%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902132808+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902132808+01'00') /Title (Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3439 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oh, East is East, and West is West,and never the twain shall meet,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God?s great Judgment Seat)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(But there is neither East nor West, Border,nor Breed, nor Birth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 37.016 180.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When two strong men stand face to face,though they come from the ends of the earth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Rudyard Kipling, ?The Ballad of East and West?\(1889\)])] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is inspired by just such a cross-cultural encounter as that between Kamal the border raider and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonel?s son of the Guides. In the first chapter the author recounts a conversation that he, a biologist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying bird evolution, had in New Guinea in 1972 with Yali, a local politician preparing his people for self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, which culminated in the searching question ?Why is it that you white people developed so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much cargo [goods] and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own? [p. 14]. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Yali?s question? plays a central role in Professor Diamond?s enquiry into ?a short history of everybody for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(51)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 May, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jared Diamond)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780393038912)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(480pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.wwnorton.co.uk/book.html?id=1503)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Tomlinson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last 13,000 years?, leading him into a wide-ranging discussion of the history of human evolution and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity through a study of migration, socio-economic and cultural adaptation to environmental conditions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and technological diffusion. The result is an exciting and absorbing account of human history since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pleistocene age, which culminates in a sketch of a future scientific basis for studying the history of humans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that will command the same intellectual respect as current scientific studies of the history of other natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomena such as dinosaurs, nebulas and glaciers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an ambitious project, and no reviewer can comment on all of it with equal authority. My own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background as an historian of European expansion and Asian response over the last two hundred years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires me to take most of the account of prehistory on trust - which is a drawback since Diamond asserts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that most of the really important influences on modern history had already occurred before the birth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ. To a non-specialist, the account of human prehistory presented here seems plausible and well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded - the argument is that, as )] TJ ET BT 197.324 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(homo sapiens)] TJ ET BT 262.988 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( evolved in Africa and migrated to colonise first Asia, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, then Australia, and finally the Americas, so a technical progression from hunting to settled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture, and a societal progression from warring bands to complex sedentary civilisations took place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely determined by the environmental conditions in which different branches of the same species found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. Where plants and animals could easily be domesticated, as in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East, settled agriculture emerged first, and was then diffused to other suitable areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The development of surplus food-producing societies with high population densities provided humans with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance to the diseases carried by their domesticated flocks, and facilitated other technological changes - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the development of systems of specialised knowledge that led to advances in metallurgy, literacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and socio-economic organisation - primarily within the Eurasian supercontinent, and its outlying regions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the western Pacific and northern Africa, where the environment, and the geographical networks of migration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade and communication, most favoured their spread. Diffusion is the key concept here - some continents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and regions were more favourable than others, because of internal or external connections. As a result, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scattered branches of the human species were reunited by trans-oceanic voyages and mercantile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism after 1500, Old World invaders had a decisive advantage over their New World cousins - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of guns, germs and steel ensured that Europeans settled the Americas, Oceania and Southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa, eliminating or subduing local populations unable to resist them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Diamond?s main concern is to reject any simple racial explanation of the apparent differences in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material culture between different regions of the planet. In particular, he argues that there is no essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference in intelligence between races; indeed, those who are able to survive in harsh and dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments, such as New Guinea, are likely to be more intelligent than those living a sheltered and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sedentary existence in the United States, since mere survival requires much greater skills in the former than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the latter. Much of his evidence here is anecdotal - accounts of his own experiences with ?primitive? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples, and their capacity to adapt to severe environments or respond successfully to new technologies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This seems an entirely appropriate starting point for a multi-cultural world, and one that is logical for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolutionary biologist. No-one claims that the predatory activity of magpies that has diminished stocks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(song-birds in British suburban gardens has occurred because magpies are cleverer than thrushes, but simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they are better adapted to take advantage of changes in environmental circumstances. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographic illustrations in the book - 32 plates of human faces drawn from different racial groups around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world - are intended to illustrate this point, although they bear a striking resemblance to the albums of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?native types? that used to grace the catalogues of colonial photographers as part of a very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the magnitude of the task he has set himself, it is inevitable that Professor Diamond uses very broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brush-stokes to fill in his argument. This style is further exaggerated by his desire to identify ?ultimate? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations rather than mere ?proximate? ones. Thus behind the proximate explanation of the dominance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Old World societies and technologies over the last two thousand years \(guns, germs and steel\) lurks an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate explanation - why bronze tools appeared early in parts of Eurasia, late and only locally in the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World, and never, before European settlement, in Australasia. One result is that many of the concerns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practising historians who are trying to grapple with part of the same agenda are given little attention. The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7589 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spread of technology, and of the military conquests and economic changes that it has wrought over the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousand years, is dismissed as largely a question of historical accident. For Diamond, technology is about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventiveness, and all peoples are equally inventive given the right circumstances. Even more compressed is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the account of socio-political institutions on which many other analyses of the modern world depend. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entire history of political thought and state-formation from Aristotle onwards is covered in a couple of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages, most of which is devoted to hydraulic theories [pp. 282-4], while all societies more complex than an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egalitarian tribe are dismissed as ?kleptocracies? that use control of literacy and organised religion to create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy for self-serving elites that extract tribute to provide inefficient public services. [p. 276ff]. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remarkably, for a book on this subject, there is only one brief mention of capitalism [p. 250], where it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(listed as one of ten plausible but incomplete explanations of technical progress in Europe. It is significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?Yali?s question? with which the book begins was ?why is it that you white people developed so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cargo .. but we black people had little cargo of our own??, not ?why do the top ten per cent of white people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have so much cargo, but the bottom ten per cent have so little??, or ?why is so much of the cargo in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world manufactured in the United States??. A book seeking to answer such questions would have to add a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourth totem of Western progress to its title and be called, perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 357.296 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guns, Germs, Steel and Coca-Cola.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This approach distances Diamond?s analysis from much of the current literature on cultural interactions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern history - indeed, his suggestions for further reading omit almost all of the standard literature on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of imperialism and post-colonialism, world-systems, underdevelopment or socio-economic change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the last five hundred years. Thus the large debate that is currently going on over historical explanations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the wealth and poverty of nations in a global context is here reduced to a sub-set of the ultimate question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about bronze tools and geographic connectedness - ?technology may have developed most rapidly in regions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with moderate connectedness [Europe], neither too high [China], nor too low [India]? [p. 416]. For a sample )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the wider debate, see the active correspondence about ?Eurocentrism? in the H-World list sparked off by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brad de Long?s review of David Landes?s forthcoming )] TJ ET BT 303.956 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Are Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(So Rich and Others So Poor? )] TJ ET BT 178.676 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dated 28.3.98. While Diamond gives ?cultural idiosyncrasies? some role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining differential progress in material culture, and are singled out as an important factor in making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history unpredictable \(as in the account given of the Chinese decision in the early fifteenth century to ban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant fleets as a result of court intrigue, which allegedly destroyed her medieval technological leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Eurasia\), these are seen as simply accidents of history - on a par with the failure of the July Plot to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassinate Hitler in 1944. There may be societal variation in the level of receptiveness to innovation \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown by different responses by non-European peoples to the arrival of European technologies in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century\), but this simply demonstrates that, on the grand scale, some societies on all continents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have had equal chances to achieve technological progress if their environments had been equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourable [p. 411ff].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast with the very compressed accounts of the socio-economic and political history of the settled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world, Professor Diamond?s frequent recounting of his personal experiences in New Guinea bring his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments into sharper focus. They also suggest irresistible comparisons with events nearer home. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intriguing account of the reaction of various tribes to contact with the modern world over the last fifty years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a startling perspective on events in other isolated and unworldly communities, such as the History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departments of British universities. We can all identify the Chimbu tribe, which responded to contact with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outside world within a single generation by growing coffee as a cash-crop, and establishing saw-mills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trucking companies to grow rich, and also their neighbours, the Daribi, who are described as ?especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative and uninterested in new technology?, who have tried, unsuccessfully, to ignore all pressures to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change and who are now being taken over by the Chimbu [252]. Best of all is the description of the Fayu, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribe of about 400 hunter-gatherers that normally live as single family units, meeting only occasionally to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrange marriages. Such meetings are frightening events since murder and revenge-killings are a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurrence that had led to the reduction of the tribe from over 2,000 to 400 within living memory. At a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical meeting,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one Fayu man spotted the man who had killed his father. The son raised his ax and rushed at the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murderer but was wrestled to the ground by friends; then the murderer came to the prostrate son )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7391 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an ax and was also wrestled down. Both men were held, screaming with rage, until they )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed sufficiently exhausted to be released. Other men periodically shouted insults at each )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other, shook with anger and frustration, and pounded the ground with their axes [266].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An exact description of the last meeting of the Faculty Resource Allocation Committee! Missionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention has since ?saved? the Fayu: what price the QAA?