%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416012759+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416012759+01'00') /Title (Driving the Soviets up the Wall. Soviet-East German Relations, 1953?1961) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4032 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Driving the Soviets up the Wall. Soviet-East German Relations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1953?1961)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book was first published in 2003. Two years later, it was reissued in paperback without any changes as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far as the reviewer is aware. This decision of the publisher can be taken as a reflection of the book's well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserved success. In this specific case, the quality of research and writing has overcome many hurdles still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced by historians of the Cold War, such as particular inaccessibility of, or gaps in, archival evidence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison has written a tremendous book based on meticulous research of primary sources in Moscow and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berlin which has allowed her to present readers with some exciting and original findings. Harrison's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Soviet-East German relations following Stalin's death and leading up to the building of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berlin Wall in August 1961 profits from a clear structure, the display of an abundance of original source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material and its lucid interpretation. Harrison writes in exciting and fluent prose which succeeds in grabbing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader's attention from start to finish.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's main points of argument focus on the influence of the East German leadership, particularly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head of the East German Communist Party Walter Ulbricht, on Soviet policy from 1953 onwards. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Specifically, Ulbricht's relationship with Stalin's successor Nikita Khrushchev is described in detail, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereby Harrison stresses the East German leader's tendency to take advantage of his country's weakness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure the Soviets into supporting his economic and political interests. Harrison traces relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments through three major events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(525)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 May, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hope Harrison)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0691124280)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeanette Madarsz)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7257 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, she describes Ulbricht's strong reluctance to follow the more liberal approach of the New Course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1953\) in spite of Soviet pressure to apply appropriate policies in the German Democratic Republic \(GDR\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison argues that the Soviets would have preferred to develop the GDR into a showcase of communism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to stabilise East Germany and make it more attractive to both its population and the West Germans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, however, would have required a more liberal political approach and greater economic achievements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Ulbricht was either willing or able to provide.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, Ulbricht's successful resistance to the consequences of Khrushchev's Secret Speech \(1956/57\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown. At a time when the Eastern bloc shook from Khrushchev's revelations at the Twentieth Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, which led to upheavals in Hungary and Poland, Ulbricht stoically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused to change his style of government in the GDR. He did so in spite of opposition from within the East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German leadership. Following a change of course in Moscow, however, he was able to further strengthen his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own position by ousting his opponents from the Politburo.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third, Khrushchev's political manoeuvring vis--vis the United States during the Berlin Crisis \(1958 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1961\) is compared with Ulbricht's aggressive behaviour regarding the rights of the Allied Forces stationed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Berlin. Here, the differences between East German and Soviet interests are pinpointed and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of this situation in relation to the Berlin question shown. While the Soviets as a world power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were forced to take a wider perspective, East German considerations focused primarily on more limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aims, specifically international recognition of the GDR and closing the open border in West Berlin thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stemming the mass exodus and stabilising the East German economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, developments and tensions within the East German and Soviet leaderships are highlighted, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as their relevance to contemporary policy-making. In addition, Harrison pays close attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities of both the East German and Soviet leaders, maintaining that Khrushchev's spontaneity, hot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temper and insecurity complex clashed not only with Ulbricht's cold professionalism but also had a dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect on the Cold War scenario of the 1950s. In summary, Harrison argues the crucial contribution ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formerly overlooked ? factors such as the influence of minor powers on Soviet policy, economic issues and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality made to High Politics during the Cold War \(p. 231\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the impact of the People's Republic of China \(PRC\) and its increasingly tense relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union are mentioned at various points, adding another dimension to Soviet-East German relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Ulbricht's political strategy. Very early in the book, Harrison disclaims any intention to overstate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the East German leadership on Soviet Deutschlandpolitik in the 1950s \(p. 10\). Accordingly, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly refers to the crisis in the relationship between the Soviets and the PRC in order to highlight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting chances for Ulbricht in the big game of Cold War politics ? and rightly so. Tensions within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist bloc are often overlooked when describing the Soviet Union's sphere of influence, although they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly shaped Soviet actions throughout the Cold War, as shown convincingly by Harrison with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1950s. However, it may have been equally important to consider, for example, the British interest when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing Western policy. This may be overstretching the scope of this book, and Harrison points out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly that the West was by no means united in its stance towards East Germany and the Soviet Union, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it is to be regretted that the interests and activities of the West seem in this book to boil down primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the activities of the USA.