%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723145934+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723145934+01'00') /Title (Working Women in English Society, 1300?1620) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4767 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Working Women in English Society, 1300?1620)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Working Women in English Society)] TJ ET BT 203.996 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers a fascinating insight into the numerous ways in which women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged with the market economy in England between 1300 and 1620. Marjorie Keniston McIntosh's study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a timely addition to the growing body of literature on women and work, and one which is all the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome for bridging the traditional historical divide between late medieval and early modern England. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows the author to chart the long-term impact of cultural, demographic, economic and social change on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's working lives and on the nature and level of their involvement in income-generating activities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh carries forward existing scholarship into women's economic roles by drawing on unpublished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material from equity court petitions and by undertaking a substantial body of original research into five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market centres: Tamworth \(Staffordshire\), Ramsey \(Huntingdonshire\), Northallerton \(North Yorkshire\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romford \(Essex\) and Minehead \(Somerset\). She thereby illuminates women's participation in the often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected areas of boarding, financial services and real estate, as well as in the more frequently studied areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of food, drink and craft work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This highly accessible book is structured in three parts. Part 1 addresses the social context of women's work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and places it within its current historiographical setting. Part 2 focuses on the roles open to women as service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providers. Part 3 examines the occupations open to women as manufacturers and sellers of goods, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes with a short chapter on women as consumers. There is also a useful series of appendices at the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book which lays bare McIntosh's source materials and methods. Care and caution underline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh's approach to her sources. The sheer volume of surviving equity court petitions, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessitated the selection of a sample of 283 narrative petitions \(229 from central courts and 54 from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern courts\) between 1470 and 1620, chosen to reflect as wide a chronological and regional range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases as possible. McIntosh remains sensitive to the potential pitfalls of such material, notably a petitioner's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to construct as persuasive a case as possible. In selecting the five market centres for her localised case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(513)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 April, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marjorie Keniston McIntosh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louise Wilkinson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7502 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, McIntosh's decision was influenced by their diverse regional economies and locations \(e.g. compare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the southern port of Minehead with the northern town of Northallerton\), as well as their relatively complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets of surviving court rolls. This reviewer, though, would have preferred a little more clarity about how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tamworth constituted 'an ordinary little market town' \(p. 17\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part of the book offers a valuable critique of the sources for, and the existing historiography on, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's economic activities in medieval and early modern English towns. McIntosh adds her voice to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing chorus of scholars \(e.g. Maryanne Kowaleski, Sandy Bardsley and Judith Bennett\) who are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sceptical of the now increasingly discredited notion of a 'golden age' for women in late medieval urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities, during which women enjoyed 'rough economic equality with men' \(p. 31\). \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.624 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.624 669.027 m 470.624 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 470.624 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) McIntosh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself concurs with the general thesis that the century and a half after the Black Death provided women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with increased opportunities to participate in the market economy, but wisely acknowledges that this did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily mean that 'their situation was rosy even in the best of periods' \(p. 30\). The author offers a critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of Judith Bennett's work on changes to female participation in brewing in the late medieval and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern periods. In particular, she flags up the apparent contradiction in Bennett's argument that, on the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, women's work was underrated and inadequately remunerated in late medieval England, while, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other hand, commercial brewsters enjoyed a high level of agency and involvement in the local economy \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33\). McIntosh also, quite reasonably, draws attention to the problem of reconciling 'the inherently low status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(work)] TJ ET BT 88.676 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [McIntosh's italics] done by women' with the sometimes weighty local standing of those families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose women brewed \(p. 34\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh's study deftly highlights the close relationship between a woman's ability to generate income and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her access to credit, in its social and financial senses. Working women faced gender-based disadvantages in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so far as their creditworthiness was concerned. On a personal level, a woman's creditworthiness was related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to her marital status and, in the case of a wife, to her husband's willingness and ability to support her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business activities if she was not a femme sole. A woman was also handicapped by her lack of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupational identity which might render lenders less willing to extend credit. In addition, a woman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation was particularly vulnerable to slurs against her sexual conduct, which could potentially undermine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prejudice her renown for honesty and reliability as a re-payer of debts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 2 uncovers interesting new evidence for women's employment in 'domestic and personal service' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupations \(p. 45\). McIntosh sheds light on the experiences of groups of female live-in servants and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housekeepers often overlooked in recent studies ? women who remained in service \(rather than marrying\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and older women \(usually widows\) who re-entered service. The author also employs material drawn from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the equity court petitions to look at residential boarding as an activity engaged in by 'relatively poor women' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 61\), many of whom were married. Some houses catered for women as customers, boarding babies with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wet nurses or accommodating pregnant young single women, illegitimate children, orphans, children from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier marriages and the elderly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh extends her discussion