%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R 38 0 R 72 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722134534+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722134534+01'00') /Title (Leisure, Citizenship and Working-Class Men in Britain, 1850?1945) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4644 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Leisure, Citizenship and Working-Class Men in Britain, 1850?1945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the 1960s, popular leisure has been studied by successive generations of British social historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Questions of class, of culture and of identity have been central to the development of this literature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Celebrations of distinctively plebeian customs have contended with pessimistic analyses of mass culture as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of social control. Over the last two decades, competing interpretations of a unified working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure culture have been confronted by an increasing emphasis upon the plurality of workers' worlds. Recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years have seen sharply divergent assessments of the fit between class and culture in twentieth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. The linguistic turn has led some historians to argue that 'the consciousness of a class is not the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as class consciousness' and to question the assumption that commonalities between workers necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitute a specifically )] TJ ET BT 150.332 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(class)] TJ ET BT 174.332 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( culture, arguing that this is to assume rather than demonstrate a shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness of society as divided by socio-economic class. These historiographical developments have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created new challenges for historians of popular leisure to which Brad Beaven responds in his new study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure, citizenship and working-class culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaven's post-revisionist account accepts the existence of significant cultural divisions between British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers. First and foremost, this is a study of male workers which argues, in line with much recent writing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that leisure opportunities for working-class men were significantly more extensive than for their female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts. Secondly, Beaven pays particular attention to generational differences, dedicating two of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seven chapters to what he regards as the distinctive leisure culture of working-class youths. Thirdly, Beaven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges the presence of income differentials between workers, though he suggests that some recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work has underestimated the participation of poorer workers in the institutions of commercial leisure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst Beaven draws upon revisionist work, he also challenges a number of its tenets. He suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(516)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 May, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brad Beaven)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0719060273)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Thompson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7871 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of the internal anatomy of working-class culture have overstated the extent and importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions between workers. His book seeks instead to investigate the interaction between working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure and middle-class reformers concerned with the quality of citizenship. This perspective recalls E. P. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson's insistence upon class as a relationship, something that happens between people. Beaven stresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the limited purchase of successive campaigns for rational recreation, emphasising the distinctiveness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(durability of working-class leisure. He firmly rejects the view that the rise of mass culture eroded authentic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class culture, arguing that commercial leisure succeeded through accommodating popular practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and preferences. Where some historians have discerned the demise of traditional working-class culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether due to late-nineteenth-century commercialisation or interwar suburbanisation, Beaven stresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity rather than change, participation rather passivity. Whether charting the fervent involvement of late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian football crowds or the vocal reactions of early cinema audiences, Beaven's protagonists are active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors in the creation of their own culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of British working-class leisure, like that of class more generally, has often focused upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locality. As Beaven rightly notes in his introduction, the North of England has received particular attention. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This historiographical focus traditionally reflected assumptions about the relationship between economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity and class formation, especially apparent in studies of Lancashire. More recent work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire has proclaimed the importance of the incidence of poverty in shaping and segmenting workers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural worlds. Beaven focuses instead upon the Midlands. His book, while national in its scope, draws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively upon his earlier work on Coventry. Beaven portrays Coventry as a boomtown, transformed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the replacement of silk weaving and watch making with bicycle and car manufacturers and the resulting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase in demand for semi-skilled work. He suggests the result was the emergence of an incipient youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture amongst Coventry's relatively affluent young workers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaven's examination of the Coventry case is a welcome addition to a literature that has been overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by London and Lancashire. Many local studies have been sought to argue either for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representativeness of their region or its importance as a harbinger of the future. Beaven avoids cruder forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these claims, but does seem tempted, at times, by both. He suggests, for instance, that 'historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continually overestimated the importance of skilled labour in the British economy between 1900 and 1914' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 101\). The bulk of the book, though, seems inclined towards the view that trends in Coventry were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forerunner of the likely result of Fordist transformations elsewhere. It is, however, questionable whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coventry should be seen as either typical or anticipatory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is considerable evidence, further extended by Broadberry's recent work on labour productivity, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support the established emphasis upon the enduring importance of skilled labour in the early twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century British economy. