%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721160223+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721160223+01'00') /Title (Colonial Botany: Science, Commerce, and Politics in the Early Modern World) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4430 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Colonial Botany: Science, Commerce, and Politics in the Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Modern World)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors of this very useful collection of essays boldly state that it is their thesis that 'early modern botany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both facilitated and profited from colonisation and long distance trade and that the development of botany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Europe's commercial and territorial expansion are closely associated developments' \(p. 3\). They are to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be congratulated on striving to bring the science of botany from its perceived isolation as the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxonomy into its widest context of the culture, politics and economics of the early modern world. Inherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the search for colonies was the need to manage the diseases of the area, to create an economic base and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assert political domination. This often meant beating others at the same game, and even the most altruistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(botanists required patronage or political support underpinned by economic profit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the strengths of the volume is the interdisciplinary spread of contributors, which brings a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of approaches and interpretations and unfamiliar knowledge to those in other disciplines, as well as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of academic writing styles which are lessons in themselves. Historians of science, scientists, political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and historians of art all approach the central theme of the volume from their own perspectives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within their own methodologies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume is organised thematically, which is sensible, but within each section there is a rough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological structure. One of the satisfying elements of the work is the thorough editing which ensures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate cross-referencing so that several themes can be picked up throughout. At the same time, each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution can usefully stand alone. There is a variety of international contributions exploring the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities of inter alia the Spanish, Dutch, French, Swedes, Poles and Danes, but, remarkably, of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in passing references. This is somewhat surprising since the volume has its greatest concentration in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(512)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 April, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Londa Schiebinger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claudia Swan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Edwards)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7634 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century when the English were consolidating their place in world trade and expanding their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies in America and the East. The work of Hans Sloane is largely overlooked, except by Schiebinger in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter 7, 'Prospecting for drugs: European naturalists in the West Indies', and an illustration of a drawer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from one of his cabinets as an exemplar of organisation of specimens \(pp. 250?1\), while Michael Bravo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments on Joseph Banks's 'near omniscient role in matters relating to the conjunction of British botany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Empire' \(p. 51\). This omission may merely be a reflection of the current interests of the contributors, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it may have been deliberate editorial policy to highlight the activities of those whose exploits normally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receive less attention from English speaking historians; and if the latter is true, some clarification would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been helpful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are several subsidiary themes running through the essays, some of which are less well articulated than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others. The major theme complementing the defined thesis is the debt owed to local knowledge and the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was acquired, understood, interpreted and recorded by the Europeans. Fairly explicitly the editors have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged an approach to the colonial activities of the early modern Europeans which dwells on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrogance and the exploitation of the indigenous, slave and Euro-Creole populations. This leads to the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real weakness of the volume: the apparent inability of several of the contributors to recognise the culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world in which the early modern European botanists, traders and travellers were working. Applying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern morality to the past may be a justified historical practice, but it should not be used to distort the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the past. For example, Julie Berger Hochstrasser notes: 'Ironically, then, with regard to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailing moralising interpretation of still lifes of the laid table, there was a great deal these painters )] TJ ET BT 521.936 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(could)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have moralized about that they did )] TJ ET BT 203.324 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 218.660 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.' \(p. 182\) This begs the question why, in the context of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage and propagandist responsibilities, )] TJ ET BT 248.324 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(should)] TJ ET BT 280.328 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( they have done so? Less obviously, individual authors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often by default, draw attention to the internationalism of the development of botany as a science. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches will be referred to in the more specific critiques below.