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worship with one known to the family in Ireland. Is this an attempt to annex and subdue an alien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment or merely a handy device for painting a word picture? An old friend of mine cherishes a letter I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote him thirty years ago, in which I described Taranaki as 'like Essex, but with a volcano at Ingatestone'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The phrase captured a mixture of similarity and exotic difference, but its primary significance lay in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common reference point ? that it, it conveyed a specific and largely private meaning to the writer and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recipient. The methodology used by Dr McCarthy in studying emigrant letters implicitly assumes a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coinage, so that mosaics may be constructed form a range of letters, as if they are all are equal in perception, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and none of them coloured by family tensions and local particularisms. Angela McCarthy does this very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively, but should be warned by Alice's Letters to look deeper?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This brings me to Shanacoole Exceptionalism. Shanacoole is the townland in County Waterford where I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have come to live after escaping from the lunacy of British higher education. It is not easy to define )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(townlands to outsiders \(and Microsoft's red wavy underlining even doubts their existence\). They are neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manors nor parishes and they have no administrative function. Yet there are over 60,000 of them in Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about two to the square mile. If Benedict Anderson is right in defining nations as 'imagined communities', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century Ireland was probably more imagined than most, simply because the Catholic majority did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not identify with rudimentary state structures and loyalties were ferociously local: to this day, country people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know their townland bounds. Was Shanacoole exceptional? I simply do not know, although I am sure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shanacoole people thought it was. Learned monographs on Irish-This and Ireland-and-That hardly ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descend to such building block level.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7244 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shanacoole is 455 acres alongside the Blackwater estuary. In 1841, it contained 332 inhabitants. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dropped to 255 in the Famine decade and, as the basis of Irish farming shifted from tillage to pasture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers continued to fall. By 1891, Shanacoole had lost more than half its 1851 population. In 1911, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down to just 65, twenty percent of its 1841 peak. Today, a few cottages remain as piles of stones at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roadsides, but most of the 57 homes of 1841 have vaporised. Hundreds of people who identified with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shanacoole must have scattered across the globe, lost and silent because the textbooks never mention them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until now.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a chance of about 2,000 to 1 that Angela McCarthy should have located eleven letters from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shanacoole family. Dr McCarthy reports seven children in the Keane family but, by 1886 when the sequence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens, only six are named. Thirty years earlier, their great-grandfather had farmed 26 acres in Shanacoole, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but by the third generation tensions had developed among his multiplying descendants. As Kate Keane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed in 1903, 'we loathe any Keane except Fathers uncle James & his children' \(p. 206\). Kate was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family's best letter writer and she was also a good hater. Back in 1886, when brother John was giving cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for worry, she declared his girl friend Kate Doyle her 'biggest enemy', adding for good measure '& so are all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Doyles for I cant bear the sight of any of them'. As the Doyles were not enough, she widened her venom: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Kate Hartnett & sister are my biggest enemies also' \(p. 207\). I rather like Kate Keane, but I hesitate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard her as a value-neutral source for ideal family relationships. In fact, she was a bit of a nag, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claiming in 1902 that her sister had never once written to her from New Zealand, when the sequence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains independent evidence that Mary had indeed kept in touch.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate's sharp tongue may help to explain why her two sisters, Bridget and Mary, preferred the other end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world. Kate was no doubt telling the truth when she wrote 'I thought my heart would break' when the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls left for New Zealand \(p. 77\), but there is equally little doubt that she was mobilising emotion in support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of demands for practical help. 'I havent as much clothes as would bring me to mass', she pleaded, asking 'for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something to clothe me' so that she could dress decently enough to go job-hunting \(p. 140\). Kate also wanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(help for their unemployed brother John, who weighed in himself with blunt demands and scarcely veiled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusations of desertion. He hoped Mary would pay his way to New Zealand. 