%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021041608+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021041608+01'00') /Title (Politics and the Irish Working Class, 1830?1945) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4482 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Politics and the Irish Working Class, 1830?1945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This Fintan Lane and Donal Drisceoil edited work is a welcome addition to the existing historiography. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns the Irish working class and politics over the course of a century. As the introduction points out, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention of historians has not been directed towards Irish labour to the extent seen in other western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European countries. This volume seeks to widen the debate on Irish political working-class history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplement general Irish political history and, rather more ambitiously, add to international working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. While establishing the aims of the book, the editors' introduction gives an overview of labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in Ireland from the early eighteenth century, chronicling why the island never developed overt class-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based politics. They adhere to the popular hypothesis that the labour movement did not become politicised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough due to the '"three evil geniuses of socialism": the priest, peasant and patriot' \(p. 2\), that is, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people of Ireland were motivated by issues affecting religion, land ownership and the relationship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain \(Home Rule and/or separation\). The introduction culminates in a fine summarisation of the chapters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reader is tempted with the briefest of outlines. It is evident that there is one overriding hypothesis: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual chapters, although from disparate periods or topics, all appear to agree with the premise of a failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class polity. They do, however, deviate on why this has happened, which in turn persuades the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to delve further. The differences of the chapters dictate that they must be treated individually and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence this review shall analyse each in turn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A strict enough chronology is imposed on the book. The initial chapter concentrates on the early nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Vincent Geoghegan aims to chart embryonic working class politicisation in the Ulster of the 1830s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This politicisation was known as 'co-operation' and grew out of 'the economic vicissitudes of capitalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(506)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fintan Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donal Drisceoil)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1403939179)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kieran McGovern)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7569 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the post-Napoleonic War period' \(p. 6\). Robert Owen was leading advocator of this, and the chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addresses his impact on Ulster society. Geoghegan's premise is not so much that organised labour, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political movement, failed, but that it actually existed at all in this period. This is illustrated through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author's use of the )] TJ ET BT 124.160 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Belfast Newsletter)] TJ ET BT 211.832 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The paper began to register what Owen was saying on bettering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions of the lower classes as early as 1816. Its mainly critical stance exemplified the concern among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upper classes. They were fearful of the working classes becoming a political force. If a slight criticism can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be made, it is that Geoghegan does give greater context on Robert Owen. This is fine for those with a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of early labour history, but may not be enough for those using the book as an introduction to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter is more ambitious. Its time frame stretches from 1830 to 1945. The angle presented is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also bold. It examines labour and politics through colonisation and, more interestingly, mental colonisation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O'Connor explains these two concepts at the start. The appeal for the reader is in examining the piece to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how O'Connor incorporates these concepts. He intends to deviate from the long-held reasons for labour's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to politicise sufficiently in Ireland. Instead of laying the blame at religion, land or nationalism, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aims to illustrate that while labour was successful in the formation of trade unions, the more political aspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faltered due to colonisation or mental colonisation. The chapter provides a very clear and concise argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and successfully challenges the historiography. O'Connor's writing style lends itself to making the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypothesis persuasive; he contends that the labour movement in Ireland did not politicise successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because labour was unable or unwilling to shake of the 'British yoke', despite the political revolution and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of the Free State. Even as late as the 1940s, O'Connor infers, British influence was seen to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impacting on decisions made by the representatives of Irish labour. Although his argument is persuasive, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult accept it as the major cause of labour's inability to make headway. The continued influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain is too easy an assumption, and other accepted components are integral to the story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luddy's opening is captivating. She lays out an account of Irish women striking in 1912. One therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expects to discover just what bearing women had on the labour movement between 1830 and 1945. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early momentum, however, is somewhat lost in her definitions of what 'work' is and the problems the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads to in women's history. This is important to establish, nonetheless, so as to allow the reader to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand Luddy's parameters. The chapter concentrates on narrating instances of working-class women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging in political activities. These are interesting in themselves but there is an impression that more is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed in terms of analysis. The impact of women on labour history is not really assessed. The author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bemoans the lack of research into the role of women in the Land League and the Anglo-Irish War. She also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights the little work that has been done on the suffragette movement in Ireland. The fact that the chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has such a large time frame does not allow for greater analysis. An important achievement of the chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is that it clearly draws attention to an area that deserves greater research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The north-east corner of Ireland, and especially the city of Belfast, has long held an interest for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to write a socialist history of Ireland. It was, of course, the most industrialised region of Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hence resembled areas of Britain and Germany where socialism flourished and left-right politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged. Hirst's