%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 28 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721103038+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721103038+01'00') /Title (Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4489 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Indigenous Children in Australian History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is disturbing for an Australian to discover that debates about genocide often do not move very far beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the classic area of study ? Europe under the Nazis ? before someone mentions the antipodes. Genocide is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime, in other words, for which Australia is listed among the usual suspects. Ten volumes are so far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projected in the series 'Studies on War and Genocide', edited by Omer Bartov, of Brown University, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those ten, two have a general coverage, seven are on the Nazis, and one ? the one under review here ? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Australia. Of course, in the two general volumes there are chapters about mass violence in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries: the St Bartholomew's Day massacre in France, the rape of Nanking, Serbia, Croatia, Rwanda and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so on. But only Australia so far merits a volume of its own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the fate of the Tasmanian Aborigines is often held up as an unusually thorough example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide ? an entire people, racially and cultural distinct and confined to a single island, had virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappeared within three generations of invasion by the British. It does not help that the history of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement throughout the Australian continent is devoid of any kind of long-term and far-ranging treaty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between colonisers and colonised. Elsewhere in the empire either a treaty preceded wholesale settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Zealand is the obvious case\), or else something like a treaty has been enacted more recently \(as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada\). Australia stands out as a country where negotiations of this kind have always been haphazard and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-committal. It is tempting then to assume that they have been shaped overall by force, and from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indigenous point of view by the real possibility of extermination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the face of it, there is no good reason why the British in Australia should have been more ruthless than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British, or other European conquerors, anywhere else. It is worth asking then, whether the Australian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience deserves its notoriety. As I understand it, this is more or less the purpose of this book. So, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(509)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 April, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Dirk Moses)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berghahn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Atkinson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7141 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the editor, Dirk Moses of Sydney University, has hereby raised Australia's profile as a place clearly relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the issue of genocide, he has also posed the question in an open-minded way that ought to satisfy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australians genuinely interested in the history and reputation of their country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And indeed, national feeling has to be taken very seriously in such discussion, which very deliberately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places nations in the dock. Historians have national and ethnic affiliations of their own, but even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously so do their readers. This is a topic that poses fundamental questions about the relationship of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer and reader, and since history speaks mainly through that relationship, it follows that books such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this one must make crucial statements about the purpose of the discipline. It might even be argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of genocide as an area of research and publication is symptomatic of a deep methodological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation in historical scholarship, characteristic of even larger cultural changes, with their immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins in the 1990s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Books like this provide a trenchant commentary on the theoretical wanderings of historical writing during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last decades of the twentieth century. Is history fiction? Is the past real? Do any of the scholars who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked such questions have scars on their own bodies ? even little scars ? as a daily reminder that history is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact palpable? When Dr Johnson was asked how he refuted Bishop Berkeley's assertion of the unreality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material things he kicked a stone ? 'I refute him thus'. Theodore Dalrymple has likewise said \(in )] TJ ET BT 496.928 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture, What's Left of It)] TJ ET BT 153.596 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) that the rudderless intellectualising which he considers typical of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century might be countered in much the same way ? by facing up to the fact of massive suffering and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human impact of evil. Historical scholarship seems to be undergoing a reality check of a similar kind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is good. It is, of course, only 'left-wing' intellectuals who are usually accused of being rudderless. But, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Australia at least, the clearest examples of intellectual nihilism are to be found among those who say ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now very publicly ? that the Australian colonial frontier was not particularly bloody, and that whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence did occur has no bearing on us now. Moses's book is a very useful contribution to this 'debate' too. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It presses home the question as to how the historian should be morally evolved in his or her subject matter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the evil under examination may be so immediate \(part of one's own national history\) and so extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that moral judgement tips over into quasi-legal judgement. Genocide, of course, is a crime, defined as such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the United Nations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It does not follow that every account of genocide is worth listening to. The chapters in this book are uneven. