%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819011423+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819011423+01'00') /Title (The Birth of Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4547 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Birth of Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The re-periodisation of European history achieved in the last few decades is now complete in all but name. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea of the eleventh to thirteenth centuries as a uniquely formative period for the creation of a European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity no longer surprises academic readers. The numerous titles proclaiming the 'origins', 'formation', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('making' or 'birth' of Europe illustrate that all we lack is a convenient term to express the shift from 'Middle' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 'Central' which characterises our age's re-appraisal of this period of its history, to replace the neat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encapsulation 'medieval' with one, if no less anachronistic, perhaps more honest. Nor is it easy to say how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long it will be before the rigid institutionalised encrustations of university course titles and publishers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalogues' sub-sections catch up with the new view of a European history turning on the two great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformative eras following on from the Gregorian and the Industrial revolutions. In our new view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformations, rather than The Reformation, or the Italian Renaissance now recognised as one among other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renaissances, are seen as deriving their impulses and characteristics from the first of these formative epochs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as part of a longer interrevolutionary period ? the 'long medieval period' proposed here by Le Goff. But this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new book by a scholar who has for years been an important contributor to our new view of European history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is no mere rehearsal of the rehabilitation of the Middle Ages of the sort which has become popular. It is, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author states in the introduction, neither a continuous nor a comprehensive history, but rather an essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrating the thesis 'that it was in the Middle Ages that Europe first appeared and took shape both as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality and as a representation' \(p. 1\). This is a thesis which has been advanced in detail in recent academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature, much of which Le Goff cites generously. But what he presents here is neither another synthesis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monograph literature nor one of the increasingly frequent popularising texts \(indeed this book assumes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(523)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 April, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacques le Goff)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0631228888)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julian Haseldine)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7646 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater familiarity with characters and events than most books aimed at more than academic readerships, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanding, and repaying, thoughtful reading\). It is rather a reflection, by one of the creators of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical revolution, on this view of European origins.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The series in which it appears, jointly published in five countries \(and called in the English imprints 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Making of Europe'\), seeks to contribute to the European dialogue in the broadest way. As Le Goff, also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series editor, says in the preface: 'Commitment to the European endeavour must accommodate a knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the entire past as well as a vision of the future.' \(p. ix\) The direct relevance to contemporary Europe of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the themes covered, and to EC policy, is made explicit throughout. Some are uncontentious, or at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least technical, such as the observation that the shift to cereal growing in the twelfth century created the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic patterns of agricultural production with which the CAP now has to cope \(p. 49\). In other places it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocative: comparing Charlemagne to Hitler \(p. 29\) may, by shocking French and German sensibilities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate viscerally the closeness of the past, while identifying sovereignty \(and not just nationalism\) as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the long-term European problems \(p. 198\) may strike English readers as a swipe at their successive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments' stances on EU integration. But this is not an essentially polemical book; it argues from, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with, the history, and the candour of the political observations sits alongside a judicious and nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the political, cultural, legal and economic features of the period. It could better be described as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reasoned, strongly-argued contribution to an intelligent conversation about Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early on a 'Schema of the medieval genesis of Europe' \(p. 13\) is proposed. In this, the fourth to eighth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries are presented as the period in which Europe was conceived, and the eighth to tenth that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('abortive', failed Europe of the Carolingians, which was followed by the emergence, around AD 1000, of 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dream of a potential Europe'. This was then realised in the periods of 'feudal Europe' \(eleventh to twelfth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries\) and '"fine" Europe' \(the thirteenth century\), which are the subjects of the two central chapters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are interpreted not as the end of the Middle Ages, but as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pause in the continuing development of what is later proposed as a 'long medieval period' \(p. 197\), reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down to and laying the social, political and cultural foundations of modern Europe. If this overall structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems at first familiar, even conventional, this reflects the extent to which academic historians have accepted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new periodisation. In its judgements, detailed argument and methodology this book is far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The stated aim of this work is to 'draw upon both what are called historical facts and also the imaginary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations that constitute phenomena produced by human mentalities or attitudes' \(p. 3\). Academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers will recognise here the trademark concerns of the Annales, with the mentalits approach, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualification of 'historical fact', the historical analysis of symbolic representation, all introduced engagingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a non-specialist readership. But the chronological framework is central to this book, and the progressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments identified are explored as interactions between cultural trends and specific historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances. 