point in her chapter, 'Politics, sectarianism and the working class in nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belfast' is that is this view is a misnomer. Left-right politics never had a chance in Belfast and, by extension, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster, as sectarianism had gained a hold much earlier than previously imagined. The strength of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is ably put across. The sheer quality and quantity of sources used by Hirst are testament to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasiveness of her argument. Although she reasons differently f rom the overarching causes as laid out in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the introduction, the result is the same. Despite all the indicators that socialism should have emerged as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political force in Belfast, it did not due to the prevalence of a 'green-orange' polity. The nature of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument does, however, see Hirst drift sometimes from the focus of the book, the working classes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour, into areas where she seems more comfortable, namely discussing nationalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kinealy examines Chartism and she links it to O'Connelites and the 1848 Uprising. The Chartists were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to reform the British parliamentary system, while tagging on greater autonomy for Ireland to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands. This was mainly because a number of leading Chartists were Irish. This should have tied in neatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Daniel O'Connell's efforts to repeal the Act of Union. Unfortunately it is only upon reaching Kinealy's )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7176 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion is one totally sure what the argument is. The thesis presented is that there is crossover of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperation between the working classes of the two islands, at least certainly at the leadership level. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British government became increasingly concerned about this crossover, especially after the revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France of 1848 and the radicalism that it inspired among the Irish, most notably the Young Irelanders. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading the conclusion it becomes much easier to assess the main body of the chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The great manifestation of Irish labour having a dramatic impact on society and politics is the land issue. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an area where it is possible to see labour develop and achieve its aims. It can probably be argued, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lane does, that this movement overachieved. Instead of creating left-right polity, the labouring classes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became small landowners, which resulted in the creation of a large rural conservative society. This is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longest and most detailed of the chapters, as it perhaps needs to be because of the significance of this period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Irish history and its impact on the political revolution that occurs in the next century. Lane's chapter first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains the major shift among the working classes in the aftermath of the Famine. The labouring classes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were particularly decimated. It is in the next section, assessing the Land League movement, that the piece )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gains its more powerful tone. Initially the movement was run by and run for the lower classes. The League )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was highly successful in achieving its aims. The response of the British government to the land issue saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League lose some of its power. Land legislation was passed at Westminster addressing some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grievances. As Lane also points out, it increasingly became a vehicle for mobilising the people on other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, such as Home Rule. Effectively, the growing nationalism of Ireland saw the land movement lose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus: it 'had to subscribe to the belief that class interests are less important that the "national interest"' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(135\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Understandably, Belfast is the dominant city in this book when discussing politics and the working class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although it could be said that Dublin deserves mention too. Surprisingly, but positively so, Maura Cronin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directs our attention to Cork and Limerick in an attempt to assess the role of labour and Parnellism. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter's introduction makes clear her aim to identify which interpretation of Parnellism was taken among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the labouring classes of the two cities. She also lays out her justification for choosing Cork and Limerick: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have enough similarities to provide coherent comparison ? something Dublin, due to its size, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belfast, with its sectarianism, could not. The first section of the chapter concentrates on narrating the trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union activity of the two cities. The impact of the trade unions on Parnell and Parnellism is discussed but, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a central theme, it is not strong. Cronin does accept that nationalism, in its many forms, had a strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on the restriction of socialism, and she considers further the first of the 'evil geniuses', the priest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and religion in general. This, apart from in the sectarian context of earlier chapters, is the first time in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book that the Church is really tackled. Cronin asserts that the power that the Church was able to exert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted socialism within the two cities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The focus returns to Belfast for the eighth chapter. Patterson's 'William Walker, labour, sectarianism and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union, 1894?1912' is an examination of socialist politics in the city before and during a time when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union came under greater threat than ever before. Patterson asserts that between 1895 and 1905, when a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative administration in London was attempting to kill Home Rule with kindness, pan-Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unity was lost, allowing for class issues to come forward. That this was unsuccessful was no surprise, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again it offers a tantalising glimpse into a 'what if' history. Once a Liberal government was back in power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant uneasiness over the Union returned, thereby suffocating the nascent socialist movement within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland's greatest socialist, James Connolly, casts a long shadow over working-class historiography. Helga )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woggon's chapter on Connolly's legacy in the revolutionary period illustrates perfectly how socialism has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been subsumed in Ireland. She considers the many ways in which Connolly's inheritance has been used and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at times, abused by various political parties in Ireland ? a situation in some ways created by Connolly's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex character: different political movements and parties have laid claim to whichever aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connolly suits them. What really makes Woggon's chapter, though, is the way in which she weaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connolly's legacy into areas less obviously connected to the man, offering evidence, for example, of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church was able to merge Connolly's idealism to their message.