%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141031202023+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141031202023+00'00') /Title (Abelard: a Medieval Life) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4062 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Abelard: a Medieval Life)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This marvelous book about one of the most controversial and interesting of twelfth-century men deserves the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warmest welcome. Since the appearance of Sike?s )] TJ ET BT 278.612 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peter Abailard)] TJ ET BT 350.276 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1932 the whole landscape in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abelard lived, as well as our knowledge of his own writings, and those of Heloise, has been transformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the work of many scholars all over the world so that a wide-ranging study is now exceptionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome. Michael Clanchy modestly calls his book ?introductory?, and if by this he means something which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be enjoyed by someone without any previous knowledge of the period, it certainly fulfils his description. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But he has also created a book whose full savour, to use a word much loved in Abelard?s time by monks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be relished by those who approach it with a much more experienced palate. This is because it tackles so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many thorny problems with mastery, as well as wit, based as it is on thorough knowledge allied with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dazzling ability to create illuminating juxtapositions of sources, and so shed new light on old problems and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal new ones for future scholars to pursue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book begins with a short chapter presenting an outline of the whole story which does not remove the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension from the following thirteen chapters since they gradually unpeel much deeper levels of argument. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clanchy keeps some cards up his sleeve for later play, among which many marked ?historiography? are only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(52)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 June, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Clanchy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780631205020)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0631214445.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Holdsworth)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7534 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed in the final chapter. The book ends with a useful )] TJ ET BT 312.620 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Who?s Who)] TJ ET BT 370.280 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the main actors in the story, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abbreviations, notes, suggestions for further reading, and a very well-constructed index.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One strategic decision, not to include a substantial discussion about whether or not Abelard and Heloise?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters, and his own )] TJ ET BT 130.340 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Calamitatum)] TJ ET BT 236.024 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, are genuine, is a pity. All there is on this crucial problem is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentence in the Preface, a note to the first chapter \( p.15, note 55\) and about two pages in the body of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book \(pp.154-5, 327-8\). Surely the reader who knows nothing of the subject will not be much helped by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preface?s statement ?I am convinced \(principally by the arguments of Peter Dronke and David Luscombe\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the letters of Abelard and Heloise are not forgeries? \(p.xii\), especially when no help is provided there to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find those arguments among the six works listed by the two authors under ?Further Reading?, and the note )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just mentioned does not include either of them. It would have been so very helpful if Clanchy had expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own convictions at greater length. I also regret that he has not consistently provided the reader without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin with references to the available English translations of the correspondence, or of Bernard?s Letters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside those to the scholarly editions. On the other hand his grasp of the considerable literature, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the notable study of Abelard?s Philosophy by John Marenbon which only appeared last year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Marenbon, 1997\), fills one with confidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is, in so far as the sources allow, a biography and not a discussion of Abelard?s philosophy or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology, although, they play a large part in the book since both were controversial and drastically affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what happened to him, notoriously bringing down upon his head accusations of heresy twice, in 1121 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1140. What, then, is his new Abelard like ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He is, in the first place, set much more firmly within the society of his time, from his birth into a knightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family on the southern border of Brittany until his death at a priory attached to the great Burgundian abbey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Cluny. One is given a sense of distances, of the ways in which power, whether secular or ecclesiastical , )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was limited in effectiveness, so that, on the one hand, Abelard could be confident that when he sent Heloise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Brittany she would be safe from pursuit from Paris, or, on the other hand, that he could not be sure he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not be lynched at the Council of Sens. At every point the circumstances around Abelard?s life are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought richly to our attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is especially crucial with the picture created of the life of the schools in which Abelard spent so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his career. This should not surprise us coming from the author of )] TJ ET BT 361.304 