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, the question of the building of the Berlin Wall is discussed almost entirely with regard to US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors and sources. Did this act of aggression, primarily directed towards the East German population but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also dramatically affecting the population of West Berlin and, to some extent, the Allied Forces stationed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city, really take the West by surprise as Harrison describes it \(p. 207\)? According to Merrilyn Thomas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is some circumstantial evidence in British and East German archives suggesting that the British at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knew of East German plans to build the Berlin Wall before 13 August 1961, and had indicated to the East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German leadership their tacit acceptance of such unilateral action well in advance. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.232 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.232 81.555 m 442.232 81.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.232 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Nevertheless, Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrees with Harrison regarding the appraisal of Western sentiments after being confronted with the fait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompli: the closing of the border was greeted with relief by the West, which hoped for international )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.2317 81.8695 442.2317 93.7495 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7867 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability. Concerning the situation in West Berlin at the time, Willy Brandt, in his memoirs, recalled a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary feeling that the Americans must have had intelligence on preparations for the Wall, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this has always been denied. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.320 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.320 766.563 m 183.320 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 183.320 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) However, Harrison herself has rightly pointed out that, so far, no conclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence has surfaced to support these suspicions. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.300 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.300 752.307 m 287.300 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.300 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) These are important questions, which perhaps will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never be answered in their entirety, partly because of restricted access to Western archival sources such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of the British MI5 and MI6. In any case, Harrison's book certainly succeeds in establishing in detail the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern perspective on events surrounding the building of the Berlin Wall.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally important to Harrison's line of argument, at least in the opinion of the reviewer, is her depiction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet intentions in comparison with Ulbricht's main aims. Her description of the Soviets' early attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberate and reform East Germany against Ulbricht's wishes may serve as one example of this. Throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, the East German leader is shown to have been much more aggressive and authoritarian both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the East German population and the West than apparently intended by Soviet policies \(see for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example pp. 47ff and p. 213\). But does this depiction of Soviet-East German relations hold up to the reality?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To claim that Khrushchev was a true believer in communism while Ulbricht was just interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining and expanding his power \(p. 68ff\), and linking some crucial aspects of political decision-making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this differentiation, does not do justice to Harrison's otherwise well-balanced discussion of Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. Ulbricht, the reviewer would maintain, was not less committed to communism than Khrushchev but, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Harrison herself points out repeatedly, found himself and his country in an entirely different situation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the Soviets. Accordingly, the behaviour of the two leaders differed hugely without, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermining their common goal of ideological triumph over the capitalist West. Although this may be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of fine interpretational nuance, it would be too narrow a perspective to follow altogether Harrison's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the difficult situation in the GDR \(and especially the East German leadership's harsh domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies during the 1950s\) which, in Harrison's analysis, is shown to have resulted almost entirely from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulbricht's greed for power \(p. 93\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, in the reviewer's opinion, the appraisal that 'the tail wagged the dog' \(p. 139\) seems, at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly, to overstate the facts. Ulbricht was outspoken and not reluctant to put pressure on the Soviets in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest of East German needs. However, he never openly opposed Soviet policy; this would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suicidal. In the end, even according to Harrison's presentation of evidence, the Soviets always had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate veto power over East German policy and it was always Khrushchev's assessment that prevailed over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulbricht's wishes ? and so it turned out, for example, in the question of the building of the Berlin Wall. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Ulbricht had pushed the Soviets towards this decision for some years before Khrushchev gave his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permission, he did not dare go ahead without Soviet support \(p. 186\). He was well aware that the GDR )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely depended on the Soviet Union for its economic and political survival. Nevertheless, Harrison's point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that East German interests had some bearing on Soviet policy is well made and puts a new perspective on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cold War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, Harrison repeatedly declares that Soviet economic support of East Germany continued and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even increased during the late 1950s and up to the building of the Berlin Wall. However, it could also be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed that by the late 1950s the Soviets grew increasingly reluctant or, more to the point, unable to pump )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more resources into this barrel without an apparent bottom, which the GDR was throughout its existence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andr Steiner has argued that, during the late 1950s, resources supplied by the Soviet Union and other states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Eastern bloc had become insufficient both in quality and quantity to uphold the East German economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 