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into four sections. The first section, 'Colonial governance and botanical practices', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches the main thesis most closely from the perspective of the European state, but also brings into play )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several of the subsidiary themes. The first two chapters, Chandra Mukerji, 'Dominion, demonstration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination: religious doctrine, territorial politics, and French plant collection' and Staffan Mller-Wille, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Walnuts in Hudson Bay, coral reefs in Gotland: the colonialism of Linnaean botany', both discuss the home-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based botanical work of two countries in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions of Louis XIV's France, combined with the centralism of its regime, led to the creation of botanical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gardens in France developing from the early seventeenth-century successes of Montpellier and centred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the new Jardin de Roi in Paris. The need for local remedies being developed in the colonies as, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, the Dutch were doing in the Cape Colony, was ignored by the French, who used their botanical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gardens to reflect and demonstrate the political power of the crown. Sweden, on the other hand, had few, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any, colonial ambitions by the turn of the eighteenth century and developed its home-based botanical study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within 'cameralist' or 'import substitution' policies. Mller-Wille questions how Linnaeus became associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with European colonialism while operating within this system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mukerji's chaper covers many major themes of the volume in the context of Louis XIV's France. As this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section does not have a sixteenth or early seventeenth century chapter, the gradual 'erosion' of the search for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new Eden, or earthly paradise \(pp. 21?3\), is introduced before it is discussed by Jorge Caizares-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Esguerra and Hochstrasser. Caizares-Esguerra argues that the idea of finding or recreating Eden/Paradise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persisted well into the eighteenth century. Unknown worlds were seen to be the obvious places to search and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the exotic could more easily be equated with the mythological than the familiar. The debate on what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions for Paradise were inevitably led to a more scientific interpretation and the consideration of micro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climates contributing to the whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mller-Wille's case study is based on Linnaeus's student Pehr Kalm's research trip to Hudson Bay in 1747. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirms that the exchange of intellectual and scientific ideas and knowledge between scholars happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the boundaries of political states, as a continuation of the Republic of Letters of the seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, itself one of the inheritors of the European Renaissance. Linnaeus played much the same kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role as Galileo or Newton. The circumstances of his impact on colonial exploits may have been something )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7349 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new, but its international application should not be surprising, as Mller-Wille himself points out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contacts Linnaeus had amongst 'naturalists' on both sides of the Atlantic \(p. 43\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael T. Bravo's 'Mission gardens: natural history and global expansion, 1720?1820', extends Swedish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cameralism into Linnaean Lutheranism \(p. 54\), but the main thrust of the chapter is on the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encountered by local settlements in their efforts to achieve self-sufficiency, which was impossible without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the co-operation and knowledge of indigenous populations and continued European supplies. Using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of the Moravian Scandinavian missions he explores the way these challenges were met through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of practical skills the settlers brought and the willingness to interpret the 'local flora and fauna' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working with the indigenous populations. The links between a working mission and its primary aim of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversion are clear, but what also emerges is a pragmatic use of slavery, in complete contradiction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Moravian practice. This ensured greater likelihood of survival under the patronage of plantation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owners in the West Indies, but, in the end, profit was found to be the surest form of self-sufficiency. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extending the study to contrast the Moravian experiences in the West Indies and Greenland the essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to interpret and adapt to local cultures becomes even clearer. Thus Bravo shows that whatever the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original aim of the settlement, understanding local flora and fauna in its indigenous culture and the benefits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to others of recording this experience is a common theme throughout seventeenth- and eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(botany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew J. Lewis, 'Gathering for the Republic', turns the story around and shows the newly independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States as the collector and botanist, building up networks and, 'just as Benjamin Franklin \(1706?90\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modelled the American Philosophical Society in 1743 after London's Royal Society, so early republic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturalists modelled their epistemology on European precedent' \(p. 67\). While drawing attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual political, economic and cultural motives of states, Lewis highlights the internationalism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning. Nevertheless, the new nation was exploiting its own natural resources to further the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its own economy and culture. Two of the main hindrances were 'folk knowledge' and the natural historians' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle to develop a modern approach in the face of amateur interest in 'curiosities'. Lewis concludes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economic factor, aligned with the acceptance of folk knowledge, undermined the progress of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('epistemological authority' \(p. 79\), and he therefore questions the value of over-reliance on local knowledge. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the later contributors to this volume take a more positive view of local 'folk' knowledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section of the book is titled 'Translating indigenous Creole, and European botanies: local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge\(s\), global sciences. In her article 'Books, bodies and fields: sixteenth-century transatlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters with New World )] TJ ET BT 172.652 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Materia Medica)] TJ ET BT 250.304 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', Daniela Bleichmar brings this new natural world into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere of the principal political and economic motives for colonisation. To show how the early colonists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriated the natural wealth of the Americas, she looks at Nicolas Monardes's \(c.1508?88\) )] TJ ET BT 487.076 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(medicinal de las cosas que se traen de nuestras Indias Occidentales que sirven en medicina)] TJ ET BT 474.620 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1574\) \(p. 84\) as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one example of the Europeanisation of knowledge, which she asserts was largely acquired 'second-hand' or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('at home', rather than in the field ? a natural enough experience for most knowledge in the early days of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonialism. By the end of the seventeenth century more texts were being produced by travellers, collectors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those in the service of the states or trading companies in situ.