%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021103355+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021103355+01'00') /Title (The Modern History of Sexuality) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4858 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Modern History of Sexuality)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the history of sexuality has come of age is clear. The most recent )] TJ ET BT 373.616 301.835 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the History of Sexuality)] TJ ET BT 539.276 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a self-reflexive special issue on 'Theory, Methods, Praxis'. The extent to which history of sexuality has come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in from the margins and is no longer lurking in the back streets has recently been manifested by the award of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET BT 120.680 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(/Longmans Book of the Year prize to Matt Houlbrook's )] TJ ET BT 390.476 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queer London)] TJ ET BT 460.136 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 466.136 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Sexuality)] TJ ET BT 129.344 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides us with an overview of the current state of the art. The editors and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors are among some of the most sparkling figures in the younger generation of scholars toiling in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this area.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1978 R. P. Neumann, in a prescient review essay just predating the appearance of a number of influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works emerging from gay and women's history and the impact of Foucault, deplored the anecdotal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistically theorised works then appearing. 'If the history of sexuality is to avoid being completely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trivialized', he argued, 'sexual attitudes and behavior must be examined within the larger framework of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic history' and exhorted sex historians to 'examine their mindless materialist and progressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions about human sexuality'. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.172 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.172 117.369 m 223.172 117.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.172 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The sophistication and complexity of the discussions in )] TJ ET BT 499.496 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern History of Sexuality)] TJ ET BT 170.336 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demonstrate just how far the field has come in nearly 30 years. These densely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(packed chapters discuss various fields in which history of sexuality is embroiled, the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories and arguments, and the questions that are being raised. Thus it is not 'a history of sexuality' as such, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but a meta-level contribution providing a guide to how historians have thought, and are now thinking, about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(526)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matt Houlbrook)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harry Cocks)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1403912904)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lesley Hall)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.1717 117.6835 223.1717 129.5635 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7821 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality in history, focusing largely on the modern period. It provides a useful introduction to the area, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat uneven due to the different approaches taken in the various chapters: but this validly represents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the protean nature of the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors provide a valuable overview in their introduction, pointing out that the history of sexuality is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just about detailing the organisation and experience of sexual behaviour in the past but can be deployed as 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prism through which to explore wider social and cultural issues', as a 'protean discipline that allows us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enter a world of meaning, to understand the most fundamental assumptions about everyday life that shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social, cultural and political life of modern Western societies'. This is a sound guide to the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the discipline and the ways in which it works, although some points might bear nuancing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hera Cook's chapter provides a valuable introduction to the theme of demography, which deals with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most common form of sexual interaction in all societies up to the present: reproductive intercourse between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals of differing sexes. As she points out, 'Heterosexuality was, and is, the dominant sexual culture' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and needs to be historicised just as homosexuality has been. This is one of the few points at which something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a gap in the volume is foregrounded: as she states, there is, 'an implicit assumption ... that we already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know what heterosexuality is, what it consists of, and what the practice involves' \(pp. 22?23\). I should like to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have seen more attention given overall in this volume to the fact that in spite of the richness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of sexuality, there are rather large blank spaces on the map where 'heterosexuality' and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular 'the ?normal? male' reside. Cook makes the important point that reproduction is not 'a perennial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchanging experience', and that changing birth rates over time and space, in combination with other forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of evidence, can be a way into understanding sexual cultures. In particular she argues that statistics provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an important check on anecdotal evidence relating to specific, not necessarily typical, individuals. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to what extent were 'sharply-rising rates of syphilis recorded from the mid-nineteenth century' \(p. 32\) an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artefact of improved clinical understandings \(and awareness\) of the disease and thus better diagnosis, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular of the late \(tertiary\) manifestations, rather than an increase in actual cases?