38.012 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 38.012 162.579 m 44.012 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 44.012 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) ? thus Ulbricht's constant pressure on Khrushchev to deliver more much needed materials, and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asking for a labour force \(p. 203\), becomes more understandable. To put it crudely, perhaps Ulbricht was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer to East German realities, and therefore perceived more clearly that it would be impossible to turn the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist part of Germany and its planned economy into a viable and attractive alternative to democratic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumerist West Germany. Nevertheless, to take consideration of the impact of personalities and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs on high politics is commendable and unfortunately still too often missing from current research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In spite of these very limited criticisms, which in any case are mostly owned to nuance rather than major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in interpretation, there is no question that Driving the Soviets up the Wall is an excellent book. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.3197 766.8775 183.3197 778.7575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.2997 752.6215 287.2997 764.5015 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 38.0117 162.8935 44.0117 174.7735 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 5363 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By showing the role of minor powers within the Cold War, giving attention to the impact of personality on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies, drawing attention to previously underestimated issues such as economics and personal relations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison has accomplished something crucial to historical research. She has used original, formerly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaccessible sources from Moscow and East German archives and presented her findings in the context of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing and excitingly written analysis. The advantages of advancing chronologically, moving between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various actors, events and places of activity are clear: her analysis is complex but easy to follow. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, Harrison's extensive endnotes are extremely helpful to fellow researchers. This is how historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research should ideally be presented. Every serious student of the Cold War should be reading this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merrilyn Thomas, )] TJ ET BT 154.340 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communing with the Enemy: Covert Operations, Christianity and Cold War )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics in Britain and the GDR)] TJ ET BT 216.356 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bern, 2005\), pp. 182?4. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.004 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.004 615.507 m 393.992 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 393.992 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Willy Brandt, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(People and Politics: the Years 1960 to 1975)] TJ ET BT 345.344 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1978\), pp. 17?20. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.664 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.664 601.251 m 493.652 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 493.652 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hope Harrison, 'The Berlin Wall, Ostpolitik, and dtente', in )] TJ ET BT 356.636 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin of the German Historical Institute)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, supplement 1 \(34\), 'American dtente and German Ostpolitik, 1969 to 1972' \(2004\), 7. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.952 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.952 572.739 m 541.940 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 541.940 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andr Steiner, )] TJ ET BT 137.000 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Wirtschafstreform der sechziger Jahre. Konflikt zwischen Effizienz- und )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Machtkalkl)] TJ ET BT 124.004 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berlin, 1999\), p. 41. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.996 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.996 544.227 m 284.984 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.984 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank Dr Madarsz for her review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/59475/robert-legvold/driving-the-soviets-up-the-wall-soviet-east-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 463.203 m 536.600 463.203 l S BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(german-relations-195)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 448.947 m 137.324 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 140.324 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political Review Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/INTA/R_0020_5850_1042_1004431.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 420.435 m 476.984 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.984 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 417.103 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 399.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 399.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/525)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 397.929 m 322.316 397.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 372.952 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2929)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/59475/robert-legvold/driving-the-soviets-up-the-wall-soviet-east-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(german-relations-195)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.496 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/INTA/R_0020_5850_1042_1004431.asp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.0037 615.8215 393.9917 627.7015 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.6637 601.5655 493.6517 613.4455 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.9517 573.0535 541.9397 584.9335 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.9957 544.5415 284.9837 556.4215 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 463.5175 536.5997 475.3975 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/59475/robert-legvold/driving-the-soviets-up-the-wall-soviet-east-german-relations-195) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 449.2615 137.3237 461.1415 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/59475/robert-legvold/driving-the-soviets-up-the-wall-soviet-east-german-relations-195) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 420.7495 476.9837 432.6295 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/INTA/R_0020_5850_1042_1004431.asp) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 398.2435 322.3157 410.1235 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/525) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000004741 00000 n 0000004850 00000 n 0000004960 00000 n 0000005069 00000 n 0000008630 00000 n 0000008758 00000 n 0000008842 00000 n 0000008926 00000 n 0000016236 00000 n 0000016362 00000 n 0000016398 00000 n 0000016496 00000 n 0000024416 00000 n 0000024544 00000 n 0000024580 00000 n 0000024708 00000 n 0000024744 00000 n 0000024870 00000 n 0000024906 00000 n 0000025039 00000 n 0000030455 00000 n 0000030583 00000 n 0000030619 00000 n 0000030747 00000 n 0000030783 00000 n 0000030911 00000 n 0000030947 00000 n 0000031075 00000 n 0000031111 00000 n 0000031238 00000 n 0000031414 00000 n 0000031541 00000 n 0000031717 00000 n 0000031844 00000 n 0000031978 00000 n 0000032106 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32201 %%EOF