%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922003553+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922003553+01'00') /Title (The Politics of the Irish Civil War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4535 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Politics of the Irish Civil War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If you are shallow enough to buy this book because of its cover you will be heartily disappointed. The image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Arthur Griffith brandishing a Union Jack, with destruction in his wake and the bodies of women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children trampled under his feet, is possibly the most inappropriate that the author or his publisher could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have chosen. Arthur Griffith is one of the most marginal figures in the book; Britain and British interests are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely ignored; violence and the conduct of war itself has little significance; and beyond fleeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearances as voters, the downtrodden people have no place at all. On one level this is a terribly superficial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism. The author 'makes no claim to be providing a transcendent interpretation' of the civil war \(p. vii\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He does exactly what he says he was going to do on the very first page. Bill Kissane has written 'a relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balanced book on one of the most divisive episodes in Irish contemporary history'; he has brought to light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('aspects of the conflict that have not received sustained attention', and political scientists and historians will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome this book because of that \(p. vii\). But the price of this achievement is to elide the very elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil war that the cover seems to revel in. Take what you can of violence and suffering, of destruction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal enmity from that cover, because, for the sake of this achievement of balance, they have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banished from the pages inside.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taking the book exclusively on its own terms, on the parameters that it sets itself in chapter 1, the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that keeps recurring is whether 'the politics of the Irish civil war', as examined in this book, can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood without greater consideration of the nature and extent of the bitterness and the violence that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infused them, whether they can be explored in this rather dismembered way. The assumption seems to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that politics can be wholly divorced from the context of bitterness and panic and human error, from bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgment, from men who liked violence and being violent for its own sake, from the sense that government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(502)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Kissane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0199273553)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Dolan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8188 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself was often little more than the expedient measures of 'eight young men ... standing amidst the ruins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one administration' as the Minister for Home Affairs, Kevin O'Higgins, later admitted. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.948 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.948 780.819 m 461.948 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 461.948 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The location of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the civil war in a comparative context \(chapter 2\), the discussion of the causes of the war in terms of rival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions of democracy and self-determination \(chapter 3\), tracing the course of the war \(chapter 4\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fate of peace initiatives \(chapter 5\), the role of civil society \(chapter 6\), examining protective democracy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new state \(chapter 7\), the extent to which the anti-Treatyites were democratic or not \(chapter 8\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical treatment of the war \(chapter 9\), each and every one of these chapters makes a valuable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insightful contribution to the study of the war itself. The book is rigorous and challenging; the analysis is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astute and demanding. The bare bones of the politics of the conflict have been laid out, classified and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined in the most minute detail here. The reader is informed of what happened, and challenged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine what could have happened instead. But at no point does the reader get any sense of the bitterness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that beat at the very heart of the Irish civil war, that infused every part of it with such intensity that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the country are uncomfortable with the memory of it still. Without taking full account of bitterness it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is questionable whether one can begin to understand the Irish civil war at all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kissane quite sensibly revolts against the fascination with personality which seems to pass for analysis in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much recent historiography of the civil war. The reduction of the conflict to a matter of being for or against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Collins or Eamon de Valera has proved as persistent as it has been limited. But it is an impulse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has not been resisted here quite as effectively as Kissane might have wished. But this is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily the bad thing that the reader is led to believe. De Valera remains the focus of attention in terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the anti-Treaty position, and rightfully so in the light of the book's preoccupation with the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension of the conflict. Yet given that the war was pursued most intensively by a band of men who at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times did not know and cared less about where de Valera was or what he thought, the emphasis on de Valera )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems somewhat overstated in the context of the type of war that was eventually fought. More consideration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of people like Liam Lynch, Frank Aiken or Ernie O'Malley and de