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.668 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.668 302.883 m 168.668 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 168.668 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Beaven argues, on the basis of Sandler's study of Birmingham, that historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have overstated the role of skilled labour within the new industries. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.968 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.968 288.627 m 369.968 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 369.968 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The relative significance of flexible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production in Britain, even within newer industries, suggests that Beaven may have exaggerated the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of change in these industries. More importantly, however, industries that made extensive use of skilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour, such as shipbuilding or engineering, continued to play an important part in the British economy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Countering this view of the Edwardian economy requires considerably more evidence than is offered here. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be replied that Coventry's experience of the growth of semi-skilled labour anticipated rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echoed trends elsewhere. It may, though, be unfair to identify Beaven with this view, since his book actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pays considerable attention to regional variations. Viewed in the aggregate, the main impact of recent studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the history of work has been to render attempts to reduce the rich variations of locality to a single model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsustainable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As its title suggests, one of the main aims of )] TJ ET BT 249.680 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leisure, Citizenship and Working-Class Men)] TJ ET BT 466.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is to relate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns about popular leisure to debates about citizenship. It is suggested that the primary source of 'middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class' anxieties about popular leisure was fears over its consequences for the quality of citizenship. Attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is given to recurring claims that the hedonistic and unreflective character of popular leisure rendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class Britons unfit to play their proper part in the community. These allegations took a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms, from concern over the intellectual capacity of the masses to diagnoses of physical inadequacy, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later, to jeremiads on the atomisation attending the growth of suburban estates. The evolving nature of these )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.6677 303.1975 168.6677 315.0775 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.9677 288.9415 369.9677 300.8215 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7815 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critiques is in turn linked to the changing meanings of citizenship. Four phases are identified, commencing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the individualist focus on rights based on status characteristic of 'the high water mark of Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism'. This gave way to an emphasis upon the moral bonds between the individual and the state, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came, in the Edwardian period, to focus especially upon the demands of national, rather than civic, duty. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third phase, which Beaven locates between the wars, was allegedly distinguished by a stress on economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiency and the role of employers in instilling the appropriate values. During the Second World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worries about morale and social cohesion increasingly shaped concerns over working-class leisure pursuits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Developments in popular leisure gave rise to a considerable commentary, some of which undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recalled long-established disdain for popular pastimes. As a number of historians have shown, attitudes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class gambling nicely exemplify this unlovely blend of incomprehension and condescension. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currents are, however, detectable in public discussion of popular leisure. Beaven notes the effort and skill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often devoted to the cultivation of allotments and the rearing of animals; but such expertise was not invisible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contemporaries. More positive mid-Victorian evaluations of artisanal culture, particularly perhaps that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the North, endured, for instance, in Edwardian assessments of Britain's changing political culture. Late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century observers often drew a sharp distinction between rough and respectable; and, even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharply, between the residuum and the rest. Beaven rightly identifies a persistent strain of coercive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moralising in contemporary writing about of popular leisure. Greater attention, however, might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given to other kinds of views, and to the common tendency to distinguish between different groups of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaven connects concerns over leisure with debates over citizenship. This can prove very illuminating, as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discussion of the organisation of and resistance to Peace Days after the First World War. On occasion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book would benefit from further explication of the significance of 'social citizenship' to contemporaries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of how this related to more political debates about citizenship. Beaven writes interestingly about football )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a vehicle for local identities and about the autonomy of the crowd; but the relationship between questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of identity, community and citizenship demands fuller discussion. In general, the character and context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates over citizenship might usefully have been more extensively developed. Beaven's emphasis upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atomism and rights in mid-Victorian notions of citizenship runs counter to the growing recognition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organic individualism and focus upon 'character' central to the political thought of the period. Interwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates about citizenship were as concerned with the value of culture, the requirements of democracy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the future of Christianity as with the demands of national efficiency. It is far from clear that economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiency received greater emphasis in these years than it had previously. Beaven is right to seek to locate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to popular leisure in the broader context of changing conceptions of culture, community and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship. Much, however, of this contextualising work remains to be done.