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their over-all arrangement is useful and important, the juxtaposition of Australian and Nazi detail being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to raise questions in the minds of readers, with minimal guidance from the editor. There are three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main sections. In the first, 'Conceptual and historical determinants', the four successive authors are mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with thinking through the meaning of the word 'genocide', within an historical context. By way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refining the process of comparison, Dirk Moses in his own chapter condemns the 'wild analogies' made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some authors in their enthusiasm to rank Australian experience with that of Nazi Europe. The truth about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australian events, he says, is horrifying, and yet more complex than such writing suggests. On the one hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain and its colonies, including the Australian ones, civil rights and human values have been highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prized. On the other, the British Empire frequently had a devastating effect on the populations that happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be in its way. Great Britain, says Moses, 'was at once an implacable opponent of totalitarianism and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of those settlers who swept aside millions of Indigenous peoples to establish progressive democracies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in North America, New Zealand, and Australia'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moses draws attention to the various legitimate uses of the word 'genocide'. The sketch of an argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows is a fine exposition of historiographical method. It suggests, and some of the other chapters go on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove, how skillful wrestling with a difficult word can uncover various levels of historical reality. This is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact the main achievement of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes attention wanders from this problem. In her chapter in this first part of the book Jan Kociumbas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents a broad view of Australian history that serves as introductory summary for readers unfamiliar with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the area. She sees no problem with the meaning of 'genocide' and she finds genocidal purpose wherever she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks. This is not a chapter that comes fully to grips with the realities of the past. It makes genocide )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(undefined\) an ubiquitous reality, and demands only that historians confront it. For instance, in Sydney Cove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1789?90, very soon after the arrival of the First Fleet, large numbers of Aborigines died of smallpox. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious explanation is they caught it from the settlers, and some scholars have also wondered whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disease was deliberately spread ? if not by Governor Phillip \(which never seemed likely\) then by some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordinate official. Noel Butlin made the suggestion in 1983 and again in 1985. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.984 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.984 738.051 m 434.984 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.984 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) However, this is one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those rare cases where apparently compelling circumstantial evidence simply fails to stand up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation. Against all the odds, it now seems fairly certain that the disease had spread from Asian contact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the far north coast of the continent \(as it was to do again during the nineteenth century\). \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.936 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.936 695.283 m 482.936 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 482.936 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The timing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was simply coincidence. But Kociumbas attributes such arguments to 'apologists': 'the refusal to ask the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious question continues.' In fact, the question has been asked and provisionally answered. This chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems almost deliberately designed to add fuel to Australia's 'history wars', to nourish the vision, now all too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common, of a light-minded 'leftish' academy, and of an historical profession incapable of telling the truth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter is worth some space here all the same, because it is so clearly at odds with the approach taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout most of the rest of the book. It makes just the kind of assumptions that most of the others set out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to question. Thus, says Kociumbas,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was modern technology that made possible the pace and effectiveness of the killing, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern law that provided the judicial niceties that condoned it. This in turn enabled minimal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state involvement via visible, military action.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such statements slide around the fundamentally important issue of government responsibility. To the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that genocide is a crime, then it is crucial to tackle two questions: did it happen in Australia and, if it did, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was responsible? Comparisons with the violence of twentieth-century Europe, for which the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('genocide' was specifically invented, make this point central to the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of the book takes up this challenge. Henry Reynolds examines the evidence for genocide in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century Tasmania. He presents here a variation of the argument in his monograph, )] TJ ET BT 485.588 396.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Indelible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stain?)] TJ ET BT 64.688 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.684 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.684 380.931 m 77.684 380.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.684 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The central figure is George Arthur, Governor of Van Diemen's Land \(modern Tasmania\) from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1824 to 1836, the crucial years, and an examination of Arthur's public and private writing proves that he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desperately anxious to ensure that the island's Indigenous people survived British invasion. The settlers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another matter. 'Many', says Reynolds, '... undoubtedly were extirpationists at heart'. But this was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autocracy and the settlers did not govern. The matter is further complicated by the fact that the Aborigines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves were by no means mere victims. In Arthur's early years, the colony was in a state of war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Invasion and genocide may be, in many cases, related events, but they are not identical. In this case, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds's logic, invasion caused war and war in turn led to something very close to the extermination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one party. Within this chain of events, genocide is a possible, but as yet an unproven link.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, as Jurgen Zimmerer's chapter, the second in the book, points out, the Nazis were colonisers too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Europe. Zimmerer draws very tightly the connection between the two processes at issue here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement of new peoples and extirpation of old. But still the question of strict attribution of motive remains.