%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722005704+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722005704+01'00') /Title (The Marquess of Londonderry. Aristocracy, Power and Politics in Britain and Ireland) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4335 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Marquess of Londonderry. Aristocracy, Power and Politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain and Ireland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a strange coincidence, two books have been published on 'Charlie', the 7th Marquess of Londonderry, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last two years: Ian Kershaw's )] TJ ET BT 194.804 308.963 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Friends with Hitler: Lord Londonderry and Britain's Road to War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2004\) and Neil Fleming's, the subject of this review. It is strange because although Londonderry had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretensions to play a significant role in British, and to some degree Irish, high politics, his contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government was second rank and clouded by failure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The objectives of the books are different and to some degree, complementary. Kershaw brings his mastery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler and German history in the 1930s to a study of Londonderry as an appeaser who, following his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissal from the National Government in 1935, pursued his goal by personal diplomacy with the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership. Fleming, on the other hand, describes and assesses all aspects of his career in order to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its overall significance and 'to explain his actions' by linking 'the contrasting aspects of his life' \(p. 212\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleming certainly achieves many of his objectives. Each stage of Londonderry's career is traced in carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honed prose, making full use of the extensive personal and official records that are available. He was born in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1879 and became heir to the Londonderry estates in counties Down and Durham, the latter containing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive collieries and being the foundation of the family's longstanding prominence in north-east )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatism. His parents subsequently saw to it that he would enter politics on the Conservative side, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preventing him from becoming a soldier during the Boer War and ensuring his return for Maidstone in 1906. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between then and 1915 when he succeeded his father and went to the Lords, he made a promising, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unspectacular, start as a parliamentarian. He intervened regularly in debate, supporting the Union ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(507)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 April, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. C. Fleming)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1850437262)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Jupp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7318 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing himself later as a semi-detached supporter of militant Ulster unionism; and eventually shifted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from being a free trader to an advocate of Bonar Law's compromise policy of tariff reform that met with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approval of the Dominions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the war, Londonderry was disappointed in his desire to fight at the front, occupying instead a support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role, and was one of the Ulster Unionist Council's delegates to the Convention established to find an answer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Irish question. At this, he pressed privately for a federal solution, but in the end toed the UUC line and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported the case for Ulster's exclusion in a Home Rule solution. Indeed, both Ulster unionists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative leaders praised his record in the Convention ? a factor that together with the support of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cousin, Winston Churchill, led to his appointment in 1919 as the Finance Member and then the Under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secretary of the Air Ministry in the Lloyd George Coalition. In 1921, however, separate ministries of War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Air were established, and Londonderry failed to be appointed Secretary of State despite the fact that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been responsible for an important Air Navigation Act in 1920 and had broadcast his wish for significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotion. He therefore accepted an invitation to become Minister of Education in the new Northern Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In that role, Londonderry's principal contribution was an Education Act of 1923, founded on the report of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committee that he had established. His aim was secular state education but in this he was frustrated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refusal of the Roman Catholic leaders to submit themselves to the new Northern Ireland state, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately, by Protestant opposition to the proposed banning of religious instruction. Londonderry was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore forced to make some concessions to Protestant opinion and by January 1926 had submitted his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resignation, arguing that his mining interests in Durham needed his urgent attention. Although frustration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the 'parochialism' \(p. 94\) of Ulster politics and deteriorating relations with Craig, the prime minister, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were probably the principal reason, there was some justification in his claim. Tensions between colliery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owners and miners were at breaking point and ruptured a few months later. During the General Strike he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(castigated the miners' leaders for their left-wing beliefs but was a moderate as far as a settlement was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned, especially after the Strike had collapsed. A year later, his return to British politics was very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modestly rewarded with the chairmanship of a Royal Commission on London Squares and in October 1928 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he rose a step up to become 1st Commissioner of Works, an appointment in which Churchill once again had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a hand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the collapse of Labour in 1931, Londonderry supported the formation of a National Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was made Minister for Air shortly after the 1931 election. Fleming makes the point that Londonderry's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous experience and continuing enthusiasm for air travel made him a credible candidate for the post but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states that is unclear how far either MacDonald's infatuation with Lady Londonderry or Baldwin's support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for him played a role in the decision. What is clear, however, is that the post was the occasion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Londonderry's own hubris and nemesis as a minister. Occupying a post in a Westminster cabinet for the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, he busied himself with defence and foreign policies, made modest reductions and then increases in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of the RAF, hoped for an international agreement on disarmament that would include Germany, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported aerial bombing as a cost-effective form of colonial 'policing'. He laid other plans ? for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the development of civil aviation and the research that led to radar and the Hurricane and Spitfire ? