%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141125032939+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141125032939+00'00') /Title (The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4475 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book has been long awaited and its appearance is a major event. John Blair's work over the last twenty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years on the role and importance of minsters and on the subsequent emergence of a local network of parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches has already transformed historians' understanding of the Anglo-Saxon Church. Here he develops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pursues these ideas in new and exciting ways and presents them in a powerful and compelling synthesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which will make them accessible to a much wider audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society)] TJ ET BT 206.000 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( surveys a broad sweep from c.550 to 1100. Its opening chapter places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Anglo-Saxon conversion to Christianity in the context of Britain's Roman inheritance and the South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East's increasing links with the Continent. At the same time a detailed survey of the evidence reminds us that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each region has a story of its own. But most of these stories \(Cornwall aside\) have a common message: that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minsters staffed by groups of clergy )] TJ ET BT 209.984 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 233.312 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the Anglo-Saxon church, its institutional framework and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource base for both bishops and low level priests. Bishops might come with ready-made notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episcopal authority but in practice the power of a great bishop like Wilfrid was rooted in his minsters. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other end of the spectrum the aristocratic estate churches or mausolea which were common on the Continent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were notable by their absence in England. The same cannot be said for minsters: a sample plotting of known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minster sites suggests that most people outside the upland areas of England were in easy walking distance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a minster by 800 \(p. 152\). Central to Blair's argument here is the notion that the whole spectrum of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations containing groups of nuns, monks or priests shared sufficient common characteristics to justify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the application of a common term, minster, to all of them. Bede might see a world of difference between a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(520)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 May, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Blair)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0198226950)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Nightingale)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7478 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great monastic foundation like Monkwearmouth and the smaller aristocratic foundations which he lambasted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but he and his contemporaries did not have a separate vocabulary to distinguish between them: the Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasterium and OE mynster were interchangeable and used for all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ubiquity, centrality and durability of minsters are further highlighted by Blair's consideration of several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues which have been at the heart of the big and most contentious debates of recent years. Blair's own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original thesis that there was an early minster-based parochial framework is reassessed in the light of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-arguments put forward by Rollason and others to the effect that such a framework was imposed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings in the tenth century \(p. 153?60\). Here he develops the case for looser multi-layered institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures evolving organically around minsters between the seventh and tenth centuries, noting that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welter of different church dues that can be traced from the tenth century do not look as if they are a part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later imposition from above. Certainly the notion of fixed ecclesiastical territories would not have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently alien for early Anglo-Saxon societies which were used to the practice of extensive lordship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fixed renders levied from groups of vills or estates. More striking, but no less compelling, is Blair's thesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that minsters were the kernels of, and prime catalysts for, the re-emergence of towns in Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. After a fine discussion of the notion of monasteries as heavenly cities and a look at various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processual models of urban growth, he drives home the powerful argument that minsters came first and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a corollary of royal power centres as some have assumed. The ideas of royal palatia woven around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yeavering or York disguise the fluidity and impermanence of the residences of itinerant kings. The latter can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be better characterised as temporary camp sites \(one of which may have been identified on the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thames, p. 280 n. 165\) and contrast markedly with the durability and economic pull of minsters. Half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(53 non Roman places named as royal vills or stay places before 820 are unidentified and none look like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular or long-term residences before Offa began to imitate Charlemagne with a fixed capital at Tamworth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other rulers began to be drawn to establish their regular residences alongside or within important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minsters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The single-minded pursuit of these key debates does not stop Blair propounding a grand narrative of rise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline. The archaeological evidence for the wealth and expansion of minsters in the years around 700 is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to endorse Bede's notion of a golden age. Readers might be tempted to counter Blair's suggestion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never again, except perhaps in the twelfth and nineteenth centuries, was the English church so ebulliently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansionist \(p. 100\) with his own subsequent account of the great rebuilding of local churches in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eleventh century. But such enthusiasm is easily forgiven. Blair's initial timeline for decline is ambivalent: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas Bede's critique of lay enmeshment is accepted as evidence of a decline by the 740s, at other times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emphasis is placed on the continuing economic vigour of minsters throughout the eighth century. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is little ambiguity when the book's focus shifts to the escalation of pressures which came to bear on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minsters from the 820s onwards. Here the Scandinavian attacks and settlements had a part to play but greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(import is attached to creeping secularisation at the hands of kings, nobles or expanding towns and to the loss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of status occasioned by the monastic reforms of the tenth century. Minsters were increasingly used as royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate centres \(at least nine minster sites appear in this guise in King Alfred's will\), royal residences \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(326?7 for the wonderful example of how Philip Rahtz's excavations reveal the role of a late ninth- or early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenth-century hunting lodge on the periphery of Cheddar minster as a veritable cuckoo in the nest\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewards for royal officials \(the gifts of Banwell, Congresbury and Exeter to Asser being a prime example\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As towns grew, they swamped the minsters which had been the original catalysts for, and defining marks of, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban growth \(over half of all the markets and boroughs named in Domesday can be traced back to minster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sites\). The monastic reforms of the tenth century focussed royal patronage and protection on an exclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of reform houses at the expense of the wider body of minsters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The neatness of such narratives of decline can easily be challenged \(and Blair is the first to admit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptions\) but it is hard to deny the general trend which saw the minsters increasingly submerged in a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape of local churches with their own priests, landholdings and rights to burial and tithe. In the last two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters of the book Blair seeks to throw light on this shadowy but momentous development which saw a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multitude of smaller churches come into being by the time of Domesday Book \(it lists over 2,000 churches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests, and 'priests with churches'\) and quickly take root, as they were organised into the framework of rural )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7919 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishes which survived in its essentials until the twentieth century. For Blair this transformation is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood in the context of a restructuring of the English landscape which shared much in common with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudal revolution of the Continent: economic and demographic growth went hand in hand with a break up of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(big estates into smaller, more tightly focused ones; manorial exploitation intensified and farmsteads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalesced into villages. Amidst these changes churches became a mark of status at a much more local level: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Wulfstan text of c.1000 known as the Promotion Law relates that a freeman had the outward and visible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signs of thegnly rank once he had acquired '5 hides of land of his own, a church and a kitchen, a bell-house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a fortress gate, a seat and special office in the king's hall' \(p. 371\). The fact that the references to church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and kitchen are in fact first found in the )] TJ ET BT 226.976 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Textus Roffensis)] TJ ET BT 305.312 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( recension of the mid eleventh century may neatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underline that it is precisely in this period that the great rebuilding of churches appears in full spate, having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commenced around 1000, gathered pace in the decades before 1066 and continued through the later eleventh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. It is notable that the Norman Conquest is seen to have contributed little to this wholesale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of the religious landscape, though it is admitted that it further weakened the ability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minsters to retain tithes and resist encroachment by new and more local churches \(p. 451\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What makes the book so attractive? Blair's skilful integration of archaeological and historical evidence is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second to none. His synthesis and assessment of the most recent archaeological research conveys all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excitement of this fast unfolding field where, for example, an avalanche of new data from metal detecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys is continually sending archaeologists back to the drawing board. But it is the interplay of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material with Blair's brilliant analysis of the documentary sources that makes the work so rewarding; often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the archaeological data provides the main story but elsewhere Blair places it alongside the slender written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, be it to contradict, corroborate, or suggest new avenues of approach. The result is that the reader is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the sense of participating in the process of evaluation, as different types of source are weighed up and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chewed over. Thus at one point we are plunged into a detailed debate as to whether minster sites can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished from lay residences, a discussion which comes to the tentative conclusion that finds of styli are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a crucial distinguishing marker of the former \(p. 204?12\). Much is made of the complexity of interpreting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burial evidence. Christian and non-Christian burial co-existed for centuries and moreover the difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two is often hard to discern once it is understood that the disappearance of grave goods is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural shift \(paralleled on the Continent\) rather than a marker of a shift from paganism to Christianity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temptations of a clear and seamless narrative are consciously eschewed in favour of stressing the preliminary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the contradictory. Thus discussion of the remarkable Scandinavian-type graves of the 870s \(including a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warrior killed by a sword blow and buried with his sword, amuletic boar's tusk and Thor's hammer pendant\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which have been excavated around the chancel of the Mercian royal minster of Repton \(where the Viking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army settled during the winter of 873?4\) leads to the conclusion that they can be interpreted both as evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of far-reaching disruption and of the church's continuity in the face of this disruption \(p. 293?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society)] TJ ET BT 206.000 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is equally noteworthy for the illuminating way in which it treats the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the Anglo-Saxon church in the context of both contemporary Frankish or Irish evidence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider ethnographic or anthropological material. The need to consider Anglo-Saxon evidence in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continental context is often recommended but rarely achieved at a serious level; yet here the comparisons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contrasts with continental patterns of burial, church foundation and Episcopal authority \(to name but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three\) are fundamental to the analysis. Continental historians may question some of the assumptions, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example that the authority of Carolingian bishops actually matched their incumbents' aspirations. But they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will also have much to learn: a telling example is the suggestion that Carolingian critiques of lay abbots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be traced back to Bede via Boniface \(p. 106f\). But contemporary continental Europe is only one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider contexts to which Blair turns in his quest to interrogate and understand the evidence. Throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book there is an illuminating engagement \(much of it tucked away in the footnotes\) with ethnographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence. Each of the first two chapters ends by