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like others, Monardes's work was an international resource being translated into Italian, French, English and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German and most notably, a revised Latin translation by Clusius in 1605. Its claim to fame was based on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novel inclusion of the practical application of medicinal herbal preparations rather than mere descriptions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monardes, although acquiring his primary resources second-hand, only published after quasi-scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation and experimentation. But he did also include anecdotal evidence, most importantly the full text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a letter from a Spanish soldier \(Osma\) describing attitudes of native Amerindians to sharing or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withholding their knowledge, exemplifying the difference between experience and practice in the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World \(Osma\) and interpretations in the Old based on classical and contemporary practice and knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Monardes\). This is an important piece of the overall jigsaw, contemporary with botanical exploration in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold J. Cook's article 'Global economies and local knowledge in the East Indies: Jacobus Bontius learns )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7749 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the facts of nature' takes one of Bleichmar's themes forward to the 'so-called scientific revolution in Europe' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 100\), using another single work as an exemplar of how the need for accurate accounts was being met by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid seventeenth century. The Dutch East India Company \(Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a major force in providing the means for such work and Jacobus Bontius was a servant of the VOC in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Batavia and wrote his )] TJ ET BT 141.332 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Methodus medendi qua In Indiis Orientalibus oportet)] TJ ET BT 397.988 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 404.984 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the Proper Treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diseases in the East Indies)] TJ ET BT 163.340 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, c.1629\) while in the colony. This chapter highlights the progress of natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history through international debate, with Bontius challenging earlier naturalists' studies, such as Garcia da )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orta's )] TJ ET BT 65.168 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colquios dos simples e drogas ... da India)] TJ ET BT 273.176 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 280.172 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India)] TJ ET BT 499.844 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1563\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building on Clusius's work. Much of Bontius's own original material was acquired later by the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century English botanist William Sherard, ensuring the progressive acquisition of knowledge. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bontius's observations in the colony enabled him to work with the whole spread of society both acquiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their knowledge and practising upon them. In particular Cook cites the local practices of women. He argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there might have been a 'modicum of mutual respect' \(p. 116\), which was presumably a result of mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schiebinger's 'Prospecting for drugs: European naturalists in the West Indies' takes the story a hundred years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on, but the same theme of debt to the indigenous populations and the recording of careful enquiry remains. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While acknowledging the driver of profit motives, the need to develop cures for the colonies is the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this chapter. Schiebinger dwells mainly on the native populations and their contribution to European botany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? the results of their exploitation by colonisers. She alleges that before the nineteenth century greater value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was placed on indigenous knowledge but within a strictly understood 'anthropo- and Eurocentric chain of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beings, from animals \(with their instinctive cures\), to indigenous peoples, to the Spanish, and according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French mathematician Charles-Marie de la Condamine \(1701?76\), ultimately to the French' \(p. 124\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once again the internationality of codifying is evident, but Schiebinger shows that by the eighteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although much work was still shared by an international scholarship, the profit and status motive was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning to lead to jealousies and secrecy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using the rather artificial and, as she admits, problematic, theory of bicontact-zones, she discusses the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arising from communication between European and indigenous peoples, not only those of language, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural, political and economic ones. Incorporating the African slaves with the indigenous populations, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to correct the errors of arrogance and assumptions of early modern colonisers. Although fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its detail and well argued, this chapter is rather one-sided and Schiebinger does not give much credit to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European achievement. The development of European language was a pre-condition for its own culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, however we may judge it in retrospect, was the dominant influence in the colonisation of the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World. It was the European networks which provided the resources for assimilating the knowledge, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual arena for its interpretation and the motivation and means for its practical application, a point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarified by Antonio Lafuente and Nuria Valverde in 'Linnaean botany and Spanish imperial biopolitics', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who explain how the profit motive of plants and their uses were successful because 'as an imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaking [it] was linked to its ability to set up an international network of professorships, gardens, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditions, and publishing companies able to produce a version of nature easily put into words, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deducible from very little data' \(p. 142\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her conclusion, Schiebinger goes as far as she can to differentiate between the continuing influx of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonials and those who, after two generations, became de fact indigenous \(but ethnically separate\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations whose natural world was not European, even if their underpinning cultural influences still may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been. However, this is picked up immediately by Lafuente and Valverde whose theme is botany as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and observation as well as description, with the authors distinguishing between Spanish 'imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(botanical policies' and 'creole political botany' \(p. 135\). On the whole this chapter is a more general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview than the previous case studies, but does have a tendency to fall into the trap of rhetoric based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenty-first century ideologies with a strong modern conservationist argument on pages 141?44.