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Memory to Written Record)] TJ ET BT 519.944 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides valuable discussions about how learning took place, and especially about the influence of verbal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching rather than writing. He also reveals the peculiar power and prestige then accorded to the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logic, which he calls the ?the medieval equivalent of management training?, and its practitioners the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?language therapists? of the time \(pp. 100,108\). Such words may, perhaps, seem dated in a few years, but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration that logic was taught by the use of examples which were themselves often facetious, surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helps to explain just what it was about his intellectual approach which horrified some of his contemporaries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly Bernard of Clairvaux, when he interested himself in theology. The precarious and competitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation of a teacher, whether in Paris or Laon, also come across clearly, and, more surprising, perhaps, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that someone like Abelard may not have had ?unlimited access to a great library? until he became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monk at St Denis \(p.227\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For any teacher the patronage and protection of a great man could be extremely significant, and here the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of one, Stephen of Garlande, emerges in a way which would have surprised an earlier generation of scholars. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Sikes Stephen deserved less than a paragraph, devoted to his role in persuading the abbot of St Denis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suger, to allow Abelard to withdraw from that monastery to live in relative isolation at the site best known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the Paraclete, where later Heloise was to be abbess \(Sikes, 20\). That role Abelard himself mentions in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Calamitatum)] TJ ET BT 139.700 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( . But now he emerges as a very powerful canon at Notre-Dame, chancellor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successively to Philip I and Louis VI, taking an interest in Abelard from his arrival in Paris around 1100 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until his own withdrawal to the abbey of St Victor about forty years later. His power had its fairly drastic ups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and downs, but it may have been crucial for Abelard. Here Clanchy follows suggestions first made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bautier in 1981 \(Bautier, 1981, 58-77\). The evidence is nearly all circumstantial, but the argument has won )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide acceptance because it gives a new and effective explanation for some of the hostility which Abelard )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7587 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evoked. On one side, William of Champeaux, another canon at Notre-Dame, who was Abelard?s master in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his early days in Paris, but with whom he fell out spectacularly, belonged to a faction at the cathedral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to Garlande. On the other, Garlande evoked the distaste of Bernard of Clairvaux, who once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described him memorably as ?a bad smell? in a letter to Suger, abbot of St Denis, because he acted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seneschal to Louis VI from 1120 to 1127, and as such had military responsibilities whilst being a cleric. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard almost certainly was also moved by the fact that William of Champeaux, who was Bishop of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chlons-sur-Marne from 1113 to his death in 1121, was one of his own closest friends and supporters from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time when he became abbot in 1115. Clanchy is extremely convincing in his restatement of Bautier?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas, and in his evocation of the networks of friendship, and hostility, which criss-crossed not only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French schools and monasteries, but stretched across the Alps to affect reputations in the papal curia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another great achievement of this book is to show us a man who changed his mind about a number of issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during his lifetime, most significantly about the place of ?pagan? philosophers in the history of salvation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the place of women in the Church. For Abelard they both came to play an extremely significant role, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both cases he seems to have been much influenced by Heloise. The plausibility of this is undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected by Clanchy?s argument that she was very much older than scholars have previously believed. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes his stand on some words of Peter the Venerable?s in a letter to Heloise confessing that he was still an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adolescent when he heard of her reputation as a ?woman who, although not yet disentangled from the bonds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the world, devoted the highest zeal to literary science.? \(p.173\). For Peter to call her a woman when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was still adolescent suggests that he must have been younger than she; so, since there are good reasons for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holding that he was born in 1092 or 1094, he suggests that she must have been born earlier. This puts her in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late twenties when she and Abelard met around 1117. This is certainly a startling change from the ?teen-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age bride? of most earlier scholars \(but see Mews, 1995, p.12 note 14: ?It seems unlikely that she was much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(younger than Peter the Venerable.?\) This older Heloise certainly helps explain the intellectual influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which she seems to have had over him, something which began to emerge in Dronke?s work in 1984. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier birth around 1090 also removes a contradiction between her own, and Abelard?s, views and her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career: a point which Clanchy does not mention .