turning to comparisons with the place of monasteries during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reception and official acceptance of Buddhism in seventh- to ninth-century Tibet. Chapter 3 concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by looking at Anna Grimshaw's anthropological study of the impact of the Buddhist monastery of Rizong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(founded in the 1810s\) on settlement and economic networks in Ladakh. Elsewhere comparisons are made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Mesoamerican colonisation and conversion, and with William Christian's influential study of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief and landscape in a group of Basque villages in the 1970s. Again what we see is not some crude )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5715 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to use such studies to fill lacunae in the evidence but rather an exploration and admission of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual debts which have shaped the ways Blair has tried to make sense of the Anglo-Saxon material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the very outset Blair is explicit that the book is concerned with 'the externals of Christian culture rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than its spirituality; with churches as social and economic centres rather than as sites of scholarship or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious life'. By the end of the book few readers will question the underlying premise that minsters and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging grid of local parish churches had a profound impact on the wider development of rural and urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscapes. But this focus does beg the question why historians still find it so difficult to write serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cutting edge work which integrates the exterior and interior aspects of the church. Recent work on Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxon saints has gone some way to break down the traditional categories of the spiritual and the material, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighting the extent to which communities depended on their heavenly patrons for their material well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being and survival. Saints are not absent from )] TJ ET BT 256.988 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society)] TJ ET BT 428.972 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and indeed receive a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small section of their own \(p. 141?9\) but there is little attempt to gauge the role of their cults in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing minsters as central places and sustaining them in adversity. The emphasis is rather on the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minsters in providing pastoral care, in the provision of burial, in trading and production. A sustained case for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pastoral care is constructed from diverse sources: topography and sculpture; a brilliant analysis of Bede's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letter to Egbert)] TJ ET BT 110.684 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; consideration of the reciprocity inherent in the customary dues paid to minsters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(churchscot, soulscot, mass-priest dues\). The case is compelling but one is still left wondering whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model could not be inverted to a degree: less emphasis could be placed on going out to preach or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administer mass and other sacraments and more on the role of maintaining shrines to which people flocked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for help in personal and collective crises. Blair's continental comparisons might extend to asking whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory of Tours' central emphasis on shrines, saints and miracles in sixth century Francia \(and his taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sweepings from St Martin's tomb to provide newly consecrated rural churches with appropriate relics\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects a different world from eighth century England or merely a different outlook and proclivity from that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Bede. Such a change in emphasis does not lessen the central role of minsters in catering for the spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs of the wider population but it does suggest that saints and shrines rather than pastoral outreach should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be placed centre stage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reason that Blair eschews this approach can in part be explained by the fact that others have recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursued these avenues to rich effect, but one also senses that his interest and preferences lie elsewhere. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable that he appears more interested in evidence for the extent to which pagan and shamanist elements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were incorporated into the lay practice of Christianity \(pp. 166?81\), for churches being founded on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prehistoric or Roman sites \(p. 183?91\) and on the sacred sites of holy wells or trees \(pp. 374?83\), for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ritual roles of the natural landscape \(pp. 221?8\), for trees, springs, barrows, and other unofficial cult sites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retaining significance in the landscape \(pp. 471?89\). For Blair, as for the long tradition of protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquarians who have been fascinated by such evidence, saints are but a small part of this larger tableau. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to recommend this emphasis on the continuities and appropriations of sacred space but it does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tend to take attention away from the way minsters and parish churches also construct sacred space afresh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the promotion of, or association with, particular cults.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7757 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pastoral needs and resulting loyalties are given a key place in the complex equation of factors which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to the emergence of a new landscape of local churches in the tenth and eleventh centuries. Lords )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might build local churches for reasons of status, but to take root these churches had to attract others; that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did so can be glimpsed in the rise of graveyards around these churches and perhaps also in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification of their naves as the community's domain ? Aelfric's complaints about the commonness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chatter and other inappropriate behaviour in church is cited as evidence that the laity were carving out their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own social space within church buildings \(pp. 456?63\). In contrast to this emphasis on the pastoral dynamic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blair shies away from the possibility that this surge of new foundations could be a direct consequence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposition of tithe obligations which also first come to the fore in the tenth century; he touches on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility in his survey of the remarkable evidence of villages or even single churchyards containing two or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more churches in Norfolk and Suffolk \(pp. 397?401\), but does not pursue the idea beyond the concluding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation that 'it is hard not to see them to some extent as manifestations of social climbing, or )] TJ ET BT 501.812 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(even )] TJ ET BT 526.796 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis] of attempts to divert tithes' \(p. 400\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This hesitancy looks like an understandable reaction to the Marxist desire to reduce all to a nexus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation, an approach which is forcefully refuted by the numerous wills which donate lands to local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches or the prominence of voluntary offerings at Christchurch in