%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150125182903+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150125182903+00'00') /Title (Leadership in Medieval English Nunneries) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4179 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Leadership in Medieval English Nunneries)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anyone who has been researching or simply been interested in female monasticism in medieval England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must have noticed a frustrating scarcity of primary sources which has resulted result in relatively meagre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary literature. Paradoxically, we know more about the spiritual life of medieval nuns than we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about more mundane areas of their life. This imbalance in terms of source survival has led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of a somewhat bleak view of the success and survival of female houses in England the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religious communities of any kind, both male and female, were separated from the lay outside world and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were organised around a hierarchical chain of command. However, a decision process within that structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was often subject not only to external pressures, for example by patrons, but also internal power games )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves frequently linked to the connections in the lay world, personal friendship and favouritism. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of female houses in relation to the bishops, patrons and benefactors was often more vulnerable than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of their male counterparts, but the formal and informal power structures were just as complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This new book by Valerie G. Spear focuses on the leadership of abbesses and prioresses in medieval English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nunneries bringing important information and analysis well beyond the scope of the title. Moreover, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book challenges further the widespread notion of the almost uniform decline of female houses in the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages. The scarcity of sources and their fragmentary nature causes methodological issues when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes to drawing broader conclusions about the state of female monasticism. This is particularly significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(518)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 May, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valerie Spear)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1843831503)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emelia Jamroziak)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as )] TJ ET BT 47.012 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leadership in Medieval English Nunneries)] TJ ET BT 253.004 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( manages to build a coherent picture of how varied the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions of nunneries were in the given period. The author has shown very convincingly that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality and connections of individual abbesses and prioresses had a great impact on their institutions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both a positive and negative sense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume is divided into eight chapters which are to a large extent thematic except the last one 'Epilogue', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which charts the dissolution of female houses and the role of their leaders in this process. Chapter 1 sets out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key problems of the work. It outlines the roles and responsibilities of abbesses and prioresses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents models of hierarchies, power structures and possible interactions both within the community and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the wider world \(very clearly mapped out on pp. 12?13\). The second chapter 'Leadership and lineage' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues with the question of the actual extent of power of an abbess/prioress, her relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the convent, and methods of election. A large part of this chapter analyses how far this was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractive 'career path' for the daughters of nobility and gentry. This is discussed in relation to the fourteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fifteenth centuries in the light of what we know about changing patterns of admissions to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasteries and the utility of these institutions to lay society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapter, 'Guardians of the brides', investigates the most important power relationship between a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female house and its protectors ? the bishop. He was responsible for regular visitations to ensure that both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spiritual and material well-being of the community was maintained. The bishop was also supposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(help financially if a house was seriously affected by famine, war or plague. The fourth chapter 'The lady and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monarchs' examines relations of the leadership of nunneries with the English kings. In some cases they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were patrons \(if a nunnery was a royal foundation\) and for all the institution, the kings were an authority to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apply to for help. However, monarchs were also capable of placing significant demands on religious houses. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The king could be a protector at a time of difficulties as the examples of St Helen's, Clementhorpe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clerkenwell, Godstow, Marrick, St Mary's Winchester and Romsey show \(p. 68\). At the same time nuns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not easily refuse to take expensive corrodians and pensioners or provide large amounts of money at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal request; for example, the abbey of St Mary's Winchester provided the sum of 200 in 1520.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 5 looks at the internal workings of monastic leadership, especially in terms of the financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management of nunneries. It is a well-known fact that many female houses, particularly the smaller ones, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were poor and often struggled with serious financial difficulties and the communities could experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prolonged periods of poverty. However, Spear challenges the widespread assumption that this was very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much due to the ineptitude of the abbesses. She examines the backgrounds of the leaders of nunneries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, in the later Middle Ages were often connected to the merchant classes and hence financial networks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and knowledge. The surviving documents from Syon Abbey, discussed in chapter 5, shed light on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management structure of larger nunneries and the range of financial dealings they were engaged in ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borrowing, rent collecting, sales and other ventures into the marketplace. In the same chapter Spear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines types of financial pressures that contributed to the difficulties of the nunneries, namely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiralling costs of hospitality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bishops' views on female houses are the subject of chapter 6, and their visitation records are among the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important of the small number of surviving sources related to female monasticism in England. They have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been used extensively to examine the state of nunneries and mismanagements or other internal problems, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this volume the author asks new questions. In particular she tries to extract the nuns' voices and opinions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded in these inquests about what they thought about their communities and the way in which abbesses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilled, or did not fulfil, their role as leaders. In the seventh chapter, 'Shifting perspectives', the conditions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and practice of female monasticism ? chastity, veiling, private ownership, the possibility of leaving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cloister to travel, for example to go on a pilgrimage ? at the end of the fifteenth century are discussed. Again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here Spear presents a balanced picture and tries to break through the stereotype of decline. The final chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitled 'Epilogue' discusses the process of the dissolution of female houses in England from the 1530s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards. The author traces the careers of former nuns and abbesses after the closure of their houses. She is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathetic to her subject without being sentimental, which can be a danger in writing about the dissolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and destruction of monasteries and monastic communities.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 2030 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main and only criticism of this work that I would like to make is that the time span of the study is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made explicit in the title, although it is spelled out in the 'Introduction' \(p. xvii\) where it is stated that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work uses material from the period between 1280 and 1539. This choice is dictated primarily by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(availability of primary sources, which in itself is a perfectly valid point, but the title as it stands is a bit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleading as it implies coverage of the entire medieval period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The addition of a glossary is a very good idea and it makes the book more accessible to the non-specialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience. Likewise, the charts on pp. 12 and 13 illustrating power networks of the superiors of the nunneries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in relation to the outside world \(both ecclesiastical and lay\) and the power system seen from their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective are a very useful guide to the power structures at the centre of this work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 613.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 595.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 595.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/518)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 594.009 m 322.316 594.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 569.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2913)] TJ ET BT 34.016 540.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 594.3235 322.3157 606.2035 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/518) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000536 00000 n 0000000618 00000 n 0000004849 00000 n 0000004958 00000 n 0000005068 00000 n 0000005177 00000 n 0000008738 00000 n 0000008866 00000 n 0000008950 00000 n 0000009015 00000 n 0000016374 00000 n 0000016458 00000 n 0000018541 00000 n 0000018669 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 18764 %%EOF