%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818025704+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818025704+01'00') /Title ('Unfortunate Objects': Lone Mothers in Eighteenth-Century London) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4466 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [('Unfortunate Objects': Lone Mothers in Eighteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-century motherhood is a subject often neglected by historians. Literary scholars have contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating commentaries on the development of ideals of motherhood and their deployment in empire and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state-building narratives and class formation. Historians of feminism note the politicised use to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motherhood was put in the later eighteenth century. Those interested in aristocratic family life or women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have also marshalled evidence about the experience and emotions of elite maternity. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.592 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.592 236.289 m 451.592 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 451.592 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Many areas of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic remain understudied, however. )] TJ ET BT 212.648 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Unfortunate Objects': Lone Motherhood in Eighteenth-Century London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers important insights into the experience and culture of motherhood outside the upper classes. Tanya )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evans examines unmarried, married and widowed lone mothers and the strategies open to them when unable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to financially support their offspring.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tanya Evans deploys an admirable wealth of diverse sources from popular literature to poor law material to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records generated by philanthropic authorities in her endeavours to uncover lone mothers' lives. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include 6,000 ballads and chapbooks about courtship, the bastardy examinations of the London parishes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldgate, Islington, and Lambeth, the Foundling Hospital's minutes, its public image, and petitions for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admission and reclamation of children, as well as the emotive tokens left with babies, and the accounts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admissions registers, minutes, and settlement examinations pertaining to the City, British, Westminster, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Store Street and General Lying-In Hospitals. The nature of many of these records means that Evans analyses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motherhood at points when it was under most strain. After all, these were mothers who were attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(519)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 May, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tanya Evans)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1403939233)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanne Bailey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.5917 236.6035 451.5917 248.4835 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7456 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obtain poor relief or gain admission for their babies to the Foundling Hospital. By looking at all lone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers, however, and not just the unmarried ones, Evans moves beyond a study of illegitimacy to get at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared meanings and experience of poor plebeian maternity. To facilitate this she draws on a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current methodologies. Part of a generation of historians who examine the material life of their subjects, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that lone mothers commonality of experience was due to the absence of a joint income due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father's desertion or death and their inability to earn enough to support their families. Like many scholars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poor laws she sees negotiation and agency in such women's dealings with parish and philanthropic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities and their personal strategies for survival. Also, like several gender historians, Evans nuances the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severity of the sexual double standard and its impact on women in order to move beyond the traditional view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of lone motherhood as shaped by the disastrous consequence of sexual transgression and its concomitant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shame and ill treatment. What emerges therefore is not an account of deviant maternity, but a sincere and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often moving analysis of the way in which harsh living conditions and economic status shaped poor women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives as mothers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evans's introduction situates her findings in the intertwining debates of illegitimacy and infanticide. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out that these histories inevitably stress the victimhood of unmarried mothers whose illicit sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour jettisoned their reputation and cut them adrift from the security of family and community norms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable to find work as a result of the double burden of shame and a dependent baby. Work on infanticide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infers that these prospects led some such women to take the desperate step of killing their baby. Evans sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aside this picture of victimised lone mothers and offers an alternative image. First, lone mothers had some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of agency, though their choices were limited. Second, that they were more likely to be treated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compassion than harshness by friends, families, employers and, even, parish officers. Moreover, she sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this as buttressed by the establishment of new philanthropic institutions in London ? the Foundling Hospital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Lying-in hospitals ? which sought to aid poor women and their children. Third, that these friendship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and support networks suggest that unmarried mothers were not penalised for sexual immorality but aided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(due to their extreme want. The final point that Evans makes throughout this book is that the act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoning was one of love not callous indifference. While these themes drive the