'What are called historical facts' are not marginalised, bobbing around on the surf above )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeper imaginary currents, to recall the most famous, and perhaps most misrepresented, of Annales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphors. And this is not surprising when one considers Le Goff's long-term project to develop a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political history, rooted in the understanding of power structures, language and mentalities, but eschewing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ahistorical, anthropological tendencies inherent in some aspects of the Annales approach. Thus not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does this book return to some of Le Goff's lifelong interests ? time, trade, work, intellectual life, urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, religious experience among many others ? it also embodies a particular approach to historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method. \(English students are still often directed to a contribution from over 30 years ago, translated as 'Is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics still the backbone of history?', )] TJ ET BT 219.836 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daedalus)] TJ ET BT 265.832 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 100 \(1971\), pp. 1?19, transl. B. Bray.\) While some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stars of the Annales movement will perhaps be remembered more for their early or extreme positions than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their broader contributions ? Braudel's dures, Duby's micro-total history, Le Roy Ladurie's creative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idiosyncratic )] TJ ET BT 99.008 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Montaillou)] TJ ET BT 152.348 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for example ? Le Goff's endeavour to reintegrate political history with the advances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the Annales will probably be among the most enduring of its legacies. Indeed it could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that such an integration is central to the Annales' wider influence, saving it from what its harshest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics have seen as a series of spectacular but synchronic dead ends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his schema of European origins, Le Goff stresses the metaphor of strata of historical or cultural )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6173 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development \('the structure of this book conforms with the movement of history. It is built up by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession of chronological phases and strata,' p. 13\). Thus for each stratum a series of developments are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented ? economic, political, cultural, legal, etc. ? which have contributed to the growth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harmonisation of a recognisable European culture. The text moves easily from one to another, presenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various topics without any imposed hierarchy of importance: social and administrative structures, religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology, literary genres, manners, portraits of individuals, outlines of political developments, are integrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in each section. At times this creates a kaleidoscopic effect ? which is to say, neither random nor accidental, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but presenting the themes in different perspectives and relations with one another. The arguments are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linear, driving to a single conclusion; central themes \(humanism, attitudes to work, etc.\) rise from time to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time like crescendi in the text. So, for example, chapter 2, on the Carolingians, is perhaps the most overtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlemagne's vision was a "nationalist" one. ... The Europes of Charles V, Napoleon, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler were, in truth, anti-Europes, and Charlemagne's attempt already smacked of a project that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was contrary to any true idea of Europe \(p. 29\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, a true idea of Europe must be based on 'a dialectic between unity and diversity, Christendom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nations, which even today is still one of the fundamental characteristics of Europe' \(p. 19\). This chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also concludes with one of the most direct and critical reflections on current problems:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The present construction of Europe must face up to the pretensions of the France/Germany axis. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is no doubt a factor necessary for the stability of Europe, but at the same time creates )] TJ ET BT 64.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inequalities and jealousies within the European Community \(p. 39\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the same chapter, equally clearly, identifies those aspects of the stratum which were of positive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring value, including one of the utmost importance, the 'possibility of )] TJ ET BT 392.492 401.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European legal unity)] TJ ET BT 493.820 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' \(p. 33, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis in original\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the approach is best exemplified in what is perhaps the most original and effective chapter, that on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Feudal Europe' \(ch. 4\). 'Feudal' is, of course, a term which, after years of revisionism and complex debates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many historians would see banished. Le Goff does duly qualify the term, noting its limited and anachronistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature \(p. 51\), but does not then embark on a technical discussion of the nature of feudalism, lead us through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the transformation/)] TJ ET BT 125.672 303.