%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818090511+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818090511+01'00') /Title (Seeing Hitler's Germany: Tourism in the Third Reich) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4638 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Seeing Hitler's Germany: Tourism in the Third Reich)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does the study of normality require justification when the latter coexists with atrocity? Semmens's study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism in the Third Reich begins on a defensive note, assuring the reader of the author's sensitivity to 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring dissonance between holidays and horror, vacations and violence, tourism and terror' \(p. 2\). Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a justification is hardly necessary when it is the coexistence of the speakable with the unspeakable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which constitutes both one of the fascinations and one of the foundations of the Third Reich. Semmens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defends her area of research as providing a 'prism into the regime' and its combination of compulsion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conciliation, coercion and compromise. The author shows that the strength of the regime lay partly in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to countenance such paradoxes, coupled with its sensitivity to the development and expectations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of modern consumer culture. The German tourist industry had a similarly paradoxical character, on the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand permeated by Nazi ideology, on the other, deliberately apparently devoid of it. In her article 'Travel in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merry Germany', the author also argued that 'an overtly Nazified tourist culture explicitly proclaimed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazis' racist, nationalist and imperialist aims, while, at the same time, a seemingly 'normal' tourist culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively masked them'. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.144 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.144 143.625 m 170.144 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 170.144 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Continuities with pre-Nazi tourist culture were hence not only countenanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but even promoted by a regime eager to present the semblance of a society both permeated but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(untouched by Nazification. Tourism in the Third Reich was thus imbued with Nazi content, but appeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to offer a holiday from it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These two contrasting approaches are explored in )] TJ ET BT 274.952 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seeing Hitler's Germany)] TJ ET BT 393.500 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( through eight chapters which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover Gleichschaltung; Nazi tourist culture, 'normal' \(non-Nazi\) tourist culture; commercial tourism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(522)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 April, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kristin Semmens)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1403939144)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corinna Peniston-Bird)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.1437 143.9395 170.1437 155.8195 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7524 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including Kraft durch Freude \(KdF\), the Strength through Joy organisation\); international tourism; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism at war. The author's style is very readable, exhibiting a love of alliteration, although some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German translations need revision: private quarters do not 'stand' at your disposal in English, for example \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(183\). The introduction and conclusion provide helpful summaries of the arguments, and the sub-conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to each chapter are also reader-friendly, rendering this a text which could easily be drawn upon for suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readings in course design. There are seven illustrations, and a lengthy bibliography and index. Semmens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws upon a range of documentary records including those of various tourism organisations for Berlin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bavaria, Weimar and the Black Forest, publications for tourists such as brochures and guidebooks, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eclectic items ranging from souvenirs to travel journals. The individual traveller's voice has less impact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discussion, however, than the official publications and guidebooks, so that the reader is left wondering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how individual holidaymakers experienced their holidays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semmens suggests that one compelling piece of evidence for the importance accorded to tourism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third Reich lies in the speed with which legislation was introduced to regulate the industry: on 23 June )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1933, Hitler signed a law creating the new organisation of the Reich Committee for Tourism. This perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs to be placed in the context of the scale of the introduction of new legislation in the opening months of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the regime. Nonetheless, the new organisation established a national tourist body within the Ministry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda, underlining that tourism was a matter of enlightenment, not merely transport or the economy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The economic potential of the tourist industry was of particular significance to the countries defeated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War, in this case not least because tourism provided a form of mass consumption that did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drain significant resources from rearmament. In terms of the travellers themselves, the intention was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism should rejuvenate the population to enable greater productivity, as well as to educate them in Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and ideology. As Semmens argues, tourism was seen as having the potential to break down barriers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Germans through increased contact, and to assure them of promised improvements in the standards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of living, in a further attempt to lure them away from the appeal of the Left. Its role was seen as fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at home to prepare popular opinion for geographic expansion, and abroad to establish international status, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as secure international consent for Nazi foreign policy. Foreign misconceptions about Nazi Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be alleviated through attracting foreign tourists who would see for themselves how the regime had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been misrepresented abroad. While the emphasis on ideology here is justifiable, there are fruitful avenues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left unexplored in the economic realm: the impact of the need for foreign exchange, for example, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposition of tariffs on travellers, in the particular the 1000 Mark Barrier levied on Austrian travellers, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated very sparingly, and thus the opportunity missed to discuss how