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In such arguments, much depends on the relationship between government and settlers. Reynolds finds this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship personified in Alfred Stephen, Arthur's solicitor-general. Stephen was afterwards a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded chief justice of New South Wales \(he was keenly interested in the rights of women caught up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bad marriages\). But he had limited sympathy for Aborigines in Van Diemen's Land. Arthur relied on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen's advice in working through his responsibilities under the law, and it seems likely \(to me, at least\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was Stephen who directed the governor's unwilling steps towards their ghastly conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred Stephen was first cousin to James Stephen, Arthur's close friend and patron, and permanent under-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretary at the Colonial Office. As a family, the Stephens in Britain already represented public opinion at its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most humane and learned. They also represented a central peculiarity of the nineteenth-century British )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.9837 738.3655 434.9837 750.2455 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.9357 695.5975 482.9357 707.4775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 71.6837 381.2455 77.6837 393.1255 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6647 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire. A proper discussion of genocide in that period of the Empire requires the skills of a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, someone familiar with the fact that British governments were always more or less accountable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public opinion. It is this fact that makes comparisons with the Nazi regime especially difficult. It is also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key to the dilemma set out by Moses in his opening chapter, about the devastation caused overseas by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal and humane British state. As with the Stephen family in its various branches, public opinion was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creature quite capable of behaving in radically contradictory ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, the study of indigenous-settler relations may be a useful means of exploring this aspect of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politico-moral economy, as much as the other way around. Certainly, British genocide has yet to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined for the way it bears on the nexus between the morality of government and the morality, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moralities, of public opinion. In the case of Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, government might be said to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have acted beyond public opinion, and even, in a sense, beyond the moral instincts of its own members. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the worst outrages were sometimes cloaked with double-think, even in dealings among officials. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial Australia, government, which was guided by leading elements within British public opinion, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restraint on the most vicious sections of colonial public opinion, though not always an effective one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds's chapter is followed by an account of the Queensland Native Police, by Raymond Evans. Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queensland's notoriety is less widespread than Tasmania's, in fact few places in the nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire had a worse record for systematic frontier violence. Evans quotes an official in the Colonial Office, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing in 1866: 'it is by no means easy to exaggerate the recklessness with which blacks have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed \(in some cases by strychnine like foxes\) in Queensland.' But the same individual went on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remark that there was nothing the British government could do about it. Since 1859 Queensland had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-governing. The government there, in other words, was accountable to its own public opinion. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Native Police, an energetic frontier force for over sixty years, as Evans says, 'cut a bloody swathe through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aboriginal communities, often wiping out whole clans, especially in Central, North, and Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queensland'. The evidence is copious, and it comes from both supporters and critics of the force.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following chapter, by Pamela Lukin Watson, explores the impact for Queensland within a narrower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus, with an account of the virtual extermination of the Karuwali, in the south-west corner of the colony, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a variety of causes. Was there genocide in Queensland? Watson says so, on the grounds that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karuwali were themselves a people. For the colony as a whole, Evans makes no final judgement, but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of fatalities certainly gives an impression of organised ruthlessness on a lavish scale. Once again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between state and people is problematic. Evans quotes Alison Palmer's assessment, that 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the Queensland Government was crucial', that it 'actively condoned the ongoing slaughter', but that its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities in this respect were 'societal-led'. On the other hand, it has been argued elsewhere that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government chose to use the Native Police in this way, at least to begin with, because the alternative was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even worse. During the very first years of settlement in those parts of Australia, pastoralists had managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race relations by themselves and had demonstrated a savagery even the Native Police could not match. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.576 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.576 274.371 m 539.576 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 539.576 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout this book, there is insufficient acknowledgement of the fact that government, British or colonial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not the motive force for most aspects of Australian settlement. Some authors, while posing this problem, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also obscure it. Moses himself says, for instance, that colonial authorities in London 'wrung their hands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the frontier violence [in Australia] and the tribal extinctions, they were unwilling to cease or radically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amend the colonization project'. But after about 1790 it was wholly impossible for anyone in London to stop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or 'radically amend' the colonisation of Australia in any way that would have made much difference at all. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such statements are seriously misleading as descriptions of the way the settlement of Australia took place, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of the relationship in Britain itself between government and people.