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mutation)] TJ ET BT 168.344 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( debates, or give the standard lengthy disquisition on the anachronism of a term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of unfortunate but necessary convenience. Rather the term is allowed to stand for the invocation of a world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its agricultural base, living spaces and power structures, and the texture of its life. The focus of the chapter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on 'the general features that these years bequeathed to Europe' and which constitute 'its feudal stratum' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49\). These include forms of agricultural production, village and parish structures, noble mores and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtliness, militarism, religious reform, money, popular religion, humanism, and many more. One may well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ask in what precise sense many of these phenomena can be put under the category 'feudal'. When the text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returns explicitly to feudalism, and particularly 'Feudal fragmentation and monarchical centralization' \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(67?8\), it is not to recapitulate technical debates, nor to address the familiar question of whether we can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(define an entire society as 'feudal', but to propose a pragmatic interpretation of a political situation and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-term relevance:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians have traditionally been inclined above all to stress the apparent incompatibility )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between a centralized state and a feudal system. The more subtle reality is that compromise )] TJ ET BT 64.016 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political systems were introduced: these may be called feudal monarchies \(p. 68\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The consequences of the creation of these compromise entities are then elaborated: their collaborations with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7185 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the post-Gregorian papacy, with implications for the separation between spiritual and temporal power \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(68\); the characteristics of medieval kingship which 'were transferred to republican and democratic rulers' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(69\); and ultimately their longest-term legacy: '... feudal monarchy set Christendom on the path leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward what we today call the law-governed state.' \(p. 70\) It is not that more detailed questions are ignored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or sophistication brushed out ? these considerations are linked to the notion of contractual, as opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional or traditionally feudal models of monarchy \(p. 70\) ? but the sort of perspective offered here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates Le Goff's sense of a political history concerned with the realities of power, not just its signs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and symbols, nor viewed only from the perspective of idealised political theory. But equally importantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is not the teleologically triumphant culmination of the chapter. The text goes on to consider the twelfth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century renaissance, the cult of the Virgin, heresy, persecution and so forth; and other themes, some, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian humanism, more central to the book's conclusions \(see below\), rise again like crescendi.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed it is hard to give a sense of the breadth of a book such as this without resorting to listing topics. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other chapters present the same rich interweaving of events, culture and personalities, the same thought-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking perspectives. Chapter 5, 'The "fine" Europe of towns and universities \(thirteenth century\)', revisits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the areas most central to Le Goff's life work. But the basic question with which this book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned is whether we can meaningfully describe this period as the 'birth' of Europe. The conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tackles this in the form of two related questions: first, whether the Middle Ages can be said to have ended in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fourteenth or fifteenth centuries, and second, what aspects of the eleventh to thirteenth centuries can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed as definitive or characteristic of European origins. The answer to the first question largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determines the relevance of the second, for any argument about the birth of Europe in the earlier period will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be harder to sustain if we see this period as having come to a more or less definitive end. Le Goff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently devotes a substantial part of the book \(chapter 6 and much of the conclusion\) to arguing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fifteenth century represents not a break with the past, but a pause in the development of the 'long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval period'. This was the point at which Europe reached the conclusion of its territorial development, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and turned to outward expansion \('Essentially, the fifteenth century put the finishing touches to the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of a European space', \(p. 196\)\). But this was not an inevitable development: the situation at the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the fifteenth century is depicted as one of tension in which the potential for the emergence of a distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and united Europe on the basis of the 'past achievements of the Middle Ages' \(p. 197\) was threatened by both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external pressures and internal divisions. What saw Europe through, and what constitutes the answer to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second question and the culmination of the book, were two ideals: unity and progress.