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A future historian coming across this book in a thousand years time would have no doubt that it was written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by an American. The underlying vision of humanity as a salad-bowl made up of distinct and insoluble ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities would provide a clue, and the stress on the arrival of Old World technologies and pathogens in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New World as the archetypal event of human diffusion and coalescence would confirm this. Yet, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of Eurasian diseases \(assisted by enslavement and severe degradation in living conditions\) on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous populations of the New World was a cataclysmic historical event, but it was not entirely without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precedent elsewhere. The effect of plague, especially the Black Death of the fourteenth century, on Asian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European and North African peoples and societies was similar in some respects, as was the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smallpox and cholera in east and central Africa in the nineteenth century. More generally, the use of Eurasia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a meaningful geographical expression in historical terms is a hall-mark of a transatlantic focus \(it is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent in the work of Alfred Crosby, for example\). Such a viewpoint over-simplifies a large body of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex human experience, since much of the history of conquest, settlement and exploitation in the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world is in fact concerned with what might be termed ?Eurasian civil wars? - from the Neolithic invasion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, via the activities of Gengis Khan and his successors, to the fall of Constantinople, the arrival of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European armed traders in the East in the sixteenth century, and full-blown European imperialism after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1750. The European empires of conquest in Asia, especially those of the British in India and the Dutch in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Java, were not based on clear technological superiority in armaments, nor on the spread of disease, but they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spawned a sense of ?otherness? and an attitude of cultural and racial superiority at least as intense as that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aroused by colonisation in the New World. In Africa, too, European imperial troops \(often of African or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian origin\) exploited only a limited and short-lived technical superiority in weaponry that lasted from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late nineteenth to the early twentieth centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Authors cannot be blamed for the publisher?s blurbs on their book-jackets, but it may be significant that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is described there as a work of ?popular science?, not as a work of history. Professor Diamond?s most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentious argument, by far, is his conclusion that the logical consistency and precision of current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discoveries in archaeology and prehistory make it possible to foresee the future of human history as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science. There are a number of difficulties here. Any ?science of human history? is likely to be based on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search for laws, processes and explanations that are rooted in the agenda of the ?new?, processualist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeology that was pioneered by the work of Lewis Binford and others in the 1960s and 1970s. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches have now been undermined by other theoretical approaches which deny the possibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing general laws, stress the social, cultural and gendered nature of archaeological knowledge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation, and seek to uncover ?the archaeology of the mind? and the spirit. Diamond?s use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary ethnographic observations of some peoples to provide explanations of the prehistoric past of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all peoples can be questioned on methodological grounds, and his refusal to place the knowledge he uses in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its historiographical context weakens the force of his arguments as historical explanations. There is another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of problems here, too. The history of humans cannot properly be equated with the history of dinosaurs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glaciers or nebulas, because these natural phenomena do not consciously create the evidence on which we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try to understand them, nor can we detect a human consciousness in their actions. Most important of all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human history requires history to be studied on a human scale, so that we can empathise with the past, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see it in the context of our present humanity. Here there is nothing between the minute and the monumental - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anecdotal accounts of random individuals at moments in their lives, and the huge sweep of whole peoples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and continents across millennia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These cavils are to be expected. Historians cannot allow scientists to tell them how to do their job; if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did, then history would vanish for ever into the intellectual establishment of rational positivism, and would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lose its capacity - to which Professor Diamond is sensitive - to unite beliefs about the present with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the past in ways that can influence the future. Yet despite its inevitable minor flaws, this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2428 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book remains a very impressive achievement of imagination and exposition, which tells us much about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction between ?civilised? minds and ?primitive? peoples at the end of the second millennium of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian era. To end, as we began, with a nineteenth-century perspective on such matters:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Though I?ve belted you and flayed you)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(By the livin? Gawd that made you)] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(You?re a better man than I am, Gunga Din!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Rudyard Kipling, ?Gunga Din? \(1894\)])] TJ ET BT 34.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author regrets that he is unable to respond to the review or enter into any dialogue due to outstanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments.)] TJ ET BT 296.140 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 569.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Danny Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://dannyreviews.com/h/Guns_Germs_Steel.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 540.003 m 284.012 540.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.012 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library Thing)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 512.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.librarything.com/work/2567/reviews)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 511.491 m 268.004 511.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 271.004 512.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 508.159 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 490.379 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 490.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/51)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 488.985 m 316.316 488.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 464.008 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.608 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/428)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://dannyreviews.com/h/Guns_Germs_Steel.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.librarything.com/work/2567/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 540.3175 284.0117 552.1975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://dannyreviews.com/h/Guns_Germs_Steel.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 511.8055 268.0037 523.6855 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.librarything.com/work/2567/reviews) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 489.2995 316.3157 501.1795 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/51) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000004134 00000 n 0000004243 00000 n 0000004353 00000 n 0000004462 00000 n 0000008023 00000 n 0000008151 00000 n 0000008235 00000 n 0000008300 00000 n 0000015838 00000 n 0000015903 00000 n 0000023545 00000 n 0000023610 00000 n 0000031054 00000 n 0000031152 00000 n 0000033633 00000 n 0000033760 00000 n 0000033859 00000 n 0000033986 00000 n 0000034083 00000 n 0000034211 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34305 %%EOF