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Waters looks at 'Sexology' ? the attempt to bring science and rationality to bear upon the vexed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of sexual behaviour and attitudes. This endeavour was already in progress well before it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(named: as he points out, the )] TJ ET BT 171.008 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford English Dictionary)] TJ ET BT 299.672 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( traces the modern usage to William Walling's book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of that title, published in 1902, a date when 'sexology was already on its way to becoming an established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science' \(p. 42\). I might perhaps contend with Waters's suggestion that early sexology was most interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the psychology of the perversions'. As I have argued, sexology emerged against a backdrop of feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest against existing male-dominated sexual institutions of society, both prostitution and marriage, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the early sexologists were embedded in milieux in which debates on these issues, critiquing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established assumptions about sexuality and gender, were flourishing. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.640 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.640 302.883 m 382.640 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.640 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) It was not coincidence, or a mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gesture to interwar modernity, that the platform of the World League for Sexual Reform during the 1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included sex education, birth control and abortion, rational divorce legislation and sexual equality, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform of the laws on homosexuality: these were longstanding concerns of sexologists. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.288 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.288 260.115 m 464.288 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 464.288 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter is otherwise an extremely usefully overview of the rise and development of sexology and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which historians have looked at it. Waters makes the often overlooked point that the roots of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of sexuality itself lie in sexology and sexual reform. This sometimes took the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('manufactur[ing] a usable past' \(p. 51\), as in the invocation of Ancient Greece for models of non-pathological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuality, but also included Iwan Bloch's belief that 'historical knowledge offered an important key to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding contemporary problems of sexuality', and his argument that sexual practices and attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were shaped by unique national cultural factors. Waters also demonstrates that the sexologists' writing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves into the history of the discipline constructed a narrative of progress into emancipation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightenment that endured until the 1970s. Post-Foucault, Walters claims, 'there was a tendency to veer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other extreme, to view sexologists as insidious agents of social control', similarly overlooking sexology's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('origins as a complex product of social interaction' \(pp. 54?55\). More recent studies have looked at this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex process of the production of sexual knowledge, and the ways in which it was disseminated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed and used by a variety of constituencies.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.6397 303.1975 382.6397 315.0775 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.2877 260.4295 464.2877 272.3095 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7412 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matt Cook examines the role of law and legal systems both in 'delineating deviancy' and in creating an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival record which can provide insight into 'voices, subcultures and behaviours which would otherwise be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost' \(p. 64\). He emphasises that law was far from a static monolithic system; instead it was constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing over time and reft with internal contradictions at any given moment, not to mention the significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national differences in judicial institutions and procedures. Legislation can reflect highly specific cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxieties and outbreaks of moral panic, while not necessarily embodying a general consensus. He mentions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opportunity that the courtroom provided for articulating 'overt dissent from domineering codes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values', such as Wilde's famous 'love that dare not speak its name' peroration \(p. 79\), but it is odd that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not consider the role of deliberate test cases such as those of Bradlaugh and Besant, Bourne \(which via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case-law opened up a space for doctors legally to perform abortions\), and Chesser in providing a way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testify to oppositional views on existing laws. But as a whole this chapter does a fine job of demonstrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complexity of the nature of legal regulation and the need for contextualisation when using the materials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it generated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Robb provides an overview of marriage and reproduction that possibly focuses a little too narrowly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Anglo-American debates and concerns. His account of feminist critiques of marriage and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intersections with anxiety over breeding the healthy race, the arguments advanced for free love, and moves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to revitalise marriage following two world wars is excellent as far as it goes. Nonetheless, it would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been useful to look at the somewhat different slants on marriage, women's role within it, and reproduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging in continental Europe, especially given his emphasis on eugenics and pronatalist agendas, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of women. A brief mention of the shift from the sexual radicalism of the early days of the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime in Russia to Stalinist pronatalism and a sentence alluding to the excesses of the Nazis' eugenic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme in Germany do not really provide a nuanced analysis of the different ways in which these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns played out in different national contexts, such as Scandinavia, France, with its constant panic over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depopulation, Italy, and Spain, where a deeply conservative traditional Catholic morality was contested by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anarchists advocating both free love and eugenics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The important questions of race