'If not you ought to send me to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America or else buy tools and work at home' \(p. 71\). John acknowledged that he had passed through a bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patch, but that was absent Mary's fault too: 'I squandered & raked about for many a week & month from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place to place through means of ye forgetting us here at home as ye did' \(p. 232\). The drink had driven John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('nearly out of my mind' but he and his two brothers had joined the temperance society in the local village of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clashmore, a place so tiny that today it boasts only four pubs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We can sympathise with Kate, left at home to struggle against poverty while her sisters made new lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down under. Their mother was sick, and Kate laid on thick Mary's obligation to pay her medical bills as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well: 'it is time for you to think of her now if you will ever think & I hope you wont be so false hearted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to do so.' \(p. 82\) We do not know whether the sisters in New Zealand responded. As recent migrants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps they lacked spare cash. Kate's tone suggests they might have had grievances of their own. Certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did not go out of their way to share their new lives with the folks back at Shanacoole. In November )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1884, Bridget married a fellow exile, Michael Harty. Mary, who attended the Dunedin wedding, apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reported the groom's name. In June 1886 \(not very rapidly\), Kate wanted to know where he came from, 'for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are many heartys around here' \(p. 177\). It seems Bridget was keeping quiet that her husband was from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerry, for even now Waterford people look upon Kerrymen as only half civilised. Dr McCarthy suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'his Irishness must have met with approval', but it is just as likely that Kate disapproved of Bridget's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to lead her own life rather than bankroll her siblings. It is worth noting that it was sixteen years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the next surviving letter, an account of their father's funeral.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to suggest that the Keane family was 'dysfunctional'. They were probably fairly typical and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normal as you would find in rural Ireland. In later years, their long-distance relationships became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harmonious. Kate moved to London where she married and mellowed, noting to her own surprise that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her English friends were Protestants. By 1910, John was in Chicago, although American life had driven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another brother, Jim, back to the drink. When war came, Kate worried about Mary's son, Ernie, who was in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 4598 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the army, even though she had never met him. And, however much she perhaps resented her sister's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands, Mary kept at least some of Kate's letters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regrouping the Keane correspondence lifts the veil on bygone Shanacoole. But, more important, it raises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions about the way in which such material should be used. Kate Keane's demands upon her emigrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sisters may indeed reflect conventional attitudes to family obligations, but the way they were expressed tells )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much about Kate herself, and possibly helps explain why Mary and Bridget headed for a distant hemisphere. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, can the evidence of emigrant correspondence be assessed without taking more account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamics and tensions in the specific relationships that generated each batch of letters? With the Ireland-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand connection now comprehensively examined in Angela McCarthy's book, there are surely now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient examples of this form of emigration study to stand back and think afresh about the material. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alice's Letters should warn us that an element of deconstruction may be required to establish whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondents were telling the whole truth. The proclamation of Shanacoole Exceptionalism may imply that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Keane was unique in wielding her censorious pen, but somehow I doubt it. One point does stand out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from this book: Angela McCarthy herself possesses the appreciation of the literature and the knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sources needed to provide such a reappraisal. It should prove an intellectually valuable sequel to a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commendable monograph.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Fitzpatrick, )] TJ ET BT 154.340 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oceans of Consolation: Personal Accounts of Irish Migration to Australia)] TJ ET BT 511.352 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 489.459 m 149.000 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Harman Akenson, )] TJ ET BT 192.656 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Small Differences: Irish Catholics and Irish Protestants, 1815?1922: an )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Perspective)] TJ ET BT 186.332 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Montreal and Kingston, and Dublin, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.312 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.312 460.947 m 455.300 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miles Fairburn, )] TJ ET BT 141.680 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ideal Society and its Enemies: the Foundations of Modern New Zealand Society )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1850?1900 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Auckland, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.664 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.664 432.435 m 262.652 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 388.591 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 370.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 370.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/500)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 369.417 m 322.316 369.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 344.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2875)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 489.7735 148.9997 501.6535 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.3117 461.2615 455.2997 473.1415 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.6637 432.7495 262.6517 444.6295 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 369.7315 322.3157 381.6115 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/500) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000571 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000005612 00000 n 0000005721 00000 n 0000005831 00000 n 0000005940 00000 n 0000009501 00000 n 0000009629 00000 n 0000009713 00000 n 0000009742 00000 n 0000009870 00000 n 0000009906 00000 n 0000009935 00000 n 0000010063 00000 n 0000010099 00000 n 0000010183 00000 n 0000015567 00000 n 0000015597 00000 n 0000015725 00000 n 0000015761 00000 n 0000015826 00000 n 0000022232 00000 n 0000022297 00000 n 0000029594 00000 n 0000029699 00000 n 0000034350 00000 n 0000034477 00000 n 0000034532 00000 n 0000034660 00000 n 0000034696 00000 n 0000034824 00000 n 0000034879 00000 n 0000035007 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35102 %%EOF