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the letter which Heloise wrote to Abelard asking him to provide the community with a Rule suitable for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, she referred to the fact that canon law laid down that deaconesses should not be ordained before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were forty \(Muckle, 1955, p. 245: Radice, 1974, p.165\). His reply makes clear that he equated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offices of deaconess and abbess, and believed that she should be ?advanced in age?, even that she might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixty, by quoting some advice which St Paul gave to Timothy \(I Tim 5, 9-11\) about the enrolment of widows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(McLaughlin, 1956, p.252: Radice, p.199-200\). So they both seem to have thought maturity in years was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary for an abbess. The old view which would make her about twenty-nine when she took charge at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paraclete in 1130 clearly suggests that she actually did something of which both of them disapproved \(e.g. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dronke, 1984, p.131\), but the new chronology, making her forty, if not older, removes that problem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for the course of their passionate relationship, Clanchy is a sensitive and moving guide, making at one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point one of his astonishingly effective conjunctions of texts: he uses some words of Bernard about the Bride )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Song of Songs to elucidate how Heloise may have felt about her lover \(p.163\) He makes clear, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner I have never seen before, just why marriage was such a drastic and complicated step for someone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who wanted to remain attached to the community of canons at Notre-Dame as master in their school. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clanchy is more certain than most earlier writers that Abelard was in some sense a canon of Notre-Dame )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(see pp.46, 188-89, 213-14 \), resting his case on Heloise?s words, as reported by Abelard, in the)] TJ ET BT 495.260 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Historia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calamitatum)] TJ ET BT 96.692 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, when she was trying to dissuade him from marriage: ?is there not a greater obligation on you, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as clerk and canon, not to put pleasures before your sacred duties...? \(Muckle, 1950, p.188: Radice, 1974, p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(73\). Perhaps one still needs some caution about his precise status, since, as far as I know, Abelard never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed any document relating to Notre-Dame, but Clanchy is surely right in arguing that his position as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(master in the cathedral school would have been compromised when news of his marriage got out.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clanchy also makes abundantly clear how much literature Abelard provided for the Paraclete once his initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hesitation to be in touch with Heloise had broken down. Hymns, homilies, a commentary on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hexaemeron, and answers to the nuns questions establish him as ?the greatest provider of devotional )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7913 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature for nuns in the twelfth century.? \(p. 153\). Undoubtedly some of his contemporaries, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps Bernard, might have been surprised at this judgement, as I suspect many of us are now, but it seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely well founded. More could have been said about the commentary and the answers. The former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, beyond any doubt that Abelard, just like Bernard, approached the Bible as a text with different levels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of meaning, and did so much dependent on Origen. Clanchy states that he was interested in Origen because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each man had suffered castration; this is surely not the whole story \( p. 243\). The commentary also shows an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in )] TJ ET BT 84.680 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hebraica)] TJ ET BT 133.004 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(veritas)] TJ ET BT 165.668 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while the answers refer to an occasion on which he actually listened to a Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar \( eg. )] TJ ET BT 95.996 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Expositio)] TJ ET BT 141.332 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Migne, PL 178, 731 [Origen], 735 [Jewish version]: )] TJ ET BT 400.304 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Problemata Heloissae)] TJ ET BT 507.296 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, PL 178, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(717[hearing a Jew] \).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clanchy?s portrait of Bernard and his relationship with Abelard forms one of the finest sides of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable book. His characterisation is subtle and acute. At times what Bernard did is conveyed in very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharp terms: for example, ?Exchanging insults was an admired part of classical Latin rhetoric; its greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioner in Abelard?s time was St Bernard.? \(p.293\), or, ?Bernard persisted in repeating slanders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerating insults because he found it worked, especially at Rome.? \(p. 316\). There is justification for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such language, which gains its subtlest support from the abbot of Cluny?s recommendation that Bernard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should have looked into ?evil reports? before firing off protests to popes and bishops \(p. 316\). But may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what seemed easy for the abbot of an ancient and prestigious monastery was not so simple for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary abbot of a much younger house who was in some senses throughout his life a ?young man in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hurry?, to adopt a phrase of F.M. Cornford?s . We may suspect too that neither would have found it easy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish the truth of rumours in a world lacking newspapers or telephones, and both would have known that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events which they might wish to influence often moved faster than their messengers. Bernard emerges as no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?anti-intellectual? \(though Courtney, 1998 suggests so\), but as someone whose training and whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience made it hard for him to react positively to Abelard. But how and when did their hostility develop?