tourism was controlled as a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tool in foreign diplomacy as well as in domestic affairs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further legislation followed; Semmens argues this is one area in which Gleichschaltung was effective and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the rivalry between Joseph Goebbels \(president of the Reich Committee\) and Hermann Esser \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vice-president\) had little impact on the efficiency of organisation. The legislation was largely welcomed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the industry as it was seen as combating 'unfair' competition within the travel industry \(which included both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews and those of questionable political persuasions\), streamlining its organisation, ensuring professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards and providing some state protection, a price accepted for the concurrent loss of autonomy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionalisation of the industry was reflected in the introduction of both vocabulary and institutions, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, through the new nomenclature for those working within the industry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Fremdenverkehrsfachmnner', a term which emphasised their expertise \(Fachmann means expert\); and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the fostering of tourism research in, for example, the Hermann Esser Research Society for Tourism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Frankfurt \(founded in 1939\). In war, the industry's expertise was to prove invaluable when dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the movement of both soldiers and evacuees. Although increasing professionalisation of the industry was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced by the Nazis, its linking into the ideological goals of the regime was new. What is also clear is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the willingness of local organisations and publications to curry favour through the instigation of their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gleichschaltung through emphasis and omission, even in the absence of explicit guidelines from above.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main components of explicitly Nazi tourist culture included its identification of new sights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractions and the creation of new events connected to the regime; their encoding in a politicised discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which served to inculcate National Socialist ideals side-by-side with the provision of practical information )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7645 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on accommodation and facilities; and its self-referential character, so that tourists were repeatedly offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative experiences which suggested the same messages. So, for example, cities such as Munich \(Capital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Movement\) and Nuremberg \(City of the Party Rally\), or the area around Berchtesgaden \(where Hitler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had his Alpine residence\) could be remapped for their associations with the party or the Fhrer, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular emphasis was placed on the regime's new buildings in Berlin, such as the Reich Aviation Ministry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semmens misses the opportunity in this context to discuss the new KdF constructions such as the swimming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex KdF-Seebad Rgen. The only one of five such building projects which was largely realised, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex was intended to 'intensify' the experience of the tourist to enable greater rejuvenation in a lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Co-existing with this identification of new sights, or new ways of seeing old sights, was tourism apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(untouched by the change of regime. The tourist literature on the Black Forest remained largely unchanged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example: it may have lacked Nazi emphases, but it also did not have the unfortunate associations of, say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weimar, home of the republic and its constitution. Erasure and substitution with alternatives proved the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate tool there: the plaque commemorating the 1919 National Assembly was removed from Weimar's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Theatre in 1933, but a plaque to Hans Maikowski, a Sturmfhrer of the SA who had been killed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30 January 1933, was put up on his former residence \(p. 55\). Even the Schiller House in Weimar, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional tourist site, fell victim to cultural cleansing when a volume by the Jewish philosopher Moses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mendelssohn was removed from the poet's desk. Such changes were subtle: these spaces remained 'sites of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory rather than [...] of instruction' \(p. 76\). Semmens concludes that the Nazis employed a 'shrewd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology of power' over tourism, which 'allowed for seemingly unpolitical spaces of ... consumption only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reinforce the existing political dependencies and identities' \(p. 97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Kraft durch Freude movement appeared to have the greatest potential for innovation within the tourist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry and there is some evidence that it contributed to the growth of popularity of group travel. KdF trips )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the additional advantage that participants were simultaneously consumers of the guidebooks, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(object of the tourist gaze themselves \(p. 121\); both 'actors and spectators' imbibing and providing evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the regime's commitment to its Volk. In Nazi rhetoric, workers experienced the same Germany as their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social superiors while on holiday and together they would expand their love of the fatherland and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of its geography. Standards of living too were defined by 'access to the practices, privileges and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural property of the upper classes' \(p. 191\). This argument is also made by Shelly Baranowski in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on 'Radical nationalism in an international context: Strength through Joy and the paradoxes of Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism', \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 82.844 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 82.844 343.395 m 88.844 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 88.844 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) which concurs with Semmens in arguing that the KdF defined consumption as access to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural practices of the middle and upper classes. That definition, however, created problems within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry, and for the fulfilment of the goals of the regime. In order to protect the affluent from the hordes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to attract tourists to less well-established tourist destinations, disappointed KdF travellers often did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequent the same locations that they had come to associate with a proper holiday. Being offered a new style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of experience failed to meet their preconceptions and expectations, however. In any event, workers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented by the regime at the main beneficiaries of the organisation, were consistently under-represented, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making up around 5 per cent of holiday makers, rather than the figure of 60 per cent claimed in official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics: they could not afford the holidays, let alone the numerous extras not included in the package price. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KdF tourists also revealed the limitations of the Volksgemeinschaft. Class, regional and religious conflicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reported during KdF holidays \(both between the holiday makers, and between the travellers and their hosts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially when other types of visitor would have brought in more income\) suggested tensions within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed community, as did the survival of the 'fierce individualism' of pre-existing travel culture, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when KdF participants rejected demands for conformity and participation in political rituals. Their morals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also called into question: in popular lore, participants of Strength through Joy holidays lost too much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength through joy. Thus tourism did not only have the potential to overcome rifts within the population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but to deepen or even initiate them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Nazification of the tourist industry had a more significant impact on perceptions and experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national time and space, though it is suggested rather than explored explicitly here. Whereas the Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forest was permitted a long history, for example, with little reference to contemporary Germany, Berlin's )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 82.8437 343.7095 88.8437 355.5895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 5912 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, according to the guidebooks, started with the Nazis' assumption of power. The arrival of KdF )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holidaymakers altered local social calendars, as events were staged for their consumption. By emphasising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sites of significance within party history \(such as in the tours of the sites of street battles, mass meetings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murders\), Germans were encouraged to read their cities with new eyes. New photographs in brochures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanded a new tourist gaze and guidance on keeping holiday diaries suggested these were not merely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(list activities but to describe the 'community experience'. The impact of tourism on perceptions of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space could be taken still further: although there is a brief discussion of the impact of the expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German Lebensraum on constructions of German tourist destinations \(p. 169\), it would have been valuable if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author had engaged more with the ways in which national space was constructed prior to the war: what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted 'home' or 'abroad' ? how, for example, Austria was constructed before the Anschluss and how its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationals were attracted to holiday in Germany; and what impact the expansion of KdF trips to include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria and the Sudetenland had after these areas were annexed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semmens justifies her choice of topic by arguing that tourism not only provides insights into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicisation of cultural practices, but is revealing of the regime's authority when faced with popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand. She suggests there is still more to be said about its relationship to consumer culture and public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory. The study of leisure travel is, however, a study in its own right, illuminating conceptions of space, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of home, and of consumer entitlement, as well as of collective identities, defined both from within, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against an other. In its emphasis on the role of tourism in promoting \(or undermining\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volksgemeinschaft \(the People's Community\), )] TJ ET BT 261.164 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seeing Hitler's Germany )] TJ ET BT 382.712 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be placed in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current historical studies of tourism which focus on the construction and maintenance of imagined collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities through tourism. \(See, for example the recent edited collection by John K. Walton, )] TJ ET BT 481.292 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tourism, Representation, Identity and Conflict)] TJ ET BT 258.020 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Semmens has provided an original and accessible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of a thought-provoking and under-researched subject of historical enquiry. And as this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, neither the study of 'normality' nor the study of tourism requires defensive justification, not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the prosaic acquires such significance to both the rulers and the ruled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. Semmens, 'Travel in Merry Germany: tourist culture in the Third Reich' in )] TJ ET BT 439.292 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories of Tourism: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Representation, Identity and Conflict)] TJ ET BT 242.012 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. John K. Walton \(Clevedon, 2005\), p. 159. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.988 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.988 334.899 m 523.976 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 77.012 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories of Tourism)] TJ ET BT 176.360 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. John K. Walton. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.348 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.348 320.643 m 335.336 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 265.875 m 240.992 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 262.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 244.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 244.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/522)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 243.369 m 322.316 243.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 218.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2923)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11470)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 469.9877 335.2135 523.9757 347.0935 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.3477 320.9575 335.3357 332.8375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 266.1895 240.9917 278.0695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11470) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 243.6835 322.3157 255.5635 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/522) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000005333 00000 n 0000005442 00000 n 0000005552 00000 n 0000005661 00000 n 0000009222 00000 n 0000009350 00000 n 0000009434 00000 n 0000009562 00000 n 0000009598 00000 n 0000009663 00000 n 0000017240 00000 n 0000017324 00000 n 0000025022 00000 n 0000025148 00000 n 0000025184 00000 n 0000025289 00000 n 0000031254 00000 n 0000031382 00000 n 0000031418 00000 n 0000031546 00000 n 0000031582 00000 n 0000031709 00000 n 0000031810 00000 n 0000031938 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32033 %%EOF