%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826201253+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826201253+01'00') /Title (Nationalism and the Irish Party: Provincial Ireland, 1910?1916) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5141 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nationalism and the Irish Party: Provincial Ireland, 1910?1916)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an ambitious and original book that brings to light a good deal of new material on nationalist politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Irish midlands between 1910 and 1916. Wheatley has adopted an original methodology ? to explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five counties in what he calls 'middle Ireland' \(Leitrim, Longford, Roscommon, Sligo and Westmeath\) over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period between the general elections of 1910 and the Easter Rising of 1916. Most studies of provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland \(by Paul Dillon, David Fitzpatrick and Peter Hart, for instance\) have focused on a single county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Kerry, Clare and Cork, respectively\), and Wheatley is to be congratulated for bravely departing from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norm and taking as his focus of study a larger group of counties or region. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.620 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.620 257.673 m 402.620 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 402.620 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) This book also explores a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively neglected period ? that between 1910 and 1916 ? and complements key works by Bew and others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which cover the earlier 1890?1910 period, as well as influential studies by Hart and others that focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1916?23 period. Like his mentor Paul Bew, Wheatley has opted to use newspapers as the main source for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, and this book is largely based on his systematic reading of 18 provincial newspapers published in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five chosen counties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book begins by setting up a debate as to the nature of the Irish Party in provincial Ireland between 1910 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1916. According to Wheatley, there are two main views of the state of the Irish Parliamentary Party in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland before the Rising. On the one hand, there are those historians who argue that the Irish Parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party was in a weakened and decayed state before the beginning of the Great War \(Garvin, Lyons, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rumpf and Hepburn\). \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.660 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.660 103.113 m 152.660 103.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.660 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) And, on the other, there are those who suggest ? as David Fitzpatrick does ? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Party remained 'vigorous and eclectic' and in a strong and representative position up to at least 1913 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bew, Fitzpatrick and O'Day\). \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.140 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.140 74.601 m 192.140 74.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 192.140 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Wheatley characterises these divergent views as the 'rotten' or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('representative' hypotheses, and sets out to examine which model of IPP organisation best fits the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(503)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Wheatley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(019927357)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fergus Campbell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.6197 257.9875 402.6197 269.8675 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 146.6597 103.4275 152.6597 115.3075 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.1397 74.9155 192.1397 86.7955 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6738 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 'middle Ireland'. This frames the discussion in the book well, and is followed by three general chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that describe IPP organisation and ideology; then three chapters that investigate particular case studies \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roscommon, Westmeath and Sligo\); and finally four further general chapters taking the narrative up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1916, followed by a strong and effective conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book makes four main arguments that I will outline briefly here, and then go on to discuss in detail later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the review. First, Wheatley \(following Philip Bull and Paul Bew\) argues that the land question was largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolved by the Wyndham Land Act of 1903. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.308 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.308 697.539 m 264.308 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.308 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) According to Wheatley, this caused a substantial reduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in political activism in the Irish countryside \(as farmers who had purchased their landholdings gave up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political activity\), and caused the small towns to replace the country as the centres of political activism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial Ireland. Second, that political conflicts in 'middle Ireland' between 1910 and 1916 were generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused by personal disputes rather than ideological or class-based conflicts. Third, that the Irish Volunteer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement ? far from bolstering the Irish Parliamentary Party's support base in 1913?14 \(as David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzpatrick has suggested\) actually superseded the Party as the dominant organisation in provincial Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the eve of the Great War. And fourth, that the IPP was neither 'rotten' nor 'representative' in 1913, but that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Redmond's Woodenbridge speech \(on 20 September 1914\), in which he pledged the support of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volunteers to the British war effort, was a bridge too far for provincial nationalists. According to Wheatley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was Redmond's support for the British war effort that fundamentally weakened the IPP in the eyes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial nationalists, so that the Party was insufficiently strong to respond to the crisis generated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Easter Rising in 1916.