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clanchy explores their early contacts but, rather strangely, does not refer to the sermon ?Adtendite?, which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since its first publication by Engels in 1975, has been accepted as a genuine work \(see Smits, 1983, pp. 127-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8: Mews, 1995, p. 59\). It vigorously attacks cistercians who play a part in worldly affairs, and, if Bernard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knew of it, must have offended him and predisposed him against the Parisian master. But I think myself that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is more significant that when William of Saint-Thierry drew his attention to Abelard?s theology around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1140, Bernard was still deeply affected by the only recently ended Schism. Then he had come to feel that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God and he were on the same side because Innocent had finally won recognition , but he realised in his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bones, so to say, for he had been on the road against Anacletus for many months, that it had been extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard to overcome the forces unleashed in the Schism. Almost inevitably he had personified those forces as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evil, and it was in some senses Abelard?s bad luck that his theology was brought to Bernard?s attention so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon after the Schism ended. So, in his letter written after the Council of Sens to Innocent Abelard is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dragon following in the wake of the lion, i.e. Peter Leonis, the dead Anacletus \( Ep. 189 par 2: Leclercq and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rochais, 1977, p. 13: James, 1952, p. 318\). For Bernard the fact that Abelard was supported by Hyacinth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boboni who had chosen, and stayed on, the ?wrong side? in the Schism \( p. 313\) must have damned him still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more. But other deep feelings may have been involved too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early in his book Clanchy notes some of the similar ideas and ideals held by Abelard and Bernard: they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both monks, reformers, clever with words, and people who ?expressed a passionate commitment to Christ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucified?. He then makes the brilliant suggestion that Abelard was almost Bernard?s )] TJ ET BT 446.276 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(alter ego)] TJ ET BT 489.272 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(master, fascinator of women, attractor of young men that he himself might have been \(p. 9: though one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might object that Bernard was in fact one of the greatest recruiter of monks, many of them young, ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known\). His fundamental point, however, seems to me very convincing. It gains when one notices the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarity between words that Bernard used to stigmatise Abelard in 1140 and those he used ten years later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about himself, both cited in the book, but separately \(pp. 143 and 220\). In 1140 Bernard jeered that Abelard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?has nothing of the monk about him except the name and the habit? \(Ep. 193: Leclercq and Rochais, 1977, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 44-5: James, p. 321\), and later lamented to a Carthusian, the group of religious above all other which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venerated, that ?I retain the habit of a monk, but I long ago abandoned the life.? \(Ep.250, para 4, Leclercq )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Rochais, p. 147: James, p. 402\). Something very basic was stirred in Bernard when he felt that external )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6141 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour did not accord with inner disposition: an attitude we may recognise as very close to Abelard?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern with intention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the points at issue at Sens in 1140, Clanchy is clear that on the whole Bernard did not misrepresent what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abelard had written and taught, and brings out clearly how Abelard himself was no tolerator of heretics. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has some especially warm pages about the years after the condemnation during which the two men were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciled. The source here is Peter the Venerable who says that the abbot of Cteaux was the one who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought the two men together \(Constable, 1967, I, p. 259\), a person upon whom Clanchy does not comment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This made me wonder whether that abbot, Rainard de Bar, could have had a particular link both with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abelard and Heloise. He was a son of Miles count of Bar-sur-Seine who held his estates from Theobald of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blois, Bernard?s great patron, and also Abelard?s protector at his hermitage near Nogent, not far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downstream from Bar. Miles founded the monastery of Jully for wives of people who had been drawn into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Molesme \(Evergates, 1975, 160: Leclercq, 1993, 458-63\). So might Rainard have inherited from his father )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an interest in Abelard when he first settled, and in the female community which later followed him there ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a link might help to explain something else which otherwise seems somewhat surprising, unremarked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, namely that after Abelard?s death Heloise reformed the liturgy followed at the Paraclete on cistercian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines \(Waddell, 1980: for his later editions see Mews, 1995, pp.67-8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact that this is a book which raises questions is a mark of its rare quality: it is altogether absorbing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enriching. It will surely establish itself and maintain a place for many years, as an accessible and balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of Abelard himself and of the many people who affected him and whom he influenced, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially of Heloise, as well as the society in which they lived.