%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150724103053+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150724103053+01'00') /Title (The Origins of Freemasonry. Facts and Fictions) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4579 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Origins of Freemasonry. Facts and Fictions)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Jacob's book is the latest of her several notable contributions to masonic history, which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included )] TJ ET BT 78.344 301.835 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Radical Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 212.672 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1981\) and )] TJ ET BT 267.992 301.835 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living the Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 389.324 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991\). The book's title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably owes something to my book of the same name \(1988\), while the subtitle derives from Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sadler's remarkable Masonic Facts and Fictions \(1887\). The new )] TJ ET BT 348.788 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins of Freemasonry)] TJ ET BT 464.780 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is inspired by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wave of interest in freemasonry aroused by the sensationally successful thriller by Dan Brown, )] TJ ET BT 492.260 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Da Vinci )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Code)] TJ ET BT 59.348 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Jacob is inspired by the laudable feeling that at a time when so much nonsense about freemasonry is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being written \(with the gullible taking the novel's fictions to be facts\), it is about time that a historian sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to present more reliable evidence and arguments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The results are disappointing, however. The book shows signs of being hurriedly thrown together to meet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Da Vinci)] TJ ET BT 77.012 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( bubble of publicity, and as a result it is incoherent, at times self-contradictory and plain inaccurate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bulk of the book consists of four essays on eighteenth-century freemasons in Continental Europe, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus has nothing to do with the title's origins of freemasonry. There is no attempt to develop arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correcting 'fictions'. The opening chapter, 'Origins', does address the book's supposed main subject ? but it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shortest in the book, and reveals that Jacob's knowledge of British masonry is limited.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is asserted that lodges of freemasons emerged in seventeenth-century England and Scotland out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval guilds of stonemasons. These she identifies as the official guilds \(called incorporations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland\) that regulated the crafts and gave them roles in urban government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(517)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 May, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Jacob)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0812239016)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Stevenson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7408 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In reality, virtually nothing is known of England's seventeenth-century lodges ? only scattered references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them survives, and most \(if not all\) were not lasting institutions but 'occasional' lodges ? ad hoc gatherings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiates to admit new members. In Scotland on the other hand there is copious evidence, and the picture is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from that presented by Jacob. Official craft guilds existed and were part of the formal structure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local government. Permanent masonic lodges also existed. But they were \(with one exception\) not the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things but separate institutions. In the guild structure, masons were lumped together with other crafts relating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to building \(as in Edinburgh's incorporation of Masons and Wrights, which also included a number of minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trades\). The masonic lodges existed alongside such builders' guilds. In some ways they look very like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official guilds, and they perform many guild type functions. They might, indeed, be described as 'unofficial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilds,' or perhaps 'counter-guilds', and they existed because stonemasons found the official guilds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequate and incompatible with their traditions. Stonemasons were determined to have their own exclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations because they had unique traditional lore, initiation rituals and secrets. Therefore they created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations separate from other trades and free from the control of urban authorities. Through their lodges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stonemasons asserted the autonomy and the outstanding status they claimed for their craft. Moreover a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of early lodges could not have descended from official guilds as they met outside towns where there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was no guild structure, and it seems likely that choosing to meet in such places was linked to desire for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most rules have exceptions, and there is a single exception to the generalisation that lodges in towns were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate from official guilds. In Dundee the masons were allowed their own society or guild within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure of urban government, without being mixed in with other trades. In these circumstances, a hybrid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution developed, a guild lodge, in which masons could both take part in urban government and rehearse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their secret lore and literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As fate would have it, Dundee is the only early lodge in Britain whose early records Jacob has studied. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material she has produced is of much interest. But she has then extrapolated, from this single case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalisations about the origins of all early British lodges. A glance at a few of the published histories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masonry or histories of individual lodges would have shown her that there was something very odd about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dundee. Basing generalisations on a sample of one is pretty dangerous, and here has led to invalid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning to evidence of events in England, Jacob also gives cause for concern. Dating the initiations of Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Moray and Sir Elias Ashmole to 'the 1650s' \(pp. 12?13\), may be passing sloppiness \(the correct dates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being 1641 and 1646\), but few will share her confidence that a Grand Lodge existed in London before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1716?1717. Apart from the Dundee records, the only early British masonic manuscript evidence that Jacob )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses is a mythical history of masonry, with a section on initiation into the 'mason word' or secrets. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript is dated 1659 \(though it is in fact a later copy\), and Jacob first referred to it in 1991, having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found it in the library of the Royal Society. Here she hails it as enshrining ideas from the English Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1640s, which had seen 'the birth of constitutional government bound by laws and rules' \(pp. 13?14\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What she does not say \(though she mentions it later in the book\) is that is that this manuscript is not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolated survival. It is just one of the many surviving copies of the 'Old Charges' or 'Old Constitutions' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masons, a number of which date from before the 1640s but which have their origins in the Middle Ages. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore trying to analyse a version of this traditional text in search of 1640s ideology simply because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dates from the 1650s is bound to be a disaster. She cherry-picks individual words and attributes great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance to them as indications of advances towards ideologies of representative government. Mention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an early king of France having been 'elected' rouses her excitement. Why? And why is a mention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament of such interest? Everyone knows that there were parliaments in the Middle Ages. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable of all is the claim that the way the document uses the word 'constitutions' to indicate rules or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statutes has 'few if any precedents before the 1650s'. In support of this she cites the )] TJ ET BT 435.260 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary)] TJ ET BT 86.012 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but her consultation has been perfunctory. The )] TJ ET BT 318.632 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary)] TJ ET BT 370.628 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cites, for example, the 1164 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constitutions of Clarendon issued by Henry II. The word had been used for rules or regulations for centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob leaves the seventeenth century with relief. It does not have the kind of masonry that really interests )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7526 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her. Scottish masonry suffered from something mysteriously called 'clan governance', and anyway 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freemasonry of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment did not exist in seventeenth-century Scotland'. Well, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously not, for these unfortunates were stuck in the wrong century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving on to her preferred territory, the eighteenth century, it is accepted that freemasonry originated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. That the 'Scottish rites' which appeared in France 'had nothing to do with Scotland' is asserted \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(105\), and few would disagree. But a few lines later she writes of the Scottish rite being 'exported to France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(possibly by Jacobite refugees\)' which seems to contradict this ? unless by some extraordinary coincidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only English and Irish Jacobites brought to Scottish rite to mainland Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob provides an interesting and informative essay on the masonic almanacs or diaries that became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common in the later part of the eighteenth century. A chapter on 'Schools of Government' studies European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lodges as places in which men got used to ideas of self government, of electing officials, agreeing on 'taxes' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(payments due to the lodge\), of discussion and decision reached by voting. They even sent representatives to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national assemblies, their Grand Lodges. The case is argued that masonic structures paralleled those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging states, and provided significant experience in government. In some states \(Sweden, Brandenburg\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masons co-operated with and influenced rulers. Masonic lodges, indeed, 'have left the most remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records we possess for tracing the prehistory of nationally identified formal institutions of representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government' in continental Europe \(p. 47\). Few will be ready to go that far. Moreover, who were these men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that lodges schooled for government? Where social analysis is provided for some French lodges \(p. 117?18\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they turn out to be filled with members of the older nobility of blood \(the nobility of the sword\), the service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility of government officials \(the nobility of the robe\), army officers and merchants. These were educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men used to debate and making decisions. It is true that emphasis on equality in lodges was a novelty, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these masons were by no means ordinary folk being introduced the idea of having influence on affairs for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first time. Perhaps other lodges had different social make-ups, but we are not told of them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the ideas of brotherhood and equality Jacob rightly sees core principals in freemasonry, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly corrupted on the Continent. No sooner was 'simple' two or three degree British masonry introduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the continent than \(as Jacob herself says\) the invention of elaborate hierarchies of 'higher' degrees began. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conspicuous consumption became the order of the day for many, with higher degrees competing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaboration of dress, regalia and ritual. European masons often revelled in aping social inequality, creating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knighthoods and quasi-chivalric orders. In contrast to this type of masonry, even the present British honours )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system, with its arcane gradations of awards, seems restrained and simple. All Continental masons might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal, but some ? those with time and money ? were determined to be a lot more equal than others, privy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher grades of secrets. Lodges are described as seething with tension over matters of precedence and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rank in France in the 1780s \(p. 105\). Thus in many instances freemasonry was in no danger of subverting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigid hierarchies of the societies in which it developed, rather these hierarchies subverted masonry. Jacob )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed accepts this when she states that masons sought to 'recreate hierarchy' ? but then this is somehow seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as part of the fact that they 'rejoiced in the experience of brothers "meeting upon the level"'. How hierarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and level were reconciled is not explained \(pp. 71?2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By far the most satisfying chapter in the book deals with 'Women in the Lodges'. In Britain freemasonry was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively male, reflecting the wider social tendency for clubs and societies to exclude women. The French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their salons, on the other hand, favoured institutions where the genders mixed. Therefore the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when freemasonry was adapted for French use women were admitted to lodges is understandable. As with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy, freemasonry adapted to the society in which it grew. Sometimes it is hard to tell whether in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing of 'women's freemasonry' or 'freemasonry for women' \(pp. 96?7\). Jacob is referring to mixed lodges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or entirely female ones, but it is clear that the latter came to form the main forum for women within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masonry. In their own lodges, from the 1740s, they underwent the experience of self government shared by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all masons, and soon adapted masonry to suit their tastes. The symbolism of builders' tools ? trowels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compasses and so on ? were found too coarse for refined female tastes, and new rituals were invented for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them with symbolism derived mainly from the Bible. The emergence of these women's lodges \(regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masonic in spite of abolishing masonic symbolism\) is clearly fascinating for those studying gender history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving glimpse of women running their own institutions. But these women were not entirely liberated in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3695 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lodges from assumptions of male domination. The women's lodges were known as 'Lodges of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adoption,' and each had to be sponsored by a male lodge \(p. 117\), which condescendingly \(by today's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards\) 'adopted' women as honorary men, for lodges were by nature places for men. In many, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most cases, members of a female lodge would the womenfolk of the men who formed the sponsoring male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lodge. It is fascinating to see in these developments the origins 250 years ago of France's modern 'Grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orient' of mixed freemasonry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's Conclusion opens by discussing freemasonry's role in contemporary America, but it says little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than that numbers are in decline, and that gender segregation is a problem \(though mixed and all-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women lodges have emerged in some cities in spite of official disapproval\). As is evident elsewhere, Jacob )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believes that reluctance to admit women lies behind the declining numbers of freemasons in America and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. From my own contacts with British freemasons, I suspect that the admission of women would lead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the departure from the movement of large numbers of men, leaving it worse off than before. Racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregation is also mentioned ? though surprisingly there is no mention of the fact that black freemasonry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Prince Hall freemasonry\) has existed since the late eighteenth-century. Its many lodges are now recognised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as 'regular' by most of the mainstream American Grand Lodges. The book ends with the statement that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masonic lodges 'may be said to have pushed European mores, at least at home, in a democratic direction'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the rhetoric in earlier chapters about the importance of freemasonry as a school for representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, this is pretty vague.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freemasonry, in Britain and the rest of Europe, is complex and often contradictory. It could lead to radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments, or it could serve to strengthen existing hierarchies. That Jacob is interested in stressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical themes is justifiable, but it seems surprising that she does not seem to notice that at times)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 442.111 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 424.331 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 424.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/517)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 422.937 m 322.316 422.937 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 397.960 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2911)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 423.2515 322.3157 435.1315 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/517) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000549 00000 n 0000000631 00000 n 0000005262 00000 n 0000005371 00000 n 0000005481 00000 n 0000005590 00000 n 0000009151 00000 n 0000009279 00000 n 0000009363 00000 n 0000009428 00000 n 0000016889 00000 n 0000016954 00000 n 0000024533 00000 n 0000024617 00000 n 0000028365 00000 n 0000028493 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28588 %%EOF