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaven aims to revive a view of working-class culture that, while sensitive to divergences according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation, gender and income, identifies significant commonalities in a class-exclusive culture that proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably impervious to attempts at reform and which embraced commercialism upon terms of its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making. This is, in many ways, an attractive vision, attentive to cultural resistance and aware of the pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed by audience preferences and participation upon the emerging leisure industry. It does, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raise a number of questions that merit further discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first concerns the boundaries of popular culture. Beaven portrays working-class male leisure as a class-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusive culture with its own distinctive geography. There is a strong emphasis throughout the text on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical separateness of working-class life, and upon the contests over space provoked by moral reformers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to penetrate working-class neighbourhoods. The idea of residential segregation has long underpinned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the emergence of a distinctive working-class culture in the last third of the nineteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evident in the work of Hobsbawm, it has recently been re-stated by Savage and Miles. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.272 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.272 119.811 m 462.272 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.272 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions have, however, been raised about the social homogeneity of 'working-class' neighbourhoods, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably by Jon Lawrence. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.984 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.984 91.299 m 170.984 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 170.984 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Drawing upon the Board of Trade's 1908 inquiry into the cost of living, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence argues that, outside of London, uniform single-class communities were not the norm. Coventry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears as one of a number of provincial cities in which working-class migration to the suburbs was already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronounced, and in which notable residential divides amongst manual workers were detected. This data is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.2717 120.1255 462.2717 132.0055 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.9837 91.6135 170.9837 103.4935 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8456 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard to reconcile with a monolithic view of one-class communities. It suggests both the continued existence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cross-class housing zones, and residential divisions within the manual working class. In a recent review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article, Lawrence has extended his critique of arguments about rigid residential segregation into the interwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era, noting the continued existence of mixed-class communities, especially in more prosperous cities, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bristol, which witnessed high levels of owner-occupation by manual workers. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.292 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.292 738.051 m 421.292 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.292 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disagreements over residential patterns have significant implications for debates over the supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusivity of 'working-class' culture. The issue is brought into sharper focus by consideration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between manual workers and the lower-middle class. Beaven notes the important role occupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in many communities by shopkeepers and publicans. More generally, he provides considerable evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural collaboration between skilled workers and the lower middle class, whether in the Scouting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement, Clarion cycling clubs or temperance campaigns. Similarly, the useful and often persuasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis provided of music hall attendance suggests significant divisions, which Beaven reads primarily in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of skill and income, between workers. Beaven acknowledges and illuminates differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers shaped by gender, generation and poverty; but his own evidence does much to suggest the enduring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of skill differentials throughout his period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaven makes some very good use of the local press, and his analysis of Coventry trends in particular is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rooted in local archival resources. The chapter on the Second World War draws interestingly upon Mass-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Observation materials to elucidate the factors determining morale in the face of bombardment, and places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausible emphasis upon the significance of continued and convenient access to leisure facilities, notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pubs, in sustaining stoicism. Many familiar but apparently irresistible sources, from the journeyman engineer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Wright, \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.672 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.672 485.955 m 125.672 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 125.672 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) to )] TJ ET BT 145.004 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists)] TJ ET BT 332.012 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Robert Roberts duly appear. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.648 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.648 485.955 m 503.648 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 503.648 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex accounts have given rise to extensive discussion, which shows little sign of resolution. Here, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, most attention is understandably devoted to Roberts's undeniable emphasis upon the gulf between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them and us, which reflects Beaven's interest in the making of cultural differences. Others, however, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused instead upon Roberts's delineation of gradations amongst dwellers within the classic slum. Clearly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Lawrence has noted, workers may have alternated between different perspectives depending upon context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaven is right to insist that we pay attention to the impact of encounters with cultural reformers in shaping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers' worlds, but this needs to be combined with sensitivity to self-understandings based upon perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences amongst workers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaven is attentive to the accounts offered of the anatomy of the labouring classes \(such as in Wright's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work\) and recognises the importance attributed there to skill differences. He portrays Wright's account as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one in which skill, respectability and pretension are closely correlated rather than cutting across each other. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, however, ample evidence in Wright's various and subtle writings that his vision of the working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes was a rich mosaic reflecting the complex inter-relationships between generation, politicisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion, culture and skill. As Reid has shown, Wright's earliest work was very much part of the debate in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1860s about the enfranchisement of urban workers, and this political context should inflect our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of his changing depictions of 'our new masters'. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.624 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.624 245.859 m 347.624 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.624 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a valuable and often vivid study that challenges recent trends in the social history of leisure. It also, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, confirms some developments. Beaven argues, in line with much recent work, that contests over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban space were less pronounced by the interwar period. The emphasis of historians like Andrew Davies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the extent of generational divides within popular culture before the 1950s and 1960s receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable support from Beaven's close study of the culture of young semi-skilled workers in Coventry's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanding new industries. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.664 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.664 148.323 m 172.664 148.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 172.664 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The emphasis on continuity apparent here is characteristic of Beaven's study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as whole. His account of the enduring importance of clubs and work-place sociability to interwar workers on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new estates provides an important corrective to arguments about suburban atomisation, though his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence does suggest the growing importance of home. In focusing upon male leisure, Beaven builds upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a large body of work on gender differences in access to and experience of popular culture. He suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new leisure activities, such as listening to the radio, while undertaken together, were performed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced very differently by men and women. Similarly, he suggests that tastes in film were very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different, though here it is generational rather than gender differences that receive greatest support, given the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.2917 738.3655 421.2917 750.2455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 119.6717 486.2695 125.6717 498.1495 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.6477 486.2695 503.6477 498.1495 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.6237 246.1735 347.6237 258.0535 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.6637 148.6375 172.6637 160.5175 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 9503 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance attached to the transition from attendance with mates to attendance with women. Beaven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplies much evidence that men's and women's access to and experience of leisure were very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1939, but the implications of this divergence for gender relations and identities receive less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the chapter on the Second World War, Beaven notes the political and patriotic significance attached to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure activities of both men and women. He argues, in contrast to Sonya Rose, that it was specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class leisure that was subject to scrutiny. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.980 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.980 697.539 m 291.980 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 291.980 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) This seems, though, to underestimate the level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opprobrium that could surround those of all classes not seen as making the requisite sacrifices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a bold study that reviews working-class male leisure, and the concerns it gave rise to, across an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive period. Its thematic scope and its local basis usefully complement existing work. While its focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on cultural contestation is valuable, doubts remain over some of the book's larger claims about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusivity and class-specificity of popular culture. The book works better as an investigation of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure than as an anatomy of attitudes to it. The changing intellectual context and complex character of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates about culture and citizenship are never sufficiently articulated. Questions raised by Joyce about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis upon which cultures and identities are regarded as distinctively 'class' cultures and identities need more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit consideration than is afforded here. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.632 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.632 557.235 m 261.632 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 261.632 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Nonetheless, Beaven has produced a significant and timely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to our understanding of popular leisure in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Broadberry, )] TJ ET BT 137.336 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Productivity Race: British Manufacturing in International Perspective, 1850?1990 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1997\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 463.203 m 215.324 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Sandler, 'Working-class adolescents in Birmingham: a study of social Reform, 1900?14' \(DPhil )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thesis, University of Oxford, 1987\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.660 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.660 434.691 m 296.648 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Savage and A. Miles, )] TJ ET BT 186.668 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Remaking of the British Working Class,1850?1940)] TJ ET BT 452.336 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.328 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.328 420.435 m 547.316 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Broadberry, )] TJ ET BT 137.336 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Productivity Race: British Manufacturing in International Perspective, 1850?1990 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1997\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 391.923 m 215.324 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Lawrence, )] TJ ET BT 127.988 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Speaking for the People: Party, Language and Popular Politics in England, 1867?1914)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1998\).\(Cambridge, 1997\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 255.656 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 255.656 363.411 m 309.644 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Lawrence, 'The British sense of class', )] TJ ET BT 260.960 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Contemporary History)] TJ ET BT 422.624 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 35 \(2000\), 307?318. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.944 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.944 349.155 m 556.604 349.155 l S BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 334.899 m 90.344 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Wright, )] TJ ET BT 145.676 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Some Habits and Customs of the Working Classes. By a Journeyman Engineer )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1867\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.008 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.008 306.387 m 155.996 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Classic Slum: Salford Life in the First Quarter of the Century)] TJ ET BT 460.028 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1971\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 277.875 m 152.000 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alastair J. Reid, 'Intelligent artisans and aristocrats of labour: the essays of Thomas Wright', in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Working Class in Modern British History: Essays in Honour of Henry Pelling)] TJ ET BT 459.344 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Jay M. Winter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1983\), 171?86. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 202.664 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 202.664 235.107 m 256.652 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Davies, Leisure, )] TJ ET BT 186.980 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and Poverty : Working-Class Culture in Salford and Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1900?1939)] TJ ET BT 118.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Buckingham and Philadelphia, 1992\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 309.668 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 309.668 206.595 m 363.656 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sonya O. Rose, 'Sex, citizenship, and the nation in World War II Britain', )] TJ ET BT 418.964 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 554.948 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(103 \(1998\), 1147?76. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.336 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.336 178.083 m 230.324 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Joyce, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class, 1848?1914)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1991\); and )] TJ ET BT 182.000 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democratic subjects: the Self and the Social in Nineteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 135.315 m 221.324 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 110.453 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 91.471 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 73.691 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 73.691 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/516)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 72.297 m 322.316 72.297 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 47.320 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.9797 697.8535 291.9797 709.7335 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 249.6317 557.5495 261.6317 569.4295 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3357 463.5175 215.3237 475.3975 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 242.6597 435.0055 296.6477 446.8855 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.3277 420.7495 547.3157 432.6295 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3357 392.2375 215.3237 404.1175 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 255.6557 363.7255 309.6437 375.6055 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.9437 349.4695 556.6037 361.3495 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 335.2135 90.3437 347.0935 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.0077 306.7015 155.9957 318.5815 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 278.1895 151.9997 290.0695 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 202.6637 235.4215 256.6517 247.3015 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 309.6677 206.9095 363.6557 218.7895 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.3357 178.3975 230.3237 190.2775 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3357 135.6295 221.3237 147.5095 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 72.6115 322.3157 84.4915 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/516) >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 73 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Length 234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2909)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 74 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000005359 00000 n 0000005468 00000 n 0000005578 00000 n 0000005687 00000 n 0000009248 00000 n 0000009376 00000 n 0000009460 00000 n 0000009551 00000 n 0000017475 00000 n 0000017603 00000 n 0000017639 00000 n 0000017767 00000 n 0000017803 00000 n 0000017894 00000 n 0000025762 00000 n 0000025890 00000 n 0000025926 00000 n 0000026053 00000 n 0000026089 00000 n 0000026201 00000 n 0000034710 00000 n 0000034838 00000 n 0000034874 00000 n 0000035002 00000 n 0000035038 00000 n 0000035166 00000 n 0000035202 00000 n 0000035330 00000 n 0000035366 00000 n 0000035494 00000 n 0000035530 00000 n 0000035719 00000 n 0000045275 00000 n 0000045403 00000 n 0000045439 00000 n 0000045567 00000 n 0000045603 00000 n 0000045731 00000 n 0000045767 00000 n 0000045895 00000 n 0000045931 00000 n 0000046059 00000 n 0000046095 00000 n 0000046223 00000 n 0000046259 00000 n 0000046387 00000 n 0000046423 00000 n 0000046551 00000 n 0000046587 00000 n 0000046713 00000 n 0000046749 00000 n 0000046877 00000 n 0000046913 00000 n 0000047040 00000 n 0000047076 00000 n 0000047204 00000 n 0000047240 00000 n 0000047368 00000 n 0000047404 00000 n 0000047532 00000 n 0000047568 00000 n 0000047696 00000 n 0000047732 00000 n 0000047858 00000 n 0000047953 00000 n 0000048018 00000 n trailer << /Size 74 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48304 %%EOF