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(References:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bautier, 1981: Robert-Henri Bautier, ?Paris au temps d?Ablard?, in )] TJ ET BT 365.960 422.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ablard en son temps)] TJ ET BT 469.616 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Jolivet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Paris\), 21-77.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constable, 1967: Giles Constable, )] TJ ET BT 200.684 382.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Letters of Peter the Venerable)] TJ ET BT 366.332 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 vols \(Cambridge, Mass\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Courtney, I998: William J. Courtney, ?The academic and the abbess?, )] TJ ET BT 373.292 356.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 503.288 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 10 April )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998, pp.9-10.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dronke, 1984: Peter Dronke, )] TJ ET BT 175.988 315.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women Writers of the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 344.300 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evergates, 1975: Theodore Evergates, )] TJ ET BT 219.968 289.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Feudal Society in the Baillage of Troyes under the Counts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Champagne 1152-1284)] TJ ET BT 147.008 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Baltimore and London\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James, 1952: Bruno Scott James, )] TJ ET BT 195.680 248.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Letters of St. Bernard of Clairvaux)] TJ ET BT 384.020 248.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 222.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leclercq, 1993: J. Leclercq, ?La "Paternit " de S. Bernard et les dbuts de l?Ordre cistercien?, )] TJ ET BT 492.680 222.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bndictine)] TJ ET BT 90.668 208.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 103 , pp. 445-81.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leclercq and Rochais, 1977: J. Leclercq and H. Rochais, )] TJ ET BT 309.620 182.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(S. Bernardi Opera)] TJ ET BT 398.612 182.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol VIII, )] TJ ET BT 449.600 182.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Epistolae)] TJ ET BT 494.936 182.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Rome\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marenbon, 1997: John Marenbon, )] TJ ET BT 200.660 155.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The philosophy of Peter Abelard)] TJ ET BT 357.320 155.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mews, 1955: Constant J. Mews, )] TJ ET BT 191.348 129.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peter Abelard)] TJ ET BT 259.004 129.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 274.340 129.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Authors of the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 405.668 129.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Patrick J. Geary, II, no.5 \( )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLaughlin, 1956: T.P. Mclaughlin, ed., ?Abelard?s Rule for Religious Women?, )] TJ ET BT 432.308 88.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mediaeval Studies)] TJ ET BT 520.628 88.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 18, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 74.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 241-92.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 2530 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muckle, 1950: J.T. Muckle, ed. ?Abelard?s Letter of Consolation to a Friend?, )] TJ ET BT 413.960 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mediaeval Studies)] TJ ET BT 502.280 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12, pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(163-213.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muckle, 1955: ?The Letter of Hloise on the Religious Life and Abelard?s First Reply?, )] TJ ET BT 459.956 743.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mediaeval Studies)] TJ ET BT 548.276 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17, pp. 240-81.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radice, 1974: Betty Radice, )] TJ ET BT 172.004 703.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Letters of Abelard and Heloise)] TJ ET BT 341.000 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harmondsworth\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sikes, 1932: J.G. Sikes, )] TJ ET BT 150.692 677.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peter Abailard)] TJ ET BT 222.356 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smits, 1983: Edm Renno Smits, )] TJ ET BT 196.376 650.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peter Abelard. Letters IX - XIV. An Edition with an Introduction)] TJ ET BT 34.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Groningen\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waddell, 1980: Chrysogonus Waddell, ?St Bernard and the Cistercian Office at the Abbey of the Paraclete?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 596.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chimaera of His Age: Studies on Bernard of Clairvaux)] TJ ET BT 332.012 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. E. Rozanne Elder and John R. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 581.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sommerfeldt \(Cistercian Studies 63, Kalamazoo\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.141 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 488.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 484.159 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 466.379 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 466.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/52)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 464.985 m 316.316 464.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 440.008 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.608 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/430)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 465.2995 316.3157 477.1795 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/52) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000004737 00000 n 0000004846 00000 n 0000004956 00000 n 0000005065 00000 n 0000008626 00000 n 0000008754 00000 n 0000008838 00000 n 0000008903 00000 n 0000016490 00000 n 0000016555 00000 n 0000024195 00000 n 0000024260 00000 n 0000032226 00000 n 0000032291 00000 n 0000038485 00000 n 0000038569 00000 n 0000041152 00000 n 0000041280 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41374 %%EOF