%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 51 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141220075336+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141220075336+00'00') /Title (The Eternal Paddy: Irish Identity and the British Press, 1798?1882) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4697 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Eternal Paddy: Irish Identity and the British Press, 1798?1882)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How much can old newspapers tell us about what people thought in the past? Did the press reflect shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national perspectives on particular issues, and widely held beliefs and prejudices about other peoples, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures and countries? How far did it act either to embody or to shape 'public opinion', and thus influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the formation of political positions and government policies? These are questions that many historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grapple with in the course of their work, and for which there are no easy answers. Profoundly different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions and approaches lead to widely varying conclusions. Studies of nineteenth-century British views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Irish, as mediated through the press, offer a particularly striking illustration of the controversy that can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result. A number of historians have, over the last thirty-five years, drawn on press comment and cartoon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricature as a means to explore British attitudes towards the Irish. De Nie's book is the latest, and most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidly grounded, contribution to this debate. While not uncontroversial in its arguments and approach, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed in the context of previous work )] TJ ET BT 221.648 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Eternal Paddy)] TJ ET BT 312.308 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( helps us to see how different methods for dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with newspaper sources might in fact complement each other, and together reveal a fuller picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political historians who wish to use newspapers as a source face a number of problems, of which two are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly significant. First, one must decide how best to work with and select from a seemingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexhaustible body of material. Second, one needs to think about what these sources can reliably tell us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the past. Very often, the response is to opt for analysis of a limited \(although often still ambitious\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sample of newspapers, and then to contextualise the material so harvested by correlating press comment with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other contributions to political debate. Comparisons and connections can be drawn between different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers, between newspapers and other printed primary sources and between newspapers on the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand and private papers and public archival material on the other. In this way, press comment can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(501)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael de Nie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0299186644)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Wisconsin Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madison, WI)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Potter)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8562 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with particular positions within the wider sphere of political debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This approach has marked several attempts to use the press to gauge British opinion about Irish issues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably D. George Boyce's )] TJ ET BT 166.484 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen and Irish Troubles: British Public Opinion and the Making of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policy, 1918?22)] TJ ET BT 112.676 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and, more recently, Gary Peatling's )] TJ ET BT 287.468 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Opinion and Irish Self-Government, 1865?1925: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from Unionism to Liberal Commonwealth)] TJ ET BT 235.364 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.364 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.364 726.051 m 252.356 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 252.356 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For both Boyce and Peatling, the late nineteenth- and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth-century press primarily acted as a complement to other tools of political controversy. Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and periodicals were a means by which wider debate could be shaped and led, and by which support could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be generated for particular political positions. The emphasis in this mode of historical writing is on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifics: on identifiable individuals and groups seeking newspaper outlets for their opinions; on the detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sometimes closely reasoned political arguments and positions adopted by contemporaries; and, very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often, on the close links that developed between the world of journalism and the world of politics. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts stress the importance of debates conducted along largely rational lines, involving contingent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting attitudes and arguments that meshed with the minutiae of party politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, other historians have used the press as a source to address similar basic questions, but in quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ways, emphasising instead the role of newspapers in reflecting and spreading generalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudices. In such accounts, newspapers do not provide an arena for high-minded political debate: rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they deal in cultural stereotypes that hamper rational decision-making. Among historians of British attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the Irish, this approach is exemplified by L. Perry Curtis, Jr., in his )] TJ ET BT 398.984 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apes and Angels: the Irishman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Victorian Caricature)] TJ ET BT 147.356 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Curtis focuses on political cartoons about Irish issues, and the accompanying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricatures of the Irish, that were published in mid to late nineteenth-century British periodicals. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the 'gradual but unmistakable transformation of Paddy, the stereotypical Irish Celt of the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, from a drunken and relatively harmless peasant into a dangerous ape-man or simianized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agitator'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.836 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.836 457.443 m 89.828 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.828 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( According to Curtis, Irishmen were not caricatured as apes during the Rising of 1798: rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartoon simianisation began in the 1840s, and became particularly prevalent as the violence of the Fenian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns of the 1860s brought the threat of social upheaval. Curtis argues that this shift reflected a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of British superiority vis--vis the Irish, based on an increasingly racialised view of the latter that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported by wider Victorian ideas about physiognomy, ethnology and Darwinian evolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curtis's work has provoked controversy. Sheridan Gilley argued in an essay on 'English attitudes to the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England, 1780?1900' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.836 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.836 359.907 m 164.828 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 164.828 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that stereotypes about 'Paddies' were as much a product of Irish views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as of British prejudice. Moreover, Gilley claimed that such stereotypes were not essentially about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race, as Curtis had argued, because most Britons did not regard the Irish as a race apart. For Gilley, British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to the Irish were a complex mixture of the positive and the negative, and derived largely from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting ideas about religion, class and political violence. Roy Foster endorsed these conclusions in an essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was published in, and provided the main title for, his collection )] TJ ET BT 361.328 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paddy and Mr Punch: Connections in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish and English History)] TJ ET BT 156.356 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1993\). Foster argued that simianisation was but a passing phase in Punch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricatures of the Irish, and that British cartoonists drew upon a much wider range of images of Irish men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and women than Curtis had suggested. Foster agreed with Gilley that British attitudes to the Irish were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex and shifting, reflecting not a sense of Irish racial difference, but rather a dislike of popery, peasants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political violence that was expressed in various ways at different times. Foster and Gilley stressed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British attitudes to the Irish could thus only be recovered by situating press comment in its specific, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary political context: 'historians have been right to treat Irish politics as political history.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.296 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.296 188.835 m 524.288 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This controversy clearly reflected opposed political preferences and, in particular, divergent views about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Irish nationalism and Anglo-Irish relations. However, it also derived from different ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about historical explanation and the relative importance of the general and the specific. Thus while Curtis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilley and Foster all used the periodical press as a source, they did so in distinct ways, in order to support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite different conclusions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael de Nie's book, )] TJ ET BT 147.824 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Eternal Paddy: Irish Identity and the British Press, 1798?1882)] TJ ET BT 471.812 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new contribution to the debate. It differs from other studies in the breadth of primary material on which it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based: whereas previous work on British attitudes towards the Irish was rooted in a relatively thin sampling )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.3637 726.3655 252.3557 738.2455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.8357 457.7575 89.8277 469.6375 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.8357 360.2215 164.8277 372.1015 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.2957 189.1495 524.2877 201.0295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7686 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the periodical press, de Nie has grounded his arguments in a remarkably extensive cross-section of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers and periodicals. More than ninety metropolitan and provincial titles, published in England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland and Wales, are included in the sample. This was made possible by a decision to focus on four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shorter periods within the book's overall time-frame: 1798?1800 \(the Rising and the Act of Union\); 1845?52 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the Great Famine\); 1867?70 \(the Fenian disturbances and Irish terrorist activities in Britain, Irish church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disestablishment and Gladstone's Land Act\); and 1879?82 \(the rise of Parnell and the Irish Parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party and the Land War\). Nevertheless, the sheer volume of newspaper material that has been examined in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to construct these case studies remains extremely impressive, to say the least. No previous study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British press opinion about Ireland and the Irish has rested upon such a wide base of primary research. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, as we will see, the very size of de Nie's sample is intimately related to the arguments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions that emerge in his book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To some extent, de Nie seeks to occupy a middle ground in the debate over the nature of British attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the Irish. While emphasising the importance of stereotypes, he agrees with Gilley and Foster that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British attitudes to Ireland were shaped in particular ways at particular times by contemporary crises and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates. Thus, for example, he argues that British press responses to 1798 were influenced by British ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about revolutionary violence in France, as well as by British beliefs about the gullible and savage nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish. Similarly, while stressing the importance of Victorian thinking about race in shaping British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes, de Nie argues that we should also acknowledge the inexact nature of that body of thought. For de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nie, race was a Victorian 'metalanguage' that also encompassed those issues of social status, religion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political violence emphasised by Gilley and Foster.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.328 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.328 512.211 m 294.320 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, while thus at times mildly critical of aspects of Curtis's argument, in most respects de Nie is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly on the side of the )] TJ ET BT 155.324 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apes and Angels)] TJ ET BT 235.316 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Crucially, he shares with Curtis the same general approach to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of the press as a source. Admirably explicit about his methodology, de Nie questions how closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers can be tied into the history of party politics. This reflects, perhaps, his experience of reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant numbers of provincial papers, which generally maintained looser political affiliations than their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan counterparts. While acknowledging that the British press never spoke with one voice, de Nie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless downplays the significance of the differences between the approaches of various newspapers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and instead emphasises underlying similarities. He argues for the existence of 'a number of dominant trends, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions, and beliefs that crossed or blurred partisan lines and collectively informed a "British" view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland and the Irish people during the nineteenth century' \(p. 28\). Essentially, the press is viewed as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicator of national opinion, revealing and entrenching widely held stereotypes. Following Curtis, de Nie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that cartoons are particularly revealing, as humour provided an alibi that allowed the artist to express )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudices in their baldest forms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, despite his attempts to occupy a middle ground, in some respects de Nie goes even further than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curtis in stressing the enduring nature of stereotypes. For while Curtis focussed on the simianised Paddy as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricature with a finite historical lifespan, emerging during the 1840s and becoming increasingly rare by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1890s, de Nie argues that certain stereotypes enjoyed greater longevity. Common to British reactions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events in Ireland from the Rising to the Land War was an emphasis on the Irish as ignorant, savage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncivilised, superstitious, priest-ridden, lazy and land-hungry. At the same time however, British press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators also often insisted on the essential loyalty of the mass of the Irish people. To resolve this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradiction, British writers looked for troublemakers, who could be blamed for leading a gullible people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astray: rabble-rousers infected with French revolutionary ideology, drifting Irish-American Civil War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veterans stirring up Fenianism and careerist Parnellites were all in turn blamed for fanning the flame of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sedition. Such representations supported a desire to grant reforms that would address those Irish grievances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived to be justified, cutting the ground from beneath the feet of the dissatisfied and allowing Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty to flourish. For de Nie, these attitudes remained relatively fixed from the 1790s to the 1880s, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly beyond: the 'eternal' of his title is matched by frequent use of words such as 'always' and 'forever'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Nie also argues that enduring stereotypes exerted a powerful influence over British policy towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. Against a backdrop of continued and largely static prejudice, de Nie claims that what did change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the nineteenth century was the degree of British confidence in Ireland's capacity for transformation. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.3277 512.5255 294.3197 524.4055 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7627 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, according to de Nie, the very fact that British commentators could not perceive any alteration in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of the Irish over time itself largely accounts for their growing disillusionment. For de Nie, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions expressed by the British press during the nineteenth century reflected a broader, abortive attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('civilise' Ireland. This aspiration was most strongly expressed during the two great catastrophes of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish history, the 1798 Rising and the Great Famine, but was gradually abandoned thereafter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Nie thus claims, for example, that British press opinion about the Famine was profoundly influenced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas about Irish incapacity. Arguments about the economic, political and moral causes of the crisis, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important, were essentially secondary to 'traditional hierarchical ideas about Irish and British identities based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on racial, religious, and class contrasts' \(p. 86\). These convictions in turn bolstered British confidence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicisation as a means to bring stability to Ireland: if the very Irishness of the Irish was the reason for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems, then the remedy was