Valera's relationship with them might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful here. The democratic tendencies which Kissane so vitally identifies in the anti-Treatyites would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefit greatly from a closer analysis of the relationship between the anti-Treatyite politicians and the men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who only wanted to continue a fight they believed Britain had started, who stated again and again their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contempt for politics and its power to corrupt the men in the field. It would also strengthen his arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the 'birth of democracy' view of the civil war. The de Valera of this book, however, is not the villain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we see elsewhere. While this is largely refreshing, there is no concession made to the fact that this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he came to represent to many on the pro-Treaty side. However irrational, on some level he was the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man that his political opponents 'could never forgive', and there needs to be a greater concession towards an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of that point of view here. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.648 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.648 326.883 m 242.648 326.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.648 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The importance of Collins should also be considered in a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more detail. Kissane may wish to exclude personality in order to emphasise the other factors which caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Treaty split, but there is a need to factor in its influence along with all the other considerations which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so ably outlines, if only to contribute to a fuller understanding of the force and extent of the bitterness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division. However, Kissane compensates to some extent by what could be described as the reinstatement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. T. Cosgrave into the political vista of the civil war. This is particularly striking in chapter 5, and militates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the predominant view which has come to dismiss him as an inadequate inheritor of a position he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never wanted, or as a timid man who ruled in fear of some of his colleagues in government almost as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he did his anti-Treatyite opponents. For this reason, the absence of Kevin O'Higgins, of Arthur Griffith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, indeed, the majority of the members of the various governments, provisional and otherwise, who had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cope with the political reality of the Treaty, its opponents and its aftermath, is worthwhile. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplation of Cosgrave's role in a considered and sophisticated fashion is really a welcome change to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clichs that have passed for analysis of him to date.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a sense that any form of comparative analysis is to be welcomed irrespective of its scope or its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions because context has been so sorely lacking in Irish history. However, the claims that this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the civil war in a comparative context are to some extent quite disappointing. The Irish civil war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may prove to be the particularly specific conflict which Kissane considers it to be, but there is a sense in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it is difficult to make that conclusion based on the type of comparison engaged in here. The Irish civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war may not fulfil specified criteria which have been carefully and decorously divined by theorists of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.9477 781.1335 461.9477 793.0135 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.6477 327.1975 242.6477 339.0775 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7807 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonialism, post-colonialism and all that comes between, but there has to be a little more to the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of comparative history other than the extent to which the conflict fits or does not fit Melvin Small's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criteria of conflict as set out in )] TJ ET BT 183.656 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Resort to Arms)] TJ ET BT 255.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 17\). \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.644 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 300.644 766.563 m 306.644 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 306.644 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Lustick's notions of post-colonial hegemony are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all very well, Fanon's theories are even better, but at no point does the use of their insights provoke the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author to ask questions such as why the Irish conflict was so much less violent than so many of the conflicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefly alluded to. The points of comparison may not hold to their ultimate conclusion, the Irish civil war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may fail to tick enough of the required boxes to be considered a full-blown, bona fide post-secession civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, but surely there is much more to be gained from comparative analysis than the limited conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made in a little over eight pages in chapter 2.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion of the war in the context of Ireland's relationship with the British Empire also lacks any real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of the most fundamental factor from the British point of view ? Ireland's propinquity. The new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state's loyalties and their implications for British security are as important, if not more so, than any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of Britain's 'colonial relationships' and whether they were 'more deep-rooted in Ireland than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Third World' \(p. 21\). 'Deviance from the wider colonial pattern' is all very well, but there is a lot to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said for acknowledging the sheer force of proximity on the British mindset, particularly in the wake of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great War \(p. 21\). It also might explain why the oath was as crucial to the British government as it was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either side in the conflict that followed the Treaty in Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To some extent the chapter on the course of the civil war is the weakest in the book precisely because it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the least political and demands some form of engagement with the very forces that threaten the cherished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance. 