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first of these is presented rather cursorily, and suggests a hesitation about the role of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty. The emergence of nations and the growth of religious dissent are seen someway between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrealised threats and contributory forces:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... notwithstanding those two factors, Europe had begun to take shape in the Middle Ages, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fuelled by ideas of unity and "nationhood" and encouraged by real instances of them, even if the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the concept of sovereignty and its applications did, from the thirteenth century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on, introduce a problem for Europe's future \(p. 198\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it is 'progress' which is the real key to the European development, and this emerges from a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental tension. The basic argument is that medieval Christendom, unlike comparable religious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural or political entities across the world, while remaining explicitly conservative in its ideology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporated a progressive worldview which was ultimately 'to ensure its incomparable expansion' \(p. 199\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This originated with Christianity's linear view of history, in which 'the quest for salvation was envisaged as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress' \(p. 199, citing Chenu\), and found expression in a range of ideals associated with Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanism, and ultimately in the attribution of positive moral values to worldly pursuits, deemed meritorious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a world seen as moving forward in the light of divine purpose \(all themes developed throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book\). This process, which led for example to fundamentally new attitudes to work, technology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation, and most importantly to a new conception of time \(pp. 200?1\), is characterised by Le Goff as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Heavenly values coming down to earth' \(p. 150, cf. p. 200 and passim\), and lies at the heart of the deepest )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5163 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of European values. But there is a coda to this, which links it directly to the secular Europe of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today, for)] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once values came down from heaven to earth, the handicap that this religious throttle inflicted )] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on progress was increasingly replaced by a springboard aimed at progress \(p. 200\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 691.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end the progressive mentality shakes off its religious progenitor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 665.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the more striking developments in recent European history has been the emergence of peace within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large parts of Europe, the realisation in some sense of older visionary ideals and plans for a peaceful Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which form part of Le Goff's story \(e.g. pp. 181?2, 187\). The horrors of the twentieth century confronted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous generations \(including of course Le Goff's own\) with a struggle for civilisation which can only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to post-war generations as personally distant. Our own times, at least inside the European fortress, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present lesser challenges. And while the murderous totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actively to pervert history, much current governance, driven by the ideological agenda of the global free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market and obsessed with modernisation, simply ignores it. Market forces, invoked unreflectively as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ahistorcial and acultural arbiters of all areas of life, driving, and determining the form of 'modernisation' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside any constraining values, lead to governance which looks to the future in ignorance of the past. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can range from the wilful and aggressive stupidity of the blanket application of market values to everything, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making hospitals and universities, for example, act as businesses, to the many complacent stupidities this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engenders, casually referring, for example, to patients or students as 'customers'. How different from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of the origins of markets embedded in broader social contexts and constrained by wider cultural values )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which form one part of the diverse inheritance described by Le Goff. We may now face lesser challenges, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they are ours, and who knows what our sleep of reason may bring forth for future generations. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aphorisms that the struggle for civilisation of the mid-twentieth century brought forth was that all that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required for the triumph of evil was for the good to do nothing. We might say that the motto for our, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly privileged, times should be: all that it takes for the triumph of bad government is for the stupid not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to know that they need to do anything. Intellectuals can do two things: first, argue for a more historically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed politics, and second, contribute historically informed views to the public arena. Le Goff's book not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only embodies his long-term project of a new political history but is a politically engaged history in the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable sense: it should be on the compulsory reading list of politicians everywhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2005/jan/22/featuresreviews.guardianreview7)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 295.395 m 417.956 295.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 420.956 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 292.063 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 274.283 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 274.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/523)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 272.889 m 322.316 272.889 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 247.912 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 233.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2925)] TJ ET BT 34.016 219.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2005/jan/22/featuresreviews.guardianreview7)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 295.7095 417.9557 307.5895 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2005/jan/22/featuresreviews.guardianreview7) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 273.2035 322.3157 285.0835 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/523) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000529 00000 n 0000000611 00000 n 0000005210 00000 n 0000005319 00000 n 0000005429 00000 n 0000005538 00000 n 0000009099 00000 n 0000009227 00000 n 0000009311 00000 n 0000009376 00000 n 0000017075 00000 n 0000017140 00000 n 0000023366 00000 n 0000023431 00000 n 0000030669 00000 n 0000030760 00000 n 0000035976 00000 n 0000036103 00000 n 0000036230 00000 n 0000036358 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36453 %%EOF