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter ends with a detailed case study of the Columbian Euro-Creole, Francisco Jos de Caldas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1768?1816\) the 'discoverer of biogeography' \(p. 144\) and the importance of climate, environment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topography to the successful transplanting of specimens, which is picked up by Jorge Caizares-Esguerra in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7463 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the next chapter, 'How derivative was Humboldt?'. He argues that the influences in the colonies were as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important as the European interpretations, through allusion to the different influences of the Europeans in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies by the eighteenth century and role of the indigenous populations. Caizares-Esguerra extends the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of Caldas, who worked for Humboldt, with their mutual sharing of knowledge leading to the theories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bio-distribution and the use of cross-sectional mapping ? moving a long way from the Linnaean assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about climate and conditions based on lines of latitude discussed by Mller-Wille \(p. 40\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caizares-Esguerra argues that the Spanish used the 'new sciences' to help consolidate their presence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America after defeat in the Seven Years War \(1756?63\), through economic utilisation of the flora of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andes, such as quinine. New Granada became the 'laboratory' for Caldas and Humboldt. This chapter argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in accepting the failure of the Spanish Americas to become more than a resource for European economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cultural exploitation, historians have lost sight of the importance of the contribution the Euro-Creole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local knowledge made to the development of 'European' science.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the third section of the book, 'Cash crops: making and remaking nature', Julie Berger Hochstrasser begins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by transporting us back to the seventeenth-century Dutch adventure and the visual and written demonstration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Dutch colonial and trading supremacy. The Dutch Republic was a state which, more than most, portrayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far more overtly the indispensable link between its political strength and its economic success, epitomised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the VOC. Hochstrasser, following one of the major themes of the volume, does not fail to bring out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negatives of these enterprises: loss of life, colonial wars, and 'inhuman' exploitation of indigenous peoples. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather naively she is disturbed that those engaged in publicising the new knowledge and opportunity did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention the cost to those being exploited, although some more disinterested observers such as Lorenzo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reael did. Disarmingly, Hochstrasser concludes that the Dutch decline was their come-uppance for having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived beyond their means, but that late in the twentieth century they have redeemed themselves by taking a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead in pushing for an international commitment to sustainability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 'Of nutmegs and botanists', Emma Spary argues that 'the history of colonial botany be written as process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation and exchange, rather than as event\(s\)' \(p. 189\). This is a sound and attractive approach which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects the reality more accurately bringing the individual experience into the common discussion over time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as knowledge is shared and gradually analysed and structured. Spary uses the example of the French botanist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Poivre's efforts to introduce nutmeg to the French colonies. We are taken to the colonial conflicts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the East Indies, but also to the smaller world of individual rivalry between Poivre and his peer Aublet about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether Poivre's import was the 'true' nutmeg. Spary tells an engaging story to illustrate the complexity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way scientific developments interacted with political motivations and ambitions, and the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political favour and patronage. The concluding paragraphs bring the reader back to the scale of the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of authenticity of botanical species given the limitations of access and the dependence on the few extant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions, in the case of nutmeg, Rumphius's )] TJ ET BT 265.832 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herbarium Amboinense)] TJ ET BT 380.816 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1741\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith Carney's case study, 'Out of Africa: colonial rice history in the black Atlantic', confirms the 'process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation and exchange' theory of Spary. It does not negate the European role as 'winner' determining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('progress' of development, while acknowledging the debt to the indigenous people, the slaves and the Euro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Creoles. But this is also a further elaboration on the theme of shifting from Eurocentric interpretations by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing how African slave expertise in growing rice was used by the English and French planters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America. This is a convincing chapter on the evidence for an African origin of rice, and the skills and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge harnessed by the slave masters. But it was the structure of the slave trade which enabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient quantities of rice seed corn to be transported to the colonies; the slave ships were provisioned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rice and the supporting early nineteenth-century illustrations show female slaves preparing rice on board )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ship \(pp. 213?