and empire are tackled by Ross Forman. He analyses the debated issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('empire as space of sexual liberation', complicating assertions such as those made by Hyam in )] TJ ET BT 486.932 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexuality)] TJ ET BT 78.008 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1990\). The question of sources is discussed, and the bias that can be introduced by the sites at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which and the reasons for which records were produced, but Forman fruitfully suggests the variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources that can be investigated as well as the various methodological strategies that can be deployed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify 'important details about sexual and racial histories' in apparently neutral and unpromising official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation. An important point is made about the process of circulation between empire and metropole, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the constant renegotiation of boundaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is an excellent account of the contingent and contextual significance of 'miscegenation' in diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical and geographical contexts. The overview of the relationship between scientific racism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of sexuality is very useful, though possibly the picture was perhaps not entirely one of evolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from primitive to civilised. Was there not, particularly with the late nineteenth century rise of degeneration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory and eugenic anxieties, a positioning of certain 'races' as effete and decadent \(and given to elaborate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sophisticate 'perversions'\) rather than savage and primitive? This would place 'Western civilisation' at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precarious midway balance point needing constant readjustment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The city and urban spaces have become, Matt Houlbrook suggests, 'an increasingly hot academic issue'. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a sophisticated thematic essay, as one would expect from the author of )] TJ ET BT 386.624 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queer London)] TJ ET BT 456.284 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Houlbrook asks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why a generation of historians have been 'so obsessed with the city'; how urban culture has shaped and been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped by experiences and understanding of sexual behaviour; and what is problematic in the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have addressed these themes. Partly this is an artefact of the richness of the urban archival record, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but that itself arose from anxieties engendering practices of surveillance over the populations of cities. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a well-analysed and thought provoking chapter, but again, exposes a gap in the existing historiography: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what were the patterns of heterosexual interaction \(other than prostitution\) in the city, what opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were enabled for new kinds of courtship and relationships? There is an intriguing meditation about )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6971 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cyberspace and whether this fills the role cities formerly did as sites of identity creation, pleasure, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger: however, it would be interesting to examine earlier 'virtual' methods by which individuals combated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolation and anomie \(those frequent by-products of urban life\) through personal advertisements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence clubs and the creation of circles via shared common interests without, necessarily, prior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical encounters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harry Cocks posits the continuing relevance of considering religion and spirituality as important elements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual attitudes and behaviour. While I have argued that it is possible that Foucault's concept of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centrality of the confessional is too universalising a model, eroding significant differences of national culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sectarian affiliation, \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.316 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.316 669.027 m 163.316 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 163.316 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) it is undoubtedly the case that spiritual beliefs continued to play a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role for much longer than simplistic stories of modernity and secularisation might suggest. Cocks' discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of issues of 'spiritual friendship' and the possibilities of queer readings of these in their own terms is a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful way out of sterile 'were they/weren't they' debates, though, following Maynard, \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.416 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.416 626.259 m 459.416 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.416 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) possibly another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element might be invoked: the privileging of the state of desire over that of consummation. Cocks's claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that religion 'had fallen into decay' as a 'location for sexual expression' by the 1920s is contestable: figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Maude Royden and A. Herbert Gray were adumbrating a new theology of marriage, and sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships within it, strongly inflected by feminism and the works of sexologists such as Havelock Ellis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Marriage Guidance Council evolved during the late 1930s out of the efforts of organisations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals with strong religious affiliations. The role of fears \(realistic or not\) of negative reactions by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised religion or particular sectarian groups towards questions such as birth control provision and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform of divorce laws might also have featured in this chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Leonard's chapter on 'Pornography and obscenity' deals with issues of boundaries, borders, definition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and genre categorisation, which constitute one of the linking themes of the volume. This is an extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable overview of the ways in which historians can use the 'undergrowth of literature' to illuminate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of issues, in particular the light it sheds on ideas of 'the body politic'. I would, however, like to query )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the association, also mentioned by Matt Cook, that