of female involvement in service occupations to examine their standing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit relationships. The credit mechanisms in which women most often found a niche in the period between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1300 and 1620 were those based on informal and casual relationships, where women typically loaned small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amounts of money to family members and local contacts. Female servants, for example, sometimes loaned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out wages or inheritances to friends or even to their masters and mistresses. Married women also acted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moneylenders, although legally a married woman needed her husband's consent to do this. Not altogether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly, in view of their independent access to and ability to accumulate resources, widows with spare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cash often acted as lenders. McIntosh, however, persuasively argues that as credit transactions became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional and increasingly sophisticated, and the size of loans increased, women were pushed out of large-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale, commercial lending agreements by c.1600. Yet even at this time, women still found a place in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower and middling ranks of credit structures. In late medieval and early modern London, some women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participated in the market economy as pawnbrokers, catering to the poorest sections of society, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly arrived migrants. Women were, more often, borrowers in pawning agreements. All in all, McIntosh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creates a compelling picture of women's roles in low level credit arrangements.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.6237 669.3415 470.6237 681.2215 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7427 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to investing resources in small-scale loans, women also invested in the urban property market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchasing buy-to-let \(or buy-to-rent-out\) property. Drawing on information from the equity court petitions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh suggests that the significant body of female rentiers present in London during the late seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and eighteenth centuries may well have had their origins among the landladies of the late sixteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Widows contemplating remarriage appear to have regarded rental property as a fairly reliable means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing for the future financial security of children from former marriages. McIntosh contends, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, in general, the service roles open to women, although 'essential to the functioning of households and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader economy', generally brought women little return by way of pay and little advantage in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhanced social standing \(p. 116\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 3 focuses on women's contribution to the production and sale of goods. McIntosh argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries possessed a deep-seated concern, which was strongly reflective of patriarchal values, about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether women's work in manufacture and retail posed a threat to the financial well-being and standing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male household heads. Women's regular participation 'in the lower levels' of cloth production and food and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drink work can partly be explained not only by the outgrowth of such activities from women's traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic roles but also by the lack of competitive threat which such activities posed to men, due to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meagre financial returns \(p. 121\). Men predominated in the more skilled occupations and especially in those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which required specialist training and 'capital investment' \(p. 121\). The expansion in manufacturing which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place during the sixteenth century provided new, semi-skilled occupations for women, notably in small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garment production \(e.g. knitting caps and stockings\). Yet even in these fields, women's work was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished by its poor pay, usually via piecework, and its temporary, often part-time, nature. Women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a few notable exceptions in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, remained excluded from large-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale importing and exporting enterprises. Their lack of access to capital also inhibited their ability to set up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shops; most women who operated middling-sized shops in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were widows. Women were more numerous as hucksters ? petty retailers who sold in the streets or rented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stalls in late medieval towns. Demographic and economic change, however, influenced the fortunes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hucksters. Although, during the fifteenth century, some hucksters enjoyed 'a certain degree of occupational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity and may have earned a reasonable income' \(p. 131\), by the late sixteenth and early seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries women faced growing rivalry from men desperate for any form of employment in an increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitive labour market, challenging women's occupations in petty retailing. The economic pressures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same period also contributed to important shifts in apprenticeship which had a detrimental impact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's access to skilled crafts. The nature of female apprenticeship itself was evolving away from skilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(craftwork towards agricultural or domestic work. Whereas small numbers of girls from prosperous urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families had secured apprenticeships in the major cities of late medieval England, greater numbers of girls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from poor backgrounds were becoming apprentices at younger ages and in more onerous conditions by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late sixteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh's research into women's economic activities in her five market centres comes into its own when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she turns her attention to examine women's roles in drink work. The evidence that she has collated from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period after the Black Death undermines the idea that because women engaged in multiple economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities on an intermittent basis, their involvement was seldom lucrative. McIntosh asserts that individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who participated in a variety of drink and food trades were potentially in a stronger position to secure a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater profit than those who did not diversify. Women engaged in drink work within the market centres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to play a greater economic role after the plague of 1348?49 than they had done before. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women secured work as long-term commercial brewers and challenged male domination of malt production. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh successfully contests Bennett's thesis that brewing was a relatively lowly activity by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating that a significant portion of women who engaged in brewing in the five market centres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belonged to the households of local government officials. 