structure of the book, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters are mostly rooted in discrete bodies of evidence. This is often successful, such as the three chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on the records of the Foundling Hospital, but it can lead to some fragmentation. For example, chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7 on the records of the lying-in hospitals slightly disrupts the flow of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 2 and 3 situate eighteenth-century lone motherhood in its social, economic and cultural worlds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2 explores the solvent effect on family and community support networks of high migration, mobility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mortality in London. Combined with insecure employment opportunities, this created economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual vulnerability for women. Evans links the precarious nature of employment to the incidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegitimacy, finding that the fathers of bastard children were in irregular and low paid work. Her findings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here confirm existing work showing that illegitimacy resulted from traditional courtship practices when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(path to a ceremony, or at least informal union, was disrupted. The impression gained from bastardy exams is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that men evaded their responsibilities in the face of economic or social disruption. The ballads and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapbooks explored in chapter 3 supplement this picture since they emphasise the inconstancy of men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during courtship. There is evidence here of female shame at unmarried motherhood, but Evans focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the images of resourceful, vengeful women. Even so, these cultural sources emphasise that women bore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brunt of the fluidity of relationships. Thus both chapters make it quite clear that while poor mothers might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate some agency in their coping strategies, they had few avenues open to them and always laboured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under considerable economic and social handicaps.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next three chapters are rooted in the records of the Foundling Hospital which opened in 1741. Chapter 4 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks at the public face of the charity, examining its various intake policies, its charitable objectives and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-imagery through art to establish that the Foundling Hospital was open to legitimate as well illegitimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children throughout its life in the eighteenth century. She then turns to the private face of the charity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses mothers' petitions \(submitted from 1763\) to analyse the narratives they employed in seeking admission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their babies. She demonstrates that lone mothers did not adopt the narrative of seduction and desertion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed at this time, which increasingly emphasised male sexual aggressiveness and female sexual )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7766 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passivity. If they described male seduction it was to highlight male flattery and deception, rather than their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own sin or passivity. Instead, petitioners drew on the rhetoric of need, which was the criterion prioritised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hospital itself. The final chapter that draws on the Foundling Hospital's records is most novel. Evans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilises the petitions and the poignant tokens that mothers left with their babies. Her findings contribute to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the view that mothers abandoned their babies out of love rather than neglect: a last ditch attempt to secure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their child's future wellbeing. This chapter is innovatory, however, in looking more broadly at what such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources reveal about plebeian motherhood in general. They show a strong sense of maternal duty to provide, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is a characteristic too often associated only with husbands and fathers. The language of distress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with leaving babies, and the tokens that were left to ensure that maternal links with foundling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(babies would continue into the future, also show that babies were loved and cherished. Evans finds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, that poverty and necessity were the ultimate arbiters in lone mothers' decisions. In common with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserted wives' requests for poor relief, lone mothers stressed that they had tried for as long as possible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rear their children through work and the selling-off of possessions. Interestingly, this was a maternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of emotion. It contrasted with the handful of petitions from fathers who did not weave feelings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desperation through their accounts. They explained that their work allowed no time for childcare rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vice versa, and did not describe the same level of economic destitution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 7 revisits the idea that the pro-natalist institutions of the second half of the eighteenth century were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not necessarily set up for only one constituency of women. Having shown that the Foundling Hospital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted the offspring of married mothers, Evans shows that a number of Lying-In Hospitals accepted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmarried as well as married mothers. This chapter also introduces the role of employers in securing aid for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their pregnant and recently delivered servants. They often recommended their employees' admissions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lying-In Hospitals and, as the next chapter shows, actively supported their petitions to have their babies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admitted to the Foundling Hospital. Indeed, Evans sees this as part of a network of assistance from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employers, family, and friends, particularly female ones, in offering temporary and immediate assistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lone mothers. This persuasively echoes research into poor law material and court records, which demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of family, friends and neighbours as sources of permanent and temporary assistance to poor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disadvantaged women. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.992 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.992 412.419 m 156.992 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 156.992 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Nonetheless, though the master/mistress-servant relationship was probably far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less predatory and exploitative than it is sometimes portrayed, one might question the balance between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altruism and self-interest. After all, it was difficult to keep good servants and the keenness of employers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent household disruption prioritises their own rather than their servants' wellbeing. One also wonders at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complexities of the master-mistress/servant power-relationships after the former guaranteed the latter's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(job having arranged for her baby to be disposed of.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though focused upon women's experience, )] TJ ET BT 244.796 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Unfortunate Objects')] TJ ET BT 348.260 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( raises interesting questions about gender. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most obvious is the unflattering picture that arises of lower-ranking men. Like studies of marital desertion, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is difficult to avoid seeing plebeian and rural men who deserted their partners before and after marriage as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feckless and unprincipled. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.652 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.652 272.115 m 172.652 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 172.652 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) More research into lower-ranking masculinity is essential to help us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand how and why men were able to act in this way. Also, while making a plausible case that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmarried mothers were not victims and stressing the agency of plebeian women, whether married or not, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is difficult to escape the overwhelming impression of their vulnerability and the constraints within which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they acted. They had little control over their reproduction, over securing marriage, and over their low status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and low pay in the workforce. What they were mistresses of was the economy of expedients, which included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reciprocal support networks, based round family, friends, neighbours and employers and the negotiation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish relief. In providing insights into the love, duty and obligation felt by poor plebeian mothers towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their children, and in exposing the complexities behind the abandonment of babies by showing that it cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply be equated with illegitimacy or indifference, Evans makes significant contributions to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographies of eighteenth-century maternity, illegitimacy, the plebeian experience, and poverty, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as touching on those of infanticide and courtship. There is no doubt that this book will be invaluable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone teaching or researching the family, marriage, childhood, gender, the urban poor or sexuality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.539 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.9917 412.7335 156.9917 424.6135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.6517 272.4295 172.6517 284.3095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 2810 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Bowers, )] TJ ET BT 120.008 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Motherhood. British Writing and Culture 1780?1760)] TJ ET BT 448.364 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1996\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Perry, 'Colonizing the breast: sexuality and maternity in eighteenth-century England', )] TJ ET BT 490.292 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Sexuality)] TJ ET BT 159.344 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 \(1991?2\), 204?34; B. Caine, )] TJ ET BT 313.328 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Feminism 1780?1980)] TJ ET BT 457.328 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1997\); A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vickery, )] TJ ET BT 108.668 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gentleman's Daughter: Women's Lives in Georgian England)] TJ ET BT 422.108 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, Conn., 1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 738.051 m 118.004 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven King, )] TJ ET BT 129.680 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty and Welfare in England 1700?1850: a Regional Perspective)] TJ ET BT 460.304 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 709.539 m 152.000 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Bailey, )] TJ ET BT 112.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unquiet Lives: Marriage and Marriage Breakdown in England 1660?1800)] TJ ET BT 472.664 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\), pp. 168?178. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.340 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.340 681.027 m 217.328 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 639.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 621.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 621.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/519)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 620.265 m 322.316 620.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 595.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2915)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 738.3655 118.0037 750.2455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 709.8535 151.9997 721.7335 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.3397 681.3415 217.3277 693.2215 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 620.5795 322.3157 632.4595 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/519) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000005174 00000 n 0000005283 00000 n 0000005393 00000 n 0000005502 00000 n 0000009063 00000 n 0000009191 00000 n 0000009275 00000 n 0000009403 00000 n 0000009439 00000 n 0000009504 00000 n 0000017013 00000 n 0000017104 00000 n 0000024923 00000 n 0000025051 00000 n 0000025087 00000 n 0000025215 00000 n 0000025251 00000 n 0000025356 00000 n 0000028219 00000 n 0000028346 00000 n 0000028382 00000 n 0000028509 00000 n 0000028545 00000 n 0000028673 00000 n 0000028709 00000 n 0000028837 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28932 %%EOF