'A controlled if bitter phenomenon', 'a disciplined form of intransigence' do not adequately explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the violence of the war, the events at Ballyseedy Wood and elsewhere, that became part of the last months of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fighting \(pp. 65?6\). What strength the chapter has lies in the way in which it undermines the 'birth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy' thesis which has been championed most effectively by Tom Garvin's )] TJ ET BT 425.264 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1922: the Birth of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democracy)] TJ ET BT 89.324 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.320 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.320 443.187 m 105.320 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.320 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) but even this argument is put much more effectively in the chapters that follow rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here. Throughout there is absolutely no sense of the type of war being fought, the difficulties in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication, the extent to which the republicans progressively lacked arms, military intelligence and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many cases, the very will to fight. The resort to a purely political rationale is of little use when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplating men whose sole raison d'tre amounted to 'what then is going to defeat England?' \(p. 93\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 5 and 6 are important in terms of uncovering the various efforts at brokering peace, in examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the forces in civil society which, though ultimately thwarted in their efforts, continued to try to bring a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peaceful resolution to the conflict. Groups such as the National Economic Party, Clann na hireann and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neutral IRA, amongst others, emerge from the obscurity which previous studies of the war have condemned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them to. The book is strongest here, but arguably greater concession could be made to the problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural demobilisation which are dealt with solely in the light of the persistence of lawlessness in the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This theme is continued in chapter 7 in the context of the emergence of a protective democracy in the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state. There are interesting and challenging interpretations here, but there is something terribly depressing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tone adopted throughout. The desire for law and order is dismissed as being little more than adhering to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the values of Victorian Britain' \(p. 151\); the formation of the state is dismissed as 'the project of a triple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliance between the British government, the Catholic Church and the Irish middle class in which none had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an overriding interest in promoting an expansive conception of democracy' \(p. 175\). It is in these contexts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it might be useful to make comparisons with other states at the same time. Bemoaning the paradox of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repressive measures being instituted to preserve a paternalistic democracy in the light of what was going on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in much of the rest of Europe at the same time makes these sentiments seem rather churlish indeed. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a similar sentiment in the conclusion when the author wonders if the state was worth all the violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly given the state's 'poor record on policy issues and little civic pride' \(p. 237\). Hindsight, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to weigh particularly heavily throughout the book, might have been a little more usefully apportioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 8 is arguably the most important, not so much for its sense of surprise at the rise of Fianna Fil in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 300.6437 766.8775 306.6437 778.7575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.3197 443.5015 105.3197 455.3815 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8493 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the particular form that it took, but in its championing of a more complex understanding of the anti-Treaty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position during the civil war itself. Nowhere is the 'birth of democracy' thesis more forcefully challenged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the notion of the pro-Treatyites as a force for right and good, fighting a band of brigands and savages is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laid to rest here in a fashion which will make it very difficult for advocates of that view to continue to argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their case. The only weakness of this section is a failure to fully account for the opinions of the fighting men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who provide, with some of their more extreme pronouncements about the inadequacies of politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy, the real force behind the 'birth of democracy' argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The examination of historians and the civil war is provocative, particularly in terms of the contradictions it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out in Michael Laffan's and Tom Garvin's theses. However, it is questionable whether the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate is still formed by the positions set by P. S. O'Hegarty and Dorothy Macardle in 1924 and 1937 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively, as argued here. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.296 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.296 640.515 m 183.296 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 183.296 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Fianna Fil and Fine Gael will never agree on their interpretations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil war, or possibly any other aspect of the 1916?23 period. It is arguable that they never can and never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should. There is similarly a lack of understanding of the extent to which civil war bitterness was ingrained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also propagated for political advantage. At the same time there is a failure to appreciate that there could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be anything but civil war politics dividing the two main parties in Ireland. Why is it so surprising that Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics is still dominated by the three main parties of the late 1920s? Why lament the fact that 'Fianna Fil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Fine Gael have yet to form a coalition government together'? \(p. 2\). Why should they? The question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be more accurately put in terms of how could they, but that might involve exploring Irish political life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on an almost instinctive level that stretches far beyond the confines of the political elites explored here. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires more than can ever be conveniently explained by recourse to Vanhanen's 'index of power resources', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(IOD x IKD x FF\)/10,000, or any other equally esoteric formulae or theories \(p. 222\). It requires just a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sensitivity to the popular culture of Irish politics itself, a sensitivity which is sorely lacking given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author's inability to spell Dil ireann, Saorstt ireann, Fianna Fil and Sinn Fin correctly throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given its provocative and combative style, given the nature and the legacy of the war itself, it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foolish to expect agreement about this book. It conceives of a much more complex polity both before, during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, arguably, after the civil war, than has ever been conceded before. Some will lament that it did not go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further; others will argue that it has already gone too far, that it has upset the founding notions of the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and all they stand for. However, in the end, I leave this book unconvinced about the extent to which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of politics can be isolated from violence in the context of a civil conflict. I leave it still looking for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bitterness that was such an integral part of the Irish civil war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Kevin O'Higgins, )] TJ ET BT 171.500 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Three years' hard labour: an address delivered to the Irish Society at Oxford )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(University on the 31st October 1924 )] TJ ET BT 242.000 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, n.d.\), p. 7. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.328 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.328 263.619 m 391.316 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Maryann Valiuslis, '"The man they could never forgive" ? the view of the opposition', in )] TJ ET BT 511.400 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Valera and his Times)] TJ ET BT 166.352 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. P. O'Carroll and John A. Murphy \(Cork, 1983\), pp. 92?100. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.484 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.484 235.107 m 544.472 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. D. Singer and M. Small, )] TJ ET BT 194.684 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1816?1980)] TJ ET BT 472.688 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1982\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.680 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.680 220.851 m 553.676 220.851 l S BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 206.595 m 78.008 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Garvin, )] TJ ET BT 116.672 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1922: the Birth of Irish Democracy )] TJ ET BT 289.316 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, 1996\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.644 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.644 192.339 m 420.632 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Laffan, )] TJ ET BT 144.320 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Resurrection of Ireland: the Sinn Fin Party, 1916?1923 )] TJ ET BT 441.632 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1999\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Garvin, )] TJ ET BT 129.008 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1922)] TJ ET BT 153.008 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; P. S. O'Hegarty, )] TJ ET BT 240.164 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victory of Sinn Fin: How It Won It and How It Used it)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, 1924\); and Dorothy Macardle, )] TJ ET BT 256.316 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Republic: a Documented Chronicle of the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Conflict and the Partitioning of Ireland, with a Detailed Account of the Period 1916?1923 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1937\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.008 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.008 121.059 m 155.996 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 96.197 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 77.215 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 59.435 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 59.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/502)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 58.041 m 322.316 58.041 l S endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.2957 640.8295 183.2957 652.7095 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.3277 263.9335 391.3157 275.8135 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 490.4837 235.4215 544.4717 247.3015 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 513.6797 221.1655 553.6757 233.0455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 206.9095 78.0077 218.7895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 366.6437 192.6535 420.6317 204.5335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.0077 121.3735 155.9957 133.2535 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 58.3555 322.3157 70.2355 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/502) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2879)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000545 00000 n 0000000627 00000 n 0000005214 00000 n 0000005323 00000 n 0000005433 00000 n 0000005542 00000 n 0000009103 00000 n 0000009231 00000 n 0000009315 00000 n 0000009406 00000 n 0000017647 00000 n 0000017775 00000 n 0000017811 00000 n 0000017939 00000 n 0000017975 00000 n 0000018066 00000 n 0000025926 00000 n 0000026054 00000 n 0000026090 00000 n 0000026217 00000 n 0000026253 00000 n 0000026386 00000 n 0000034932 00000 n 0000035060 00000 n 0000035096 00000 n 0000035224 00000 n 0000035260 00000 n 0000035388 00000 n 0000035424 00000 n 0000035552 00000 n 0000035588 00000 n 0000035714 00000 n 0000035750 00000 n 0000035878 00000 n 0000035914 00000 n 0000036042 00000 n 0000036078 00000 n 0000036204 00000 n 0000036299 00000 n 0000036364 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36722 %%EOF