'There is no sign here that brewing was held in low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(esteem' \(p. 156\). If the post-plague generations provided women, most notably wives from established local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families, with improved opportunities for sustained commitment to brewing, female participation in drink )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work experienced significant change from the fifteenth century onward. This was partially stimulated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trend towards large-scale, commercial brewing and by the arrival of beer and the growing popularity of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7198 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sweet wines. By c.1620 women drink workers usually only remained at the bottom of the spectrum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh detects similar changes to female involvement in aleselling to those in brewing in her five market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres: the numerous women alesellers of late medieval England were later pushed out of the top end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market by men. The licensing of taverns in the mid sixteenth century reflected and contributed to a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social concern about the ability of women to enforce propriety in drinking establishments, as well as adding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the financial hurdles encountered by potential alehouse proprietors. McIntosh modifies Bennett's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that women gradually vanished from the drink trades in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material indicates that such a change was more sudden than Bennett suggests and took place within a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation in four of the five market centres \(Tamworth, Ramsey, Northallerton and Romford\). Even in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minehead, the shift occurred within four decades. After making allowance for changes in reporting practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating to how drink workers were recorded by local courts between 1460 and 1490, McIntosh explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of demographic, economic and social change in bringing about a shift towards male dominance. First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all, she contends that the disappearance of many earlier drink workers in the late fifteenth and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth centuries may well have been connected with outbreaks of disease, such as plague and sweating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sickness. Secondly, she links the transition with anxiety on the part of local officials about controlling and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tackling the growing numbers of poor in towns in the same period. Thirdly, she draws attention to changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('how and where drink was served to customers' \(p. 180\). Finally, the transition was facilitated by a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern among leading townsmen about the maintenance of order in alehouses, and about 'the presence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible sexual availability of women' in such establishments \(p. 181\). The urban authorities in all five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market centres prosecuted alehouses which failed to maintain appropriate order and which were associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with sexual impropriety.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addressing food work and innkeeping, McIntosh suggests that the obstacles which women faced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing access to credit for purchasing utensils and supplies, and hiring assistants, conspired to keep most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women confined to the lowest ranks of the food trade, as sellers rather than makers of consumables. Female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement within the skilled crafts was also limited throughout the late medieval and early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods. Only the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries temporarily provided women with more favourable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities to engage in the middling and, sometimes, upper strata of cloth production processes. London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its market for luxury goods and customs supportive of widows and wives as traders, produced the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive array of outlets for women's work. Yet even within the fields of cloth and clothing, women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained concentrated at the lowest, least well paid, end of the range. They seldom operated workshops in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the leather and metal crafts, unless they were the widows or daughters of craftsmen engaged in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities. The final chapter of part 3 briefly considers women as consumers within the market economy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh acknowledges that this is 'a brief and preliminary account' of women's roles as spenders of money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 240\), and there remains plenty of scope here for a more extensive analysis of women's spending and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shopping habits at all social levels.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh's book succeeds in expanding our understanding of women's work between 1300 and 1620. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates how women occupied an essential but often poorly \(financially and socially\) rewarded place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the market economy. It conveys the centrality of credit relationships in determining women's scope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for financial action. Admittedly, it dwells relatively infrequently on the role of women within the pre-plague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy, although this is largely a consequence of the nature and late date of McIntosh's source material. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As it stands, this book offers a valuable synthesis of existing scholarship on women and work. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes a highly original study in its own right of the changes affecting women's occupations and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handicaps which they faced in trying 'to generate some income of their own' between 1300 and 1620 \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(250\). This will be a useful addition to undergraduate reading lists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Kowaleski, 'Women's work in a market town: Exeter in the later fourteenth century', in )] TJ ET BT 500.420 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Work in Pre-Industrial Europe)] TJ ET BT 212.336 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. B. A. Hanawalt; S Bardsley, 'Women's work reconsidered: gender )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and wage differentiation in late medieval England', )] TJ ET BT 312.128 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past & Present)] TJ ET BT 385.460 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 165 \(1999\), pp. 3?29; J. M. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1732 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bennett, 'Medieval women, modern women: across the great divide', in )] TJ ET BT 408.620 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture and History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1350?1600)] TJ ET BT 118.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. David Aers \(1992\), pp. 147?75; and J. M. Bennett, )] TJ ET BT 387.980 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ale, Beer and Brewsters in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England: Women's Work in a Changing World 1300?1600)] TJ ET BT 345.572 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1996\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.892 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.892 766.563 m 499.880 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is grateful to Dr Wilkinson for her detailed and constructive review and regrets that a massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university commitment makes it impossible for her to respond fully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 682.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 664.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 664.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/513)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 663.033 m 322.316 663.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 638.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 623.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2903)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.8917 766.8775 499.8797 778.7575 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 663.3475 322.3157 675.2275 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/513) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000553 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000005454 00000 n 0000005563 00000 n 0000005673 00000 n 0000005782 00000 n 0000009343 00000 n 0000009471 00000 n 0000009555 00000 n 0000009639 00000 n 0000017194 00000 n 0000017322 00000 n 0000017358 00000 n 0000017423 00000 n 0000024903 00000 n 0000024968 00000 n 0000032219 00000 n 0000032310 00000 n 0000034095 00000 n 0000034223 00000 n 0000034259 00000 n 0000034387 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34482 %%EOF