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the fourth section, 'Technologies of accumulation', the volume concludes with some fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations of the practicalities of the development of botany, preceded by a short chapter on the collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 47.012 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Naturalia)] TJ ET BT 93.692 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the seventeenth century Dutch Republic, once again highlighting the indivisibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, cultural and economic motivations spurring on the development of colonial botany. The derivative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of much early knowledge is cogently exemplified by the minor botanical references in Linschoten )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6952 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1562?1611\) mainly gleaned from da Orta \(1500?69\), which were enlarged upon by Linschoten's medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friend Paludanus. Paludanus nearly took the appointment eventually filled by Clusius at Leiden, and 'it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally known tended a stupendous collection; as well as a garden' \(p. 227\). Swan rightly draws the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection between collection \(and hence museums\) and the need for medicinal cures and knowledge of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider world. She highlights the problems as 'Botanical goods were imported: knowledge, by and large, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not' \(p. 233\). Thus we again have a reinforcement of the need for travel and exchange of ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge 'in the field'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Te Heeson, in 'Accounting for the natural world', blends the fiction of Robinson Crusoe with the exploits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the German scholar and physician Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt \(1684?1735\) to describe how both 'turned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the compilation of tables to order their thoughts and keep their spirits up' \(p. 238\); in effect, a written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet of curiosities: the predecessors of card indexes and database programs with which the academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researcher continues to struggle. The history of the correlation between financial accounting and scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recording is explored in careful detail from Messerchmidt's tables to Sloane's cabinets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 'Surgeons, fakirs, merchants and craftspeople', Kapil Raj starts to bring together what some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors seem bent on dividing, examining 'the relationship between the two spaces, between those "out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there" and their sedentary colleagues who often played a crucial role in validating knowledge claims made in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field' \(p. 252\). His case study is the East and he sharpens our focus by reminding us that whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West was unknown to the early modern European, much of the East was familiar, through the conflicts with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islam, and with trade and supporting networks. By extension, of course, Europe was familiar to Asia, and we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to remember that the accumulated culture and knowledge of Europe and Asia did not necessarily bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the experience to understand the new worlds in the West. There may have been inequalities of power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Europeans and indigenous Americans, but there was equality of ignorance of each other's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raj has recently brought to light a manuscript at the Musum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrate his theories about the relationship between European botany and Asia. The author, Nicolas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L'Empereur, was representative of so many seventeenth-century collectors travelling at the instigation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patron, in this case the French crown through the Compagnie des Indes, with an elementary medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background and a brief to understand, interpret and describe the potential new medicines. Like Jacobus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bontius, he used locals for collection and for experimentation. L'Empereur's story ended disappointingly as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his work was never acknowledged, not even the receipt of it by Jussieu and he died poor and unrewarded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bengal. Raj believes that the political motivation of Jussieu to exploit knowledge to outwit the Dutch by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(import substitution was in direct contrast to L'Empereur's own aim of understanding regional cures and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('commodify them'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter in this section by Marie-Nolle Bourguet, 'Measurable difference, botany, climate and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gardener's thermometer in eighteenth-century France', shows how the eighteenth-century collectors applied a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide range of new technologies to the more successful transportation and transplantation of plants through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater understanding of the geo-diversity or micro-climates, the development of effective thermometers, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the understanding of other geophysical and climatic conditions. This was still a young form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science in the mid eighteenth century, but was much more useful than the speculative experimentation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth. Bourguet concludes that 'Precision and quantification were now necessary for scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credibility' \(p. 283\), and consequently put ever greater demands on practitioners. These practitioners were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also having to respond to the challenges posed by states in response to the changing international political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation, and she uses the example of post-revolutionary France and the attempts at import substitution by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acclimatisation of foreign species.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus the volume is taken full circle back to the politico-economic motives for colonisation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of botanical sciences in order to harness the resources to the full. The different interpretations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the balance between European acquisition of knowledge and the contribution of the indigenous, slave and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Euro-Creole populations provide a challenge for further work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 40.181 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 653 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/512)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2901)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/512) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000598 00000 n 0000000680 00000 n 0000005162 00000 n 0000005271 00000 n 0000005381 00000 n 0000005490 00000 n 0000009051 00000 n 0000009179 00000 n 0000009263 00000 n 0000009328 00000 n 0000017015 00000 n 0000017080 00000 n 0000024482 00000 n 0000024547 00000 n 0000032349 00000 n 0000032414 00000 n 0000039930 00000 n 0000039995 00000 n 0000047000 00000 n 0000047084 00000 n 0000047789 00000 n 0000047917 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48012 %%EOF