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his world collapsed in 1935. In March he announced increases in the RAF but observers were shocked a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weeks later when Hitler claimed, falsely, that the Luftwaffe was already of equal strength. Londonderry was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as a minister who had not done enough, a point the prime minister seemed to endorse when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established a new cabinet committee to oversee defence matters from which the Air Minister was excluded. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Londonderry therefore resigned but gave hostage to fortune in his farewell speech by saying that at least he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had safeguarded bombers ? a statement that Labour seized on to attack ministers for their warmongering. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baldwin subsequently appointed him Leader of the House of Lords but sacked him after the 1935 election.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Londonderry, however, did not believe his political career had come to an end. Aggrieved by the treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he had received from Chamberlain and Baldwin and not thinking much of their talents anyway, he set about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a round of personal meetings with Ribbentrop, Goring and Hitler in an attempt to further good relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two countries. His thinking was that France was to blame for the harsh conditions imposed upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany in 1919 and was also responsible for the collapse of the Disarmament Conference. He also )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7404 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that Germany could act as a bulwark against Russian Communist expansion and that if a world war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place, Germany's defeat would make that inevitable. His personal contact with the Nazi leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceased after Kristallnacht but this did not stop him continuing to preach the virtues of mutual understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the war broke out. It was at that point that he moved from London to Mount Stewart in Co. Down, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where he died in 1949.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleming's assessments of the various contexts in which the frequent turns in Londonderry's career took place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are particularly impressive, displaying a solid command of both British and Ulster politics. Londonderry's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership of the Irish Convention, for example, was fraught with dangers to his career: too close an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification with militant Ulster unionism might destroy his standing with the Conservatives; too strong an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocacy of federalism might do equal damage to his Ulster unionist credentials. Fleming, however, argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly that Londonderry was able to leave the Convention with friends on both sides: with Ulster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionists because he played the role of a 'party lieutenant' as opposed to a chieftain; and with Conservatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Balfour, Carson and Law, because he seemed to be a moderating influence in Ulster \(pp. 50?2\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another example concerns his being passed over as Secretary of State of the new Ministry of Air in 1921. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleming argues that this can be explained by three considerations. First, that Londonderry's appointment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been attacked in the press and elsewhere on the grounds of his being a peer. Second, that Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other Conservative leaders such as Curzon did not wish to increase the influence of Churchill, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Londonderry's cousin. And third, that it would have been unwise to promote such a prominent colliery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owner just at the time when the future of the coal industry was a matter of intense 'public scrutiny' \(p. 85\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judicious assessments of this kind are also provided on some of the more controversial aspects of his career )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the extent of his role in the UVF after 1912 and how far he owed his appointment as Minister for Air )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1931 to his wife's cultivation of MacDonald. In both cases, Fleming argues that the evidence does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support anything more than modest roles and such is the strength of the archival basis of this book, that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are convincing judgements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also has a fair measure of success in its stated objective of linking the 'contrasting aspects of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life in order to explain his actions', the most notorious of which is his long-lasting belief in the advantages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an accommodation with Nazi Germany. Fleming's portrait of Londonderry is therefore of a politician who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought conciliation between opposing groups, who was prepared to be flexible on some issues, but was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outspokenly firm on others. Londonderry therefore sought conciliation on a series of issues over time: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Liberal radicals and Tory die-hards on the issues of House of Lords reform and Home Rule; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Roman Catholic leaders and Ulster unionist extremists on the issue of education in Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland; between colliery owners and miners and their trade union representatives during the General Strike; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of course, between Britain and Germany in the 1930s. He was also flexible, a quality that Fleming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefers to describe as pragmatic: on the issue of free trade which he espoused, 1906?12, but then abandoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for tariff reform and imperial preference; and at the Geneva Disarmament Conference, when he supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicly a government case that he had reservations about in private. Finally, there is no doubt of his 'single-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mindedness': in his advocacy for free trade, when it had marginal support in the Tory party; his constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for the claims of the RAF in its contests with the Treasury and the Foreign Office; and, ultimately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his refusal to abandon the cause of an agreement with Hitler, long after it had become politically ruinous. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conclusion is that that there were some consistent characteristics of his career and these undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make his 'actions' more understandable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Fleming also makes some general points that invite discussion. Throughout the book, referring often to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cannadine's work, he argues that 'the real significance of his political life' lies in its 'overtly aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character at a time when traditional authority was irrevocably in decline' \(p. 212\). This raises a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues. No one doubts that the aristocracy was in decline economically and in general terms, politically, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this begs the question of how far an aristocratic style of politics was in decline in the Tory party that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governed Britain for most of Londonderry's career and to which he belonged. Fleming outlines the principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features of his aristocratic status, but given the significance he attaches to it, he might have gone further in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his analysis. How did he live at Mount Stewart and Wynyard? How many staff did he have, what were his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests and pursuits outside politics, who were his personal friends in counties Down and Durham? More )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5135 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly, what were his reading habits, was he unusual in conducting politics by speeches, letters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertaining? And more particularly still, what were his relations with the Carlton, the National Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(headquarters, and the London watering holes where, it appears, so much real business was done in Tory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circles?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This focus on Londonderry as a politician out of step with the onward 'march' of 'legal-rational authority' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\) also raises questions about the judgement of his success and failure as a politician. Fleming's core )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is that Londonderry's rank led him to neglect seriously the need to respond at crucial moments to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public opinion ? either in the country at large or in the Ulster Unionist or Conservative parties. As Minister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Northern Ireland Government and later as Air Minister, for example, it is argued that 'he disregarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the need to appease public concerns' \(p. 141\): by ignoring the opinions of Orangemen in the first case, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by refusing to recognise public misgivings about the strength of the RAF in the second. In other words, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption here is that the principal goal of successful politicians is being in office and therefore having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('power'; and that when in office, their decision-making has to be influenced by the opinions of their senior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues, their party and the electorate. Two questions arise. The first is how many politicians of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period thought in that way? Could it not be argued that there were other views of the purpose of politics: for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, that it was more about service to an ideology or service to the state by being involved in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business of government? The second is how far Londonderry thought of politics in terms of holding 'power'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given his lineage, it is possible that he regarded 'governing' as something that he should practice; and that to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him, 'governing' was not the same as having 'power'. Instead, it may have involved taking a view on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues of the day at his own time and expense; being prepared to write privately and speak publicly on those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues; if in office, relying on officials to do most of the necessary research and paperwork; and, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary, defending their views.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Fleming's book is one that all students of twentieth-century British and Ulster politics should have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on their bookshelves. It provides a comprehensive treatment of Londonderry's career that is based solidly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive archival sources. Moving confidently and authoritatively from Westminster to Belfast politics, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assesses the contexts of his career path convincingly and draws out some of the key characteristics of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own decision-making. In these respects, his actions become much more understandable. Further, it has the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merit, for this reader at least, of raising questions about how not only his career should be assessed, but that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any right-centre politician and minister in the first thirty years of a mass electorate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(March 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 275.551 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 257.771 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 257.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/507)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 256.377 m 322.316 256.377 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 231.400 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 217.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2889)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 256.6915 322.3157 268.5715 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/507) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000005055 00000 n 0000005164 00000 n 0000005274 00000 n 0000005383 00000 n 0000008944 00000 n 0000009072 00000 n 0000009156 00000 n 0000009221 00000 n 0000016592 00000 n 0000016657 00000 n 0000024114 00000 n 0000024198 00000 n 0000029386 00000 n 0000029514 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29609 %%EOF