%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818075022+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818075022+01'00') /Title (Shopping in the Renaissance. Consumer Cultures in Italy 1400?1600) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4364 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Shopping in the Renaissance. Consumer Cultures in Italy 1400?1600)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evelyn Welch's )] TJ ET BT 112.160 316.091 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shopping in the Renaissance. Consumer Cultures in Italy 1400?1600 )] TJ ET BT 447.488 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a fascinating study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which turns a common social practice into a compelling subject of research. The author's ability to employ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different historical approaches at the same time confirms that cultural, social, economic and art history can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhance each other. This attractively illustrated volume is far more than a monograph on shopping activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Renaissance Italy. It could be defined as a social history of Italy seen from the angle of shopping practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during a period of transition, between the Middle Ages and the early modern era. Focusing on diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of these practices ? the people and the institutions involved, the time and the place of shopping, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different types of sale and shopping ? Evelyn Welch offers a wide and lively picture of urban communities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Renaissance Italy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the author argues, 'Renaissance buying practices were a multiplicity of interconnected events and acts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent as much on time, trust, social relations and networks as on the seemingly impersonal issues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(price, production and demand' \(p. 303\). Consequently, different aspects of shopping are taken into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration: cultural and social meanings, political implications, and, obviously, economic significance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This wide-ranging interest requires the use of varied methods, from micro-historical approaches to art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical analyses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance shopping 'was a key moment that brought people of different status, religion and sex together' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 303\). The actions of selling or displaying food and negotiating prices were embedded in assumptions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs. If ever we needed it, we have here another proof that economic practices have to be related to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(524)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evelyn Welch)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0300107528)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claire Judde de Larivire)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7176 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and cultural relevance. Welch's analyses are, from that point of view, particularly rich. By setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shopping practises in their social and cultural context, she reveals their multiple dimensions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consumption and material culture are topics which fit particularly well into recent historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolutions. They reveal the importance of taking into account social actors and the meaning and implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their individual and collective actions. This book takes its place within the recent bibliography on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption, production and producers, sellers and shoppers, quality, and price. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.956 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.956 685.539 m 432.956 685.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 432.956 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considering the developments that took place at the end of the Middle Ages, the author questions the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Renaissance consumer revolution, and attempts to show the continuities from the Middle Ages to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern society of mass consumption. Welch nonetheless accepts that the years between 1400 and 1600 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a period of change, with sharp demographic changes, the increasing demands of a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, a consequent augmentation of supply, and the transformation of civic behaviour imposed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council of Trent. As the subtitle indicates, the study focuses on Italy, although some comparisons are made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with other countries, particularly England and Holland. The biggest Italian cities such as Venice, Florence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milan and Rome constitute the base of the survey, although smaller cities, such as Verona or Bologna are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also studied. The examples chosen from these different places cover a wide array of questions: the influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of gender, the social level of shoppers and sellers, the frequency of shopping, the location of the activity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time at which it took place, as well as the problems of quality and value.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The diverse and excellent sources and illustrations are one of the great merits of the book. Manuscripts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engravings, frescoes, paintings and photographs make the reading even more lively. The use of literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry as source material adds force to the arguments. The author has used published documents ? some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are famous, such as the Florentine catasto of 1427, while others have previously been little studied. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Primary archival records have also proved a rich source of information, notably coming from the archives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bologna, Florence, Milan, Prato and Venice. Finally, a useful and impressive bibliography gathers the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent studies of the economic and social history of Italy. The book is divided into four parts: seeing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shopping, the geography of expenditure, acquisition and excitement, and Renaissance consumers. Each of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them is focused on a particular aspect of the topic, although the logic of the progression and the plan are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always evident.