to encourage the Irish to be more British. Ireland needed to become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country of industrious, well-fed farmers, free of peasant superstition and fecklessness and of grasping, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wasteful landlords. However, in de Nie's opinion, the shocks of Fenianism and the Land War meant that, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1880s, all but the most Liberal of British papers had lost faith in the ability of the Irish to transform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. Instead, benevolent paternalism became the order of the day. Irish grievances could only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained, not remedied. According to de Nie, this widely diffused sense of disappointment, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent in the press, inevitably had an impact upon the policy-making process. Home Rule was 'an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admission of defeat, an acknowledgement that the Irish could never be British' \(p. 275\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Nie has re-ignited an old debate, offering strong arguments that engage with some of the big issues in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century Irish history. For de Nie, nineteenth-century newspapers and periodicals reveal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalised prejudices and stereotypes that permeated British thinking about the Irish, and that acted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mould British responses to events in Ireland, and thus shape British policy-making. As was hinted at above, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these conclusions are closely related to de Nie's approach to the use of newspapers as a historical source. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to make sense of such a huge and diverse sample of press comment, bold generalisations are necessary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the result is perhaps a tendency to exaggerate the explanatory power of prejudice and stereotypes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As noted above, de Nie does acknowledge that representations of the Irish in the British press were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by other, more specific and varied factors. Indeed, when he discusses British press reactions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidents such as the Manchester and Clerkenwell atrocities, or to Gladstone's attempts to redress Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grievances through limited reform, he implicitly reduces his emphasis on stereotypes and prejudice. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making such concessions, de Nie seldom explores quite how the specific related to the general: how and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why, and in what circumstances, prejudice gave way to more considered comment. It could be argued that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this absence is a function of his methodology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Nie stresses that )] TJ ET BT 131.996 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Eternal Paddy)] TJ ET BT 222.656 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not a newspaper history, and that it approaches newspapers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily as a 'cultural product' \(p. 28\). This reflects his decision to draw evidence almost exclusively from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the printed pages of newspapers and periodicals, and allows him to provide a clear and often powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework of analysis. De Nie paints with a broad brush, and in doing so reveals British stereotypes about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prejudices against the Irish that historians certainly need to take into account. However, such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach also acts to obscure important factors that complicated newspaper responses to particular issues. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is certainly valid to see newspaper comment as a 'cultural product', but at the same time we cannot fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the product unless we consider the circumstances under which production took place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the range and scope of de Nie's enquiry, it would probably be unfair to expect him to have examined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('supply-side' factors in detail. However, if we do wish to gauge the exact significance of stereotypes, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand how they related to more specific responses to Irish issues, then we need to undertake this more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intricate work as well. We must consider, for example, quite how coverage of Irish affairs varied between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different types of newspaper over time. Until the abolition of 'taxes on knowledge' around the middle of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, there flourished in Britain a vibrant, radical unstamped press. With the repeal of stamp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duties and other levies on newspapers, and the rise of a new commercialised press, radicalism declined, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new divisions emerged as newspapers became linked more closely to the main political parties. De Nie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions this transformation, but does not explore its ramifications in any detail. Did the existence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent stilling of radical voices have any impact on British press coverage of Ireland? Did the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 7681 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly partisan nature of the late-nineteenth-century press influence attitudes towards events in Ireland?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other issues also need to be explored if we wish to understand the balance between stereotyping and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed treatment of Irish affairs in the British press. Questions of authorship and of the nature of different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modes of journalistic writing are particularly important. We might find, for example, that editorials \(on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which de Nie seems to rely quite heavily\) provide us with particularly pungent, but also somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleading, examples of prejudice. Nineteenth-century editorial writers were frequently non-specialists, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had access to limited background information, and who were often working to tight deadlines: they may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have relied on stereotypes to a much greater extent than did those journalists whose job it was to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed reports on Irish affairs. Provincial papers, lacking specialised editorial staff or Irish correspondents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have been particularly prone to