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the central arguments of Wheatley' s second chapter, 'The waning of popular politics' \(see especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 22?3\), is that the Wyndham Land Act of 1903 largely resolved the Irish land question and greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced popular support for the dominant Home Rule organisation in provincial Ireland, the United Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League \(UIL\). It is argued that newly purchased farmers gave up their political activism and that the UIL fell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into decline in what Wheatley describes as 'the departing tide of mass [political] enthusiasm in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside' \(p. 32\). However, Wheatley's own data suggests some problems with this analysis. Land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchase was a slow and drawn out process, and as late as 1912 ? according to figures presented on p. 26 ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only between about one third \(32 per cent\) and half \(55 per cent\) of the tenant farmers in 'middle Ireland' had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchased their holdings. This left between half and two thirds of the farmers in 'middle Ireland' still needing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to purchase their land. Because agrarian grievances remained unsolved long after 1903, agrarian conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained significant in provincial Ireland between 1910 and 1916. Although Wheatley suggests that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was 'a clear and pronounced decline' \(p. 24\) in agrarian conflict, and that such disputes as did occur were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('related more to mopping-up operations than to any deep-seated anger' \(p. 30\), the volume of agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict remained high \(see table 1\). Admittedly, the Ranch War \(1904?9\) had witnessed particularly high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rates of agrarian conflict, and there was some decline in agrarian conflict after 1909. But agrarian conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to be significant in at least fifteen counties between 1909 and 1914 and ? as the figures in table 1 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate ? the volume of agrarian conflict remained considerable \(and fluctuating\). Indeed, some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary sources that Wheatley cites confirm the ongoing importance of agrarian agitation. The County )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inspector for Roscommon, for instance, observed in May 1912 that: 'Land is the great question in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(county.' \(p. 28\) And the massive outbreak of agrarian conflict in Roscommon \(and other parts of the west )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the midlands\) in 1920 suggests that the land question was far from resolved in 1903.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Table 1: Agrarian conflict in Ireland, 1907?1916 \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.628 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.628 188.835 m 280.628 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.628 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Year)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agrarian outrages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.058 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cattle drives)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.773 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rent combinations \(average per month\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.3077 697.8535 264.3077 709.7335 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.6277 189.1495 280.6277 201.0295 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 2427 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1907)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(372)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(390)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27)] TJ ET BT 34.016 714.898 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1908)] TJ ET BT 34.016 700.498 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(576)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(681)] TJ ET BT 34.016 671.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45)] TJ ET BT 34.016 645.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1909)] TJ ET BT 34.016 631.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(397)] TJ ET BT 34.016 616.642 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(200)] TJ ET BT 34.016 602.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.986 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1910)] TJ ET BT 34.016 561.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(420)] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(188)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1911)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.130 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(324)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.730 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(114)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17)] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1912)] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(307)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(69)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17)] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.618 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1913)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(190)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET BT 34.016 298.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(235)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.362 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(127)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1915)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(183)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1916)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.850 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(158)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(51)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would argue that the UIL did retain a significant role in provincial Irish life after 1903 \(as an organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that negotiated with landlords on behalf of tenants for land purchase\). Indeed, the figures on UIL )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership in 'middle Ireland' do not confirm the 'distinct slowing of the political pulse' \(p. 41\) that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7553 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatley suggests. Between December 1909 and December 1913, the membership of the UIL in the five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counties did decline but only by two branches and six per cent of the total membership \(from 193 to 191 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(branches, and from 24,462 to 23,057 members\). Admittedly, some branches were more active than others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and some were described by the police as 'nominal', but the police records do indicate that they continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exist. Certainly, there is some evidence of UIL decline \(skilfully researched and discussed by Wheatley\) but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I do not believe that the decline was as serious or as substantial as Wheatley suggests. This raises questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about