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7163 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conor Kostick's political leanings are evident in this chapter. He gives great credence to the involvement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the working classes during the Anglo-Irish War. He infers that it was labour militancy that contributed in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant fashion to the success that was achieved by December 1921: 'In so far as the core administration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the colony was rocked, it was by the intervention of the working class.' \(p. 190\) How well does Kostick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defend his claims? The chapter works, on the whole, and his hypothesis certainly holds firm when re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessing the War of Independence. Kostick is able to present many instances where organised working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class action resulted in the British authorities being unable to administer their rule in Ireland. He does allow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the significance of the impact labour had to be exaggerated though, especially in the post-Treaty period. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposes that the pro-Treaty government was so repressive against the Munster Republic because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing socialism visible throughout this period. A long quote from Larkin about the state of Ireland in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1923, which closes the chapter, is further testimony to the author's personal politics and his feelings towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new Irish establishment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The years after revolution can lead to radicalism. However in Ireland this was not to be the case: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservatism was the prevalent ideology of the Cumann na nGaedheal government. Even the election of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fianna Fil, which had a solid working-class electorate, failed to see labour achieve much between 1923 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1939. Fearghal McGarry's detailed chapter explains exactly why working class politics failed to ignite in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. He does not necessarily reveal anything new in his piece, but the comprehensiveness of the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes it essential reading. It recounts the moment at which the Labour party looked as if it were about to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make an impact on the political landscape, only for it to fall back at the next election due to the re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awakening of non-class-driven issues, such as nationalism and republicanism, anti-British sentiment or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the Church. McGarry's chapter clearly, and with great attention to detail, supports the volume's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central hypothesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the post-partition era, and with nationalists unsure of participating in the new government structures, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked as though the labour movement might be able to make an impact in Northern Ireland. Graham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walker illustrates why the Northern Ireland Labour Party failed to find a dominant voice in the region's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political scene. The Ulster Unionist Party recognised the threat from the left, and, as a party intent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidating its position, set about removing the need for a labour party. It did this by accepting decisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Westminster that were liberal or even left-leaning, while continuing to play up threats to the continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of Northern Ireland. Walker, succinct as ever, gives the reader a brief background of labour in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster before going on to map out the NILP's organisation and development. He is somewhat sympathetic to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the NILP ? 'the party's dissenting voice was a valuable contribution to a troubled society and polity' \(p. 243\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? but concludes that the overbearing sectarianism of Northern Ireland nullified the impact the NILP had.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Dunphy's examination of how Fianna Fil cultivated support among the working classes in its first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade provides material for the penultimate chapter. The party managed to weld together the rural working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class, socialist or leftist republicans as well as members of the proletariat \(urban workers\). Not only was it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to take on the established Cumann na nGaedheal but it also took support from the Labour Party. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunphy sets out to explain why Fianna Fil was able to do this. He does manage this, but unfortunately the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast majority of his sources seem to be secondary. Margaret Canovan's article for )] TJ ET BT 427.424 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Studies)] TJ ET BT 506.432 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominate the first section of the chapter, detracting from Dunphy's hypothesis somewhat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter by Donal Drisceoil typifies much that is excellent in this book. The chapter is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structured and well argued. It centres on working-class politics during the 'Emergency' and how, once again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there appeared to be a chance that a left-right politicisation of Ireland might happen. This ties perfectly into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole concept of the volume, and is something that the majority of the authors seem to adhere to. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drisceoil alludes to the fact that this period can be used as a near perfect case study of why socialism never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved a lasting impact in Irish politics. At the centre of this is Fianna Fil, pulling the various strings to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thwart labour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taken as a whole, this edited volume is a welcome addition to Irish working-class historiography. It goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some way to tighten the accepted reasons for the lack of left-right politics in Ireland, north and south, while )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1846 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering glimpses of when this development may have broken through the barriers of religion, nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ownership of the land. Rather surprisingly, the Dublin Lockout of 1913 and a substantial study of Larkin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not included. One would have imagined that Dublin as a whole deserved greater attention. This, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, should not take away from the importance or enjoyment of the volume. The reading of )] TJ ET BT 499.928 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Irish Working Class)] TJ ET BT 148.352 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1830?1945 prompts the reader to delve further, and the range and wealth of sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained within illustrate plenty of scope for further research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(March 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 627.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 609.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 609.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/506)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 608.265 m 322.316 608.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 583.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2887)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 608.5795 322.3157 620.4595 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/506) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000005173 00000 n 0000005282 00000 n 0000005392 00000 n 0000005501 00000 n 0000009062 00000 n 0000009190 00000 n 0000009274 00000 n 0000009339 00000 n 0000016961 00000 n 0000017026 00000 n 0000024255 00000 n 0000024320 00000 n 0000031536 00000 n 0000031620 00000 n 0000033519 00000 n 0000033647 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33742 %%EOF