mid-nineteenth-century concerns around obscenity laws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the outcome of anxieties specifically directed to a metropolitan book trade and 'rooted in the industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban landscapes'. London may have been a major source of supply, but officials of the Society for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suppression of Vice reported a flourishing traffic in obscene materials at provincial and rural markets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairs throughout the UK. The role of efficient and inexpensive to the end-user postal services was surely also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a major issue in the wider dissemination of 'obscene' materials' \(as were developments in printing technology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and greater ease of transportation\), and the fears around this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the chapter on prostitution Elizabeth Clement also foregrounds the issue of boundaries, borders, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions and categorisation, and how significant these have been ? and continue to be ? around what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitution is and what is a prostitute. Even under law definitions have often been extremely ambiguous. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When statistical claims were made these were often counters in contests between moral reformers \(setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the figures high\) and policing authorities \(fixing the figures low as a testimony to their maintenance of good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public order\). She points out that the customer in mercenary or barter sexual transactions has often been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsumed to a transhistorical model of heterosexual male desire, with an unexamined assumption that 'men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have innate sexual desires that they will go to great lengths to satisfy'. Given that, as she so cogently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarks, 'the question is never why some women went into prostitution, but why so many \(with very similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivating factors\) did not', perhaps the question of imperative male sexual desire and men's determination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to gratify it also needs unpacking, nuancing and problematising. Clement also addresses the broader question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'sex-work', the purveying of sexualised forms of entertainment not involving actual intercourse, though it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is possible that one might be able to trace areas of 'parasexuality' further back than the 1920s.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.3157 669.3415 163.3157 681.2215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 453.4157 626.5735 459.4157 638.4535 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7569 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She is insightful on the difficulties of striking a balance between narratives granting sex-workers full agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those which treat them as helpless victims of oppression. While her point about the long historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities in the sex-trade is well made, is it not possible to discern certain changes to do with 'modernity', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the almost factory-like time-management practices of some nineteenth century brothels, increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market diversification and elaboration, and the importance of improved transportation in the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railways and steamships?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children and young people have been, and still are, at the centre of debates and moral panics to do with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual issues, and 'concepts of childhood and youth have been crucial to the construction of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexualities'. As Louise Jackson argues in her chapter on 'Childhood and youth', 'Histories of youth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality have overwhelmingly examined processes of categorization and regulation by adults'. The very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions of the definitions of 'child' and 'young person' are fluid and heavily contextual. Accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childhood sexual experiences are usually reconstructed through an adult perspective, thus it is difficult to get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a less mediated understanding of sex in childhood. Jackson examines the construction of the highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered and class-inflected notions of 'childhood innocence' and the various cultural myths resting on them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, although 'white slavery' narratives and later representations of the paedophile depend on locating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuse outside the home, the fact that an Incest Act was passed in the UK in 1908 does suggest that at one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level abuse within the family was recognised even if it did not form part of pervasive cultural myths. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been useful to include in this chapter some discussion of the contested history of sex education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocated on the grounds that 'ignorance is not innocence' and children should be provided with adequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge to understand and withstand sexual dangers, opposing claims that disseminating such knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to children itself constitutes a violation of innocence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The whole volume is, as already mentioned, acutely aware of issues around definitions and categories and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problems these raise. Alison Oram's concluding chapter discusses the questions raised by cross-dressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and transgender. This reveals the complexities that arise when discussing this topic in historical perspective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cross-dressing took a variety of forms and could be undertaken for a range of personal and social reasons. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cases of cross-dressing individuals have been analysed from various angles, both by contemporaries and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. They provide a rich resource for examining specific historical concepts about gender, sexuality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and transgression. Oram distinguishes between the choice to live as the opposite gender and the more self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious masquerade of drag, and emphasises the 'very diverse sets of meanings' that can be ascribed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-dressing at any given historical moment, and indeed to the significance of transgender following mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century developments in gender reassignment through hormones and surgery. One area not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored in this otherwise excellent chapter is that of cross-dressing as erotic fetish and the phenomenon of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'straight' male transvestite: but this would perhaps take us into rather different areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a few minor but irritating errors throughout the volume. Havelock Ellis was )] TJ ET BT 448.940 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 464.276 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Australian \(p. 4\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in the Psychology of Sex)] TJ ET BT 209.324 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published in the USA. It was not the protagonist of Radclyffe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hall's famous lesbian novel )] TJ ET BT 169.496 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Well of Loneliness)] TJ ET BT 279.164 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1928\) who 'escape[d] to the Canadian forests' \(p. 113\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but her partner, whom the heroine gives up so that she can marry and lead a 'normal' life. Even today, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would surely not describe London as 'nearby' Southampton or Plymouth \(p. 219\); in the nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the journey would have been considerably longer. And not an error, but a possibly unsustainable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption: would Frank Podmore necessarily have been aware that telegraph boys from the Post Office in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St Martin's Lane where he worked were having sex with men for money at the Cleveland Street brothel \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(174\)? How much contact would he have had with them, and even if he did, how widely was this known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about before the scandal broke \(during an investigation into suspected petty theft\)?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are also some strange contradictions between different chapters. Can Mabel Loomis Todd's diary still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be deployed as 'abundant evidence ... of the sex lives of some women' during the Victorian era \(p. 161\)? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Copious documentation by one woman, or even a handful of women, of individual enjoyment of sexual life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not constitute abundant evidence that this was necessarily widespread: as Hera Cook points out in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, working on a level of population rather than anecdote strongly tends to suggest the opposite. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location of 'sexologists' efforts' as characteristic of the interwar era and a product of the Great War is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 5830 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely strange \(p. 184\), as the sexological enterprise had been going, as we know from Waters's chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for nearly 50 years by then.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I might possibly take issue with the notion that some of the phenomena described were the products of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('modernity': categorisation, for example, is surely a longstanding trait of humanity. While the categories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves may have changed, the desire to categorise and classify is hardly a post-Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon. However, overall the volume makes a strong case for problematising boundaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorisation and draws attention to the continuous process of redrawing these, blurring them and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly negotiating them. It also emphasises that sexuality is not a transhistorically enduring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon: not just definitions but acts and identities are profoundly mediated by the contexts in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they occur.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As an overview this volume works well, although it would have been nice to have had some attention given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the blanker spaces on the map and how these might be more adequately filled in. There is a helpful select )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography organised chapter by chapter, and the notes to each provide additional guidance for further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explorations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 521.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. P. Neuman, 'Review Essay: Recent Work in the History of Sexuality', )] TJ ET BT 415.640 521.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Social History)] TJ ET BT 537.308 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.3 \(1978\), pp. 419?425. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.336 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.336 505.971 m 245.324 505.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 493.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lesley A. Hall, 'Hauling down the double standard: feminism, social purity, and sexual science in late )] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century Britain', )] TJ ET BT 198.488 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and History)] TJ ET BT 294.476 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 16.1 \(2004\), pp. 36?56. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.796 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.796 477.459 m 469.784 477.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ralf Dose, 'The World League for Sexual Reform: some possible approaches', in ed. Franz Eder, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lesley Hall and Gert Hekma, )] TJ ET BT 207.980 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexual Cultures in Europe: National Histories)] TJ ET BT 430.988 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 1999\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(242?259. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 111.344 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 111.344 434.691 m 165.332 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roy Porter and Lesley Hall, )] TJ ET BT 201.332 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Facts of Life: the Creation of Sexual Knowledge in Britain, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1680?1950)] TJ ET BT 118.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, Conn., 1995\), p. 180. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.988 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.988 406.179 m 343.976 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Maynard, )] TJ ET BT 139.004 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Discourses on Sexuality and Religion)] TJ ET BT 367.328 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1993\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.648 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.648 391.923 m 521.636 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors thank Lesley Hall for a generous review and applaud her command of detail. As she rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, this collection of essays is intended to prompt historians to question and debate the theoretical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological and historiographical frameworks within which they approach sex and sexuality. 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