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 533.5757 274.6855 539.5757 286.5655 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7456 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the problem goes beyond the peculiarities of the British. The term 'genocide' was invented to match the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtleties of government method and ambition in the 1920s and 1930s, and is therefore hard to force on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century circumstances. The idea that the state might be personified in such a way as to make it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chargeable with crimes is surely characteristic only of the last few generations. Also, as any criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian knows, crime takes its existence from its historical context. Perhaps it is no more useful to talk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 'genocide' as a crime for any period before World War I than it is to talk about suicide as a crime today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, admittedly, there has to be a point at which evil acquires a kind of universal quality, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics independent of time and place. It may be that the legalistic form that discussions of genocide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take, in this book as elsewhere, represent attempts to capture something for which historical context is, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end, of limited use, a quality that defies normal rules of historical discussion. Perhaps only pseudo-legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, offering timeless \(because ahistorical\) judgement, begins to serve the purpose. In that way, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book says something about the vast responsibilities of historical writing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the book deals with child removal as a possible form of genocide. Once again, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question turns on the involvement of the state, during the twentieth century in this case. Robert Manne and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Haebich, in their separate chapters, tell of enthusiasm for the eradication of Aborigines as a distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, not by outright violence but by the official abduction of children and their incorporation within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ruling culture. Again, the state was complicit, but at the same time it was too half-hearted to bring about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a 'final solution'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This detail is important because the United Nations definition of genocide includes any attempt to end the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of an entire people, by whatever means. However, it is a curious comment on the efficiency of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australian government that between 1900 and the mid-1930s, as Haebich points out, the Aboriginal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population of Australia, far from being extinguished, more than doubled. Perhaps, as she also says, this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment too on the resilience of that remarkable people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have said nothing about the chapters on Nazi genocide, scattered through the book so as to allow for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons with Australia. The package, taken as a whole, is both disturbing and suggestive. It is a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important contribution to current debate. Australian experience does belong within any thorough discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of genocide as an historical phenomenon, but the book also proves how careful such a discussion must be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 300.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 300.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. G. Butlin, )] TJ ET BT 129.356 300.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Original Aggression: Aboriginal Populations of Southeastern Australia 1788?1850)] TJ ET BT 64.016 286.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Sydney, 1983\), pp. 19?22; N. G. Butlin, 'Macassans and Aboriginal smallpox: the "1789" and "1829" )] TJ ET BT 64.016 271.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epidemics', )] TJ ET BT 120.836 271.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 207.176 271.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21 \(1985\), 334?5. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.496 271.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.496 270.387 m 355.484 270.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 257.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 257.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Frost, )] TJ ET BT 121.016 257.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Botany Bay Mirages: Illusions of Australia's Convict Beginnings)] TJ ET BT 432.584 257.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Melbourne, 1994\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 243.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(190?210; Judy Campbell, )] TJ ET BT 190.016 243.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invisible Invaders: Small-pox and Other Diseases in Aboriginal Australia, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 229.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1780?1880)] TJ ET BT 118.016 229.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Melbourne, 2002\), pp. 88?102; R. G. \(Dick\) Kimber, 'The dynamic century before the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 214.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Horn Expedition: a speculative history', in )] TJ ET BT 269.828 214.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exploring Central Australia: Society, the Environment and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 200.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the 1894 Horn Expedition)] TJ ET BT 189.008 200.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. S. R. Morton and D. J. Mulvaney \(Sydney, 1996\), pp. 94?5. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.652 200.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.652 199.107 m 556.640 199.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 186.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 186.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Reynolds, )] TJ ET BT 148.340 186.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Indelible Stain? The Question of Genocide in Australia's History)] TJ ET BT 475.904 186.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Melbourne, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 171.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 171.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 170.595 m 152.000 170.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 157.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Atkinson, )] TJ ET BT 140.348 157.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Europeans in Australia: A History)] TJ ET BT 326.684 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols., Melbourne, 1997, 2004\), vol. ii, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(328?32. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 105.344 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 105.344 142.083 m 159.332 142.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 117.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 98.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 80.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 80.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/509)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 79.065 m 322.316 79.065 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 54.088 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.4957 270.7015 355.4837 282.5815 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 502.6517 199.4215 556.6397 211.3015 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 170.9095 151.9997 182.7895 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 105.3437 142.3975 159.3317 154.2775 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 79.3795 322.3157 91.2595 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/509) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2893)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000617 00000 n 0000000699 00000 n 0000005240 00000 n 0000005349 00000 n 0000005459 00000 n 0000005568 00000 n 0000009129 00000 n 0000009257 00000 n 0000009341 00000 n 0000009406 00000 n 0000016600 00000 n 0000016698 00000 n 0000024113 00000 n 0000024241 00000 n 0000024277 00000 n 0000024405 00000 n 0000024441 00000 n 0000024567 00000 n 0000024603 00000 n 0000024687 00000 n 0000031387 00000 n 0000031515 00000 n 0000031551 00000 n 0000031663 00000 n 0000039172 00000 n 0000039300 00000 n 0000039336 00000 n 0000039464 00000 n 0000039500 00000 n 0000039627 00000 n 0000039663 00000 n 0000039791 00000 n 0000039827 00000 n 0000039953 00000 n 0000040048 00000 n 0000040113 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40399 %%EOF