%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141219052315+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141219052315+00'00') /Title (The Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5074 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his seminal Ford Lecture in 1953, K. B. McFarlane argued that the 'real politics' of the later medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period were inherent in the 'daily personal relations' between king and magnates. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.588 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.588 300.441 m 434.588 300.441 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.588 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) He went on to discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in more detail what he saw as the nature of those daily personal relations and to define them in terms of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('community of interests' between king and magnates by which later medieval England \(defined as from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around 1290\) could be governed effectively if the personality of the king permitted, calling for more studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the period, and particularly of the nobility. McFarlane's observations have since indeed prompted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst other crucial research, a number of detailed, skilful and informative studies of individual magnates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which have now begun to reach back into the thirteenth and even the twelfth century, and which include J. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Maddicott's )] TJ ET BT 107.180 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas of Lancaster)] TJ ET BT 208.520 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1970\) and )] TJ ET BT 307.496 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Simon de Montfort)] TJ ET BT 397.496 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1994\), J. R. S. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips's )] TJ ET BT 80.528 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aymer de Valence)] TJ ET BT 167.828 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1972\), and David Crouch's )] TJ ET BT 347.288 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William Marshal)] TJ ET BT 428.960 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harlow, 2002\). It is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this tradition that Marc Morris's )] TJ ET BT 189.836 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 445.184 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aim of his book, Morris tells us, is to provide 'full-scale' studies of Roger Bigod III \(c.1209?70\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Bigod IV \(1245?1306\), which examine not only the roles they played respectively in the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crises of 1258?67 and of 1297?1301, but also their 'private affairs', including the management of their estates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the affinities they constructed, as well as their relationships with friends and relatives. It is a large and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive brief, and Morris makes excellent use of a wealth of source material, from chronicles to charters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to official government records, to produce an in-depth narrative within a chronological structure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First to be explored is how the earldom of Norfolk came into being ? how the fortunes of the Bigod family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(527)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Morris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1843831643)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Burt)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.5877 300.7555 434.5877 312.6355 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7497 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were made. By 1107, Morris shows, the Bigods had become 'barons of the first rank' \(p. 1\) and by 1166 were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fifth richest family in England. Although Roger II had to rebuild the earldom after Hugh Bigod's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion against Henry II in 1174, by the time Roger III inherited it as a minor in 1225, the Bigods were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again extremely well placed to play a major role in central politics and in local society in East Anglia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thereafter, an interesting picture emerges of Roger III from Morris's narrative, thanks in particular both to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author's painstaking reconstruction of events from 1228 \(the year of the attainment of Roger III's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority\) onwards, and to the very 'memorable images' \(p. 184\) of the earl presented to us by poets and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chroniclers of a warlike and quick-tempered man, a 'vir bellicosus', who jealously guarded his private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs from 'royal and foreign interference' \(pp. 184?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways most interestingly, we see a man who was not regularly a key player in the arena of central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics: despite his early involvement in the Marshal rebellion of 1233 against Henry III's favourite Peter de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roches, and brief periods when he seemed to be closer to the king, such as 1235?6 and the mid to late 1240s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall the earl played only a minor role in the years before 1258; he was, Morris declares, 'something of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political outsider, even a backwoodsman' \(p. 59\). Indeed, there were long periods during which he was rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen at court, if at all, 1236?41 being one such interlude. All this coincided, naturally enough, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative side with periods when Henry was surrounded either by the Savoyards or by the Lusignans, and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the positive side when he was trying to curry favour with his magnates following the crisis of 1244 or when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he needed support for his foreign policies. In other words, Bigod's absence from or presence at court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected the times when Henry III's rule was respectively least and most friendly to his magnates. Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has therefore provided an excellent illustration of the way in which the volatility of Henry's rule affected one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his greatest English subjects, and in the process has shone a still brighter light on the politics of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubled reign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No years were more troubled during Henry's majority rule than the period between 1258 and 1267, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris shows how Bigod took a very active role in the reform movement, a result of provocation by the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his Lusignan relatives throughout the 1250s. In that decade, Morris notes, 'Roger watched as injustices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which touched him directly, if not personally, began to pile up' \(p. 51\): for example, his sister's complaint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about a wardship of which she had been deprived, the denial of Humphrey de Bohun's rights as constable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Gascon campaign of 1254, Roger's inability to secure justice against Aymer de Valence, one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king's Lusignan relatives. Once the servants of John fitz Geoffrey, Bigod's brother-in-law, had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacked by Lusignan servants in April 1258, Roger's role in the crisis that followed became inevitable. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may also, Morris postulates, have faced pressure from below, in East Anglia, to act as a spokesman for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grievances of the men of the shires who had similarly suffered under Henry III, especially in recent years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What of Bigod's behaviour during the crisis itself? Here Morris is sympathetic to the earl's changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiance in the years 1258?67. When Bigod made an alliance with Prince Edward and the earl of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gloucester in autumn 1258, for example, Edward being clearly against the Provisions of Oxford and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gloucester standing opposed to having his private courts investigated by the recently appointed panels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four knights, Morris concludes that Bigod was still a 'highly credible' reformer; it was many of the magnates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he argues, 'who succeeded in persuading Gloucester to submit' \(p. 76\). Bigod himself, Morris declares, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very little to hide where his private courts were concerned, and so an optimistic reading of his actions seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausible. He did, of course, gain some advantages from his involvement in reform, favours from Henry III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his council, for instance, and, as marshal, the profits of the special eyre, but Morris argues that, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance, 'Roger was a committed reformer' \(p. 80\), who believed in 'arbitration rather than armed conflict' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(91\), and was, as a result, frequently caught between the king and his opponents after 1258. His actions are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed in this context to create a picture of an earl committed to reform, and also perhaps under pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from knightly members of his own affinity, who successfully steered a difficult course between loyalty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion, good lordship and self preservation, during an extremely tumultuous period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soon after the conclusion of the civil war came the end of Roger III's active time as earl, and his death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed in 1270. Leaving no direct heirs, he was succeeded by his younger brother's son, the fourth Roger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bigod in the line, and a man who was similarly to play a key role in political reform under Henry III's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrious successor, Edward I. Morris's portrait of Roger IV is necessarily less rounded than that of his )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7093 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncle, a result of the paucity of really good chronicle sources for the period. However, in politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions can, Morris argues, be reached. The new earl of Norfolk, he maintains, was certainly a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizen, especially during Edward's absence in the years to 1274 and in Wales and Scotland, for example. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was placed under pressure by the king's quo warranto campaign and by demands that he pay back his debts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Exchequer, the sum of which he disagreed with on more than one occasion. Yet, where Prestwich has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the issue of the earl's debts in particular prompted long-term discontent on Bigod's part, Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintains that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is difficult to see the earl simmering with discontent during the 1280s. The demands being )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made on his pocket by the king were not unreasonable ... and far from excessive \(p. 136\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further, even in the early 1290s, Edward's behaviour was 'far from threatening' \(p. 159\). 'It was', Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, 'arguably as embarrassing for Edward to have one of his magnates querying in public the legitimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of demands made by his Exchequer' \(p. 160\) as it was for the earl to have his debts to the crown discussed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same forum. Similarly, he argues, what might be construed as attacks on Bigod's rights as Marshal in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1290s should perhaps not be seen in this light, for Roger may in fact have been the recipient of 'lenient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and favourable treatment' by the king \(p. 160\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was not, then, in Morris's view, a long-term background to Bigod's involvement with the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to Edward I in the late 1290s. Rather, 'good relations', he says, 'were preserved right up to the eve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their confrontation in 1297' \(p. 160\). The question we should therefore ask, he says, is what went so badly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrong thereafter. From Morris's narrative of events between 1297 and 1301, the conclusion we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged to reach on this is simple: Bigod's opposition to the king was wholly associated with Edward's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands in this period, both for taxation and prises, and for unprecedented military service, which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have taken large numbers of magnates out of the realm when Wales and Scotland remained unsettled. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing this explanation of events, Morris's work is at odds with that of some other historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, who have been more inclined to see long-term and personal divisions between king and earls as lying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the heart of the crisis. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.320 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.320 392.931 m 162.320 392.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 162.320 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One thing that should be noted as particularly interesting in what Morris has to say is the fact that, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing for the faction-ridden nature of politics during Henry III's reign, neither Roger III nor Roger IV )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to have been expected to play a role in government beyond providing advice