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part of the book is an attempt to analyse the cultural background and legal framework of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market. Regarding 'the market as metaphor', Welch demonstrates the importance of good market regulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in late medieval Italian cities, often identified with good government. Economic equilibrium was conditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to maintaining an 'unspoken social contract' between the governors and the governed \(p. 26\). The metaphor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the market was also broadly related to 'seduction' ? so important for the shopping/selling activity, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed, for example, by the connection often made between prostitutes and saleswomen. Mountebanks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peddlers, and their noisy performance, constituted another group in need of supervision. Markets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shopping areas were places which logically implied control and surveillance. It was assumed that 'false )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weights and measures, fraudulent goods and cheating merchants' \(p. 72\) were part of the exercise. Those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the elite who avoided the marketplace still needed protection and supervision for their servants or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermediaries in charge of shopping. Therefore, labels, price-lists, values, measures, money and credit were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always strictly controlled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part shows that the study of time and space are essential to understanding the connections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between consumption, shopping and power. For the local or central authority, deciding and instituting legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frameworks was a way to impose its power and influence more firmly on the people. The planning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year, the week and the day in different cities shows the multiplicity of times still employed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance. The setting of market days and the regulation of holidays were particularly reflective of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition between urban secular power and the church. The problem of medical emergencies is revealing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, in 1444, the government of Venice forbade the apothecaries on the mercerie to open their shop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on feast days, 'with the exception of a single shop that must not show what they have on display except for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.9557 685.8535 432.9557 697.7335 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7136 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medications' \(p. 112\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apart from the moment or time at which shopping occurred, location was also highly relevant. The fifth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter offers a detailed study of different kinds of shops, focusing on fixtures, display of merchandise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection from burglars, always with abundant illustrations. Welch contrasts street markets and shops in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways: sounds and silence, exterior and interior, ephemeral and permanent. But even more than these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences, it was the dialectical relationship between the market stalls and the shops that was relevant. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, the vast typology of places discussed, ranging from the shop to the workshop to the warehouse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates clearly that the material place was essential to define the nature of the activity. Welch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that the antagonistic link between a late medieval open-air market and an early modern shop is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less important than previously thought. In her view, the generally accepted pattern of a transition from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former to the latter has to be rethought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third part of the study brings the reader even closer to the excitement of shopping. The fair, situated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(halfway between a permanent and a temporary institution, would be one of the best places to sense this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excitement, but unfortunately, as the author points out, little is known about Italian fairs. They usually lasted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 15 and 30 days, and occurred with regularity in almost every region across Italy. The well-known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sensa in Venice, connected with the feast day of the Ascension, is a compelling example. The event took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place after one of the most important Venetian ceremonies, the marriage of the Doge with the sea, an ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ritual that symbolised the strong link between Venice, the sea and maritime trade. It opened a two-week )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of fairs on the Piazza San Marco, with the appearance of many stalls, selling both basic and luxury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products. The fair boosted the reputation of Venice, and visitors as illustrious as Isabella d'Este purchased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods there. In a letter written to Jacopo Malatesta in 1529, she told him to be 'persuaded that some beautiful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new vases will be in the shops of the glassmakers this Ascension tide', and requested 'up to ten or twelve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drinking vessels that are different in style, cups and glasses that have thin white filaments without gold' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(181\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside established shops and fairs, a less predictable and riskier practice was highly popular: bidding and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gambling. By the thirteenth century at least, Italian cities made frequent use of auctions, considering them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fair and equitable method of selling goods. Welch highlights the ephemeral and oral nature of these events. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The resulting lack of documentary evidence and information makes the study of this kind of practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult. Nonetheless, they remain fundamental to understanding the political and economic organisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance Italy, especially with regard to pawn and pledge auctions, regularly organised by public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities. Lotteries were obviously an inheritance of this tradition and by the sixteenth century, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon became particularly important in cities such as Genoa, Venice and Rome. Aretino's opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the practice is quite clear when he wrote, in 1537: 'This new game is really the invention of Lady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luck, who's a mare and of Mistress Hope, who's a cow [...]. I see swarms of people in this delirious state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffocating and trampling on each other as they jostle for their tickets.' \(pp. 205?6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, in the fourth part, the book focuses more closely on people present in the marketplace, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially on the buyers: the way they bought and paid, and the things they wanted to acquire. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiarities of Italy, and especially of Venice, was the fact that even patricians frequented the market. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony of foreigners shows their surprise at noblemen shopping side by side with servants. In the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century, Thomas Coryate remarked: 'I have observed a thing amongst the Venetians that I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a little wondered at, that their Gentlemen and greatest Senators, a man worth perhaps two million of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duckats, will come into the market, and buy their flesh, fish, fruites and other things as are necessary for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintenance of their family' \(pp. 22?3\). On the other hand, when the Venetian ambassador Alessandro )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magno went to London in the late sixteenth century, the number of women seen in London's markets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streets astonished him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricians vs. commoners, women vs. men: perhaps it would have been interesting to pursue this line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiry further. As Welch argues, bargaining in public could compromise one's reputation, and patricians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to behave in a specific way. Many intermediaries were consequently involved, particularly servants. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How did their presence in the marketplace or at the fair redefine their identities, their rights and their social )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6458 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functions? It seems clear that places and practices were a determining factor in defining identities, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the case of shopping. These analyses are particularly interesting, and one regrets they were not further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lastly, account books, family records and diaries are an important source for the study of the daily practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of consumption. A detailed survey of the Castellani family in Florence, from two detailed zibaldone \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of domestic accounts and familial diaries\), shows family habits in the fifteenth century. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar document, the well-known books of the Venetian family Priuli, brings us towards the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, revealing the place of hidden consumers who were mostly women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter of the book is devoted to women, and especially to the wives, mothers, daughters and sisters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the Italian Renaissance courts. The court woman Isabella d'Este is the leading figure of that final part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study. Welch insists on the peculiarity of the court life: a letter from the Marquis of Mantua's major-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domo, in 1488, talks about '500 mouths to feed on ordinary wages and with the expense of forage for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horses, of whom your lordship has more than 650' \(p. 246\). Many officials were involved in the control of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenses and the supervision of supplies. Thus, by the late sixteenth century, 'consumption had become an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional as well as an individual concern' \(p. 249\). In Isabella d'Este's case, her letters, which have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully preserved, give detailed information on her expenditure and her expenses, on the quality of items, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her interest, her use of intermediaries and her methods of shopping \(by mail for example\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like other courtiers, Isabella also acquired antiquities. The book concludes with an interesting sketch of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the antique in Renaissance culture and the market for antiquities, art and manuscripts. This is another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promising field of research occupying the crossroads between economic and cultural history that Welch has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously studied. But this practice, like many others discussed in the book, was obviously the privilege of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the elite. There are still many questions left to ask about the shopping activities of the poor. Did the poor go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the same places and at the same times as other members of society? Did they buy the same items? How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did their needs and choices differ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, Welch's book is a cogently argued and convincing study, which manages to conceal an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical approach beneath a pleasant and entertaining style. It will be a very helpful tool for scholars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students of Italian Renaissance society. From that point of view, it is disappointing that the index does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem reliable and complete. Some places and people studied have not been indexed and cities such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venice or Bologna are discussed much more frequently than it appears in the index. Yet, the full immersion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it offers into the smell and the taste, the sound and the cries, the gestures and the clothes, as well as the stalls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the shops, leaves the reader with the feeling of having taken a delightful trip into the depths of Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance cities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 241.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example John Brewer and Roy Porter eds., )] TJ ET BT 309.632 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Consumption and the World of Goods)] TJ ET BT 491.972 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. John )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brewer and Roy Porter \(1993\); Richard A. Goldthwaite, )] TJ ET BT 337.304 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wealth and the Demand for Art in Italy, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1300?1600)] TJ ET BT 118.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Baltimore, Md., 1993\); Lisa Jardine, )] TJ ET BT 306.332 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Worldly Goods: A New History of the Renaissance)] TJ ET BT 549.980 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1998\); Craig Clunas, 'Modernity, Global and Local: Consumption and the Rise of the West', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 200.000 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol. 104 \(1999\), pp. 1497?1511. See also the website of the collaborative )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research project 'The Material Renaissance', )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.264 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.264 168.339 m 332.252 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 143.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 124.495 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 106.715 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 106.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/524)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 105.321 m 322.316 105.321 l S endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 278.2637 168.6535 332.2517 180.5335 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 105.6355 322.3157 117.5155 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/524) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2927)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005073 00000 n 0000005182 00000 n 0000005292 00000 n 0000005401 00000 n 0000008962 00000 n 0000009090 00000 n 0000009174 00000 n 0000009258 00000 n 0000016487 00000 n 0000016615 00000 n 0000016651 00000 n 0000016716 00000 n 0000023905 00000 n 0000023996 00000 n 0000030507 00000 n 0000030635 00000 n 0000030671 00000 n 0000030799 00000 n 0000030894 00000 n 0000030959 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31317 %%EOF