some of the deductions that Wheatley makes based on his ? to my mind ? incorrect view that the land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question was solved and the UIL was in irreversible decline. For instance, Wheatley makes two far-ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations about the nature of popular politics in provincial Ireland based on his questionable reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state of the land question. First, that 'the withdrawal of many farmers from active politics meant that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance of political life shifted further to the towns' \(p. 32\). And second, that 'the departing tide of mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasm in the countryside left exposed the grubbier mechanics of local patronage, manipulation, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faction' \(p. 32\). These are intriguing hypotheses but they require further investigation to be either proved or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disproved. Indeed, the second hypothesis ? that local manipulation and jockeying for position became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant issue in provincial Irish politics after 1910 ? is one of the central arguments in the book, and I will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now move on to a fuller discussion of that point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the centre of the book are three in-depth local studies of Roscommon, Westmeath and Sligo which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present an enormous amount of new information and raise many important questions. For Wheatley, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes that he describes in provincial Ireland were generated largely by personal rivalries or the 'pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local influence and status' \(p. 111\) while most of them were not 'in any way ideological' \(p. 106\). In chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5, for instance, Wheatley describes the arrival of Father Thomas Cummins in Roscommon town in 1910, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where he immediately engaged in a dispute with the town UIL branch. The ostensible cause of the conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the nomination of a United Irish League candidate for the county council election: Cummins wanted one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidate, and the town UIL branch another. In the event, the town UIL won out and put their man forward. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatley, therefore, concludes that the basis of the conflict was 'a personal snub' when Cummins's preferred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidate did not get the nomination. However, as Wheatley explains, Cummins promoted a radical agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy in Roscommon. In 1911, he founded the Roscommon Associated Estates Committee \(RAEC\) in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town \(and the rural hinterland of the town\) which aimed to force the sale of estates \(under the Wyndham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Land Act\) and also to redistribute grazing land among the small tenant farmers in the region. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cummins referred to the members of the town UIL as 'land-grabbers', suggesting that he regarded them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graziers or the supporters of grazing interests. It seems possible, therefore, that the conflict between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cummins and the Roscommon UIL branch was ideological and perhaps based on Cummins's support for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land redistribution, which was not as eagerly supported by the local UIL. I would have liked to have seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatley investigate this dispute \(and other local disputes\) more fully, and to explore the social composition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the RAEC \(officers and rank and file\) and the Roscommon town UIL to see if each organisation appealed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to different social groups in the locality \(which might suggest the ideological/social nature of the conflict\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What ostensibly appears to have been a personal dispute may have been based on wider social, political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrarian disagreements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatley's treatment of the Volunteers is one of the strongest and most important aspects of his book. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter 9, he challenges David Fitzpatrick's influential interpretation of the Irish Volunteers as bolstering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of the pre-War Irish Parliamentary Party \(see chapter 3 of his )] TJ ET BT 369.932 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics and Irish life, 1913?1921)] TJ ET BT 531.608 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatley convincingly argues that far from the IPP absorbing the Volunteers, it was the Volunteers that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were absorbing the representatives of the IPP. This is a key point as it suggests that the IPP was not in quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as rude a state of health in 1914 as Fitzpatrick suggests. The discussion here would have been complemented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a reading of the Bureau of Military History witness statements \(released in March 2003\). Indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness statements of Volunteers in 'middle Ireland' would undoubtedly have illuminated the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the IPP and the Volunteers even further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, Wheatley returns to the dilemma posed in the introduction: was the pre-war IPP 'rotten' or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('representative'? In his final chapter, Wheatley makes the critical argument that the IPP was neither in a state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of decay nor unrepresentative of provincial nationalism in early 1914. Rather, the IPP's decline after 1914 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8021 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was inaugurated by Redmond's support for the British war effort. This caused the Irish Volunteers \(later the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Redmondite National Volunteers\) to fall into a steep decline, and led many provincial nationalists to reject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lead of the IPP. As the war progressed and recruiting and conscription became critical issues, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification of the IPP with recruiting was the critical factor in its loss of support. Perhaps more even than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Rising, Redmond's support for recruiting meant that he ceased to represent provincial nationalist opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and so the Party was in a fundamentally weakened state even before the Easter Rising. In this context, Sinn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fin, which had opposed recruiting to the British army since its formation in 1905, became the dominant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist organisation between 1916 and 1918, as it appealed to the anti-recruiting sentiments of provincial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists. Wheatley's discussion of the Volunteers and Redmond's response to the Great War are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely useful in helping us to understand the collapse of the IPP at the 1918 general election.