prejudice. Studies of individual newspapers, examining the variations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between different types of news and comment, and relating these differences to issues of authorship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalistic approach, would help us to understand the circumstances in which writers relied on prejudice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the factors that encouraged a more informed position. It would be interesting to know for example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether W. H. Russell's reports of 1843 on O'Connell's repeal agitation provided a more complex picture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the editorial comment otherwise published by his newspaper, )] TJ ET BT 354.644 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 404.312 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The debate over British attitudes towards the Irish provides a good example of how, when using the press as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a source, the nature of the sample we adopt, and the steps we take to contextualise it, together exert a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful influence over our arguments. In the case of )] TJ ET BT 294.608 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Eternal Paddy)] TJ ET BT 385.268 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the scale of de Nie's sample of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press comment, and his decision not to examine it in relation to other types of source material, means that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the significance of stereotypes at times seems overstated. Nevertheless, it would be impossible now to argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that prejudice was not a significant feature of British press coverage of Irish issues, and de Nie provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some excellent examples of how this manifested itself. Historians now need to look more closely at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance between stereotyping and considered comment, by undertaking a range of detailed and highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualised studies, exploring the specifics of ownership and authorship, and the provenance of different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(types of news and comment about Ireland. Crucially, as de Nie acknowledges, they also need to move on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the unhelpful binary oppositions of previous historiographical controversy. To appreciate how the press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced British policy-making on Irish issues, which seems to be the ultimate aim of the exercise, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to see the politically-focused approaches of Gilley and Foster on one hand, and the more culturally-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oriented methods of Curtis and de Nie on the other, as offering complementary rather than conflicting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. George Boyce, )] TJ ET BT 153.656 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen and Irish Troubles: British Public Opinion and the Making of Irish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policy, 1918?22)] TJ ET BT 142.676 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, Mass., 1972\); Gary Peatling, )] TJ ET BT 349.988 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Opinion and Irish Self-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Government, 1865?1925: from Unionism to Liberal Commonwealth)] TJ ET BT 391.676 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.004 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.004 263.619 m 522.992 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Perry Curtis, Jr., )] TJ ET BT 159.344 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apes and Angels: the Irishman in Victorian Caricature)] TJ ET BT 423.668 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Newton Abbot, 1971\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.688 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.688 235.107 m 133.676 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published in )] TJ ET BT 126.692 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Immigrants and Minorities in British Society)] TJ ET BT 341.696 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Colin Holmes \(1978\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.024 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.024 220.851 m 524.012 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheridan Gilley, 'English attitudes to the Irish', p. 97.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.332 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.332 206.595 m 372.320 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar point was made by Curtis in a revised edition of )] TJ ET BT 345.332 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apes and Angels)] TJ ET BT 425.324 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published in 1997.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.328 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.328 192.339 m 557.324 192.339 l S BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 178.083 m 78.008 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 134.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 116.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 116.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/501)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 115.065 m 322.316 115.065 l S endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 469.0037 263.9335 522.9917 275.8135 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.6877 235.4215 133.6757 247.3015 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.0237 221.1655 524.0117 233.0455 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.3317 206.9095 372.3197 218.7895 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.3277 192.6535 557.3237 204.5335 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 178.3975 78.0077 190.2775 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 115.3795 322.3157 127.2595 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/501) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2877)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 53 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000005414 00000 n 0000005523 00000 n 0000005633 00000 n 0000005742 00000 n 0000009303 00000 n 0000009431 00000 n 0000009515 00000 n 0000009620 00000 n 0000018235 00000 n 0000018265 00000 n 0000018393 00000 n 0000018429 00000 n 0000018459 00000 n 0000018585 00000 n 0000018621 00000 n 0000018651 00000 n 0000018779 00000 n 0000018815 00000 n 0000018845 00000 n 0000018973 00000 n 0000019009 00000 n 0000019093 00000 n 0000026832 00000 n 0000026862 00000 n 0000026990 00000 n 0000027026 00000 n 0000027091 00000 n 0000034771 00000 n 0000034897 00000 n 0000042631 00000 n 0000042759 00000 n 0000042814 00000 n 0000042941 00000 n 0000042996 00000 n 0000043124 00000 n 0000043179 00000 n 0000043307 00000 n 0000043362 00000 n 0000043490 00000 n 0000043545 00000 n 0000043671 00000 n 0000043726 00000 n 0000043854 00000 n 0000043949 00000 n 0000044014 00000 n trailer << /Size 53 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 44372 %%EOF