Hampshire \(seen in the revealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corpus of material which Blair translates at the end of the book, pp. 514?19\). However the evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tithes and other church dues which is discussed in detail \(pp. 433?51\) does suggest that the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractions may have played a more significant role in this surge in church foundation than is admitted. First, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is in the tenth century, in the codes of Aethelstan and Eadgar and contemporary leases, that we first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter enforced tithes. Second, if thirteenth century yields can provide any guide, a tithe was a far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant revenue \(by up to a factor of ten\) than the churchscot which seems to have been the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important of the dues traditionally claimed by minsters. Third, Eadgar stipulated that all tithe is to be given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the old minsters except that where a thegn has a church with a graveyard he is to pay a third of the tithe to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own church. A further pointer not only to the rising competition of manorial churchyards but also to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition for burial dues \(soulscot\) is provided by the insistence of Aethelred II that soulscot should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid to 'the minster to which it belonged' even if the body was buried elsewhere; such competition is vividly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveyed by Aelfric's strictures against clerics flocking to corpses like greedy ravens and by William I's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking 1086 judgement on disputed burial rights which made William of Briouze's men dig up bodies from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lord's church and take them back to the church of St Cuthmann's minster for lawful burial \(pp. 463, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(450\). It is hard to ignore the way that Domesday Book lists churches and parts of churches as valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assets; much of this can be attributed to the endowments they had attracted but tithes and other dues are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to have played their part. Faced with such evidence it is hard not to conclude that the desire to retain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources rather than pay them to another lord or neighbour's church was a powerful stimulus for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founders of local churches in general and not just the wealthy freeholders of East Anglia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aside from some telling and perceptive comments, )] TJ ET BT 281.984 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society )] TJ ET BT 456.968 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eschews the well-trodden topic of tenth-century monastic reform. This is understandable: Blair has rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown that there are bigger issues and themes to consider than this topic which has dominated much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous historiography. However it does leave open the question why the reformed houses survived and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospered to a greater degree than minsters. Was it simply that the scale of their tenth century endowments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave them the option of living off past glories after 975 as Blair suggests? Or was it that they successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broke free of the ties with the outside world \(be it those with kings, nobles, or towns\)? Or, to take the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposite view, was it the sheer scale of their networks of ties with the outside world that enabled them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become the key players, pulling the strings rather than being pulled? Here comparisons with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingian and tenth century abbeys might be revealing in so far as their richer records allow us to see more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly the way they could become masters of their universes or at least could hold their own ground thanks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the multiplicity of ties which they enjoyed with competing patrons. Such evidence might in turn offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly different approach to the minsters themselves. Blair's story is one of a golden age of minsters around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(700 giving way to a gradual decline which picked up momentum in the ninth and tenth centuries: the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success of the minsters was their undoing as they became the base for nascent royal and aristocratic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 3512 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residences or were submerged by the urban growth which they had kindled. In such a story there is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too much of a tendency to see the minsters in a passive role, 'reduced to pawns in political and financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies' \(p. 131\). Others do the turning of the screw whilst minsters merely succumbed. From another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(angle what needs explaining is their extraordinary tenacity notwithstanding their failure to live up to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals of Bede and their travails at the hands of encroaching kings and nobles. Here glimpses of communities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actively exchanging land in order to build up more compact holdings or seeking privileges against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interfering bishops forcefully remind us that they were powerful players who knew how to fight their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corners. Minster-in-Thanet may have succumbed to external pressure in the ninth century but it is unlikely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have done so without a struggle: it can hardly have been an accident that the community chose to remember )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a foundation legend in which its first redoubtable abbess outwitted the king with a combination of cunning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and miraculous help \(p. 144\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ability to raise such questions is a testimony to the way )] TJ ET BT 323.336 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society )] TJ ET BT 498.320 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than stifles debate. The scale of its erudition and the richness of its insights will ensure that it long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retains an important place in Anglo-Saxon historiography notwithstanding the fast unfolding pace of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discoveries in this field. It is a demanding book but the weight of its scholarship is constantly leavened by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rich array of illustrations and maps which effectively reinforce and illuminate many of its crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(May 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks John Nightingale for his very kind and generous review, and hopes that the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(additional points raised will stimulate further discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 444.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 426.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 426.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/520)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 425.193 m 322.316 425.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 400.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2917)] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 425.5075 322.3157 437.3875 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/520) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000550 00000 n 0000000632 00000 n 0000005159 00000 n 0000005268 00000 n 0000005378 00000 n 0000005487 00000 n 0000009048 00000 n 0000009176 00000 n 0000009260 00000 n 0000009325 00000 n 0000016856 00000 n 0000016921 00000 n 0000024893 00000 n 0000024958 00000 n 0000030726 00000 n 0000030791 00000 n 0000038601 00000 n 0000038685 00000 n 0000042250 00000 n 0000042378 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42473 %%EOF