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheatley deserves to be congratulated for his extensive reading of the provincial Irish press during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period: he has brought a massive amount of new material to light and also raised a number of intriguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions that will no doubt inspire future researchers. This book ? as the best history does ? raises debates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, as I have outlined, I would interpret some of the processes described in the book rather differently. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is as it should be, and it is a sign of the healthy state of Irish historiography that there is beginning to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectful and productive debate about some of the key questions regarding the origins and dynamics of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish revolution \(1916?23\). Wheatley's work is innovative in its methodology and covers an impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of social groups in Irish society \(shopkeepers, farmers, town tenants, labourers, and so on\). To my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, some of the questions that Wheatley raises can only be answered properly through more in-depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies than he attempts. In particular, I think that the analysis of the local disputes would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improved by a broader study of the social composition of the members of the UIL, AOH, RAEC, and so on. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A full-scale analysis of the social composition of the various competing groups ? at both officer and rank )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and file level ? would have improved this book, and facilitated a better understanding of the origins of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts \(be they personal, ideological, or class-based\). But this is an impressive and well-written book that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will become essential reading for anyone interested in Irish society before the revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Dillon, 'Labour and politics in Kerry, 1879?1916' \(University College Dublin, PhD thesis, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Fitzpatrick, )] TJ ET BT 154.340 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics and Irish life, 1913?1921: Provincial Experience of War and Revolution)] TJ ET BT 542.648 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Peter Hart, )] TJ ET BT 139.328 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies: Violence and Community in Cork, 1916?1923)] TJ ET BT 485.636 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 332.643 m 152.000 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Garvin, )] TJ ET BT 129.008 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Evolution of Irish Nationalist Politics)] TJ ET BT 330.704 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1981\); F. S. L. Lyons, )] TJ ET BT 486.044 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary Party, 1890?1910)] TJ ET BT 223.676 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1951\); and Erhard Rumpf and A. C. Hepburn, )] TJ ET BT 454.304 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalism and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Socialism in Twentieth-Century Ireland)] TJ ET BT 254.348 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Liverpool, 1977\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.668 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.668 289.875 m 402.656 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Bew, )] TJ ET BT 116.348 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology and the Irish Question: Ulster Unionism and Irish Nationalism, 1912?1916)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1994\); Fitzpatrick, )] TJ ET BT 200.996 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics and Irish Life, 1913?1921)] TJ ET BT 366.008 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and Alan O'Day, )] TJ ET BT 455.816 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Home Rule, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1867?1921 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.988 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.988 247.107 m 274.976 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Bull, )] TJ ET BT 122.372 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land, Politics and Nationalism: A Study of the Irish Land Question)] TJ ET BT 446.060 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1996\); and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Bew, )] TJ ET BT 116.348 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflict and Conciliation in Ireland, 1890?1910: Parnellites and Radical Agrarians)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1987\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.664 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.664 204.339 m 196.652 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fergus Campbell, )] TJ ET BT 152.348 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land and Revolution: Nationalist Politics in the West of Ireland, 1891?1921)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2005\), pp. 186, 239. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.664 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.664 175.827 m 262.652 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 150.965 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 131.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 114.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 114.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/503)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 112.809 m 322.316 112.809 l S endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 332.9575 151.9997 344.8375 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.6677 290.1895 402.6557 302.0695 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.9877 247.4215 274.9757 259.3015 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.6637 204.6535 196.6517 216.5335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.6637 176.1415 262.6517 188.0215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 113.1235 322.3157 125.0035 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/503) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2881)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000579 00000 n 0000000682 00000 n 0000005875 00000 n 0000005984 00000 n 0000006094 00000 n 0000006203 00000 n 0000009764 00000 n 0000009892 00000 n 0000009976 00000 n 0000010104 00000 n 0000010140 00000 n 0000010268 00000 n 0000010304 00000 n 0000010430 00000 n 0000010466 00000 n 0000010557 00000 n 0000017348 00000 n 0000017476 00000 n 0000017512 00000 n 0000017640 00000 n 0000017676 00000 n 0000017741 00000 n 0000020221 00000 n 0000020286 00000 n 0000027892 00000 n 0000028011 00000 n 0000036085 00000 n 0000036212 00000 n 0000036248 00000 n 0000036376 00000 n 0000036412 00000 n 0000036540 00000 n 0000036576 00000 n 0000036704 00000 n 0000036740 00000 n 0000036868 00000 n 0000036904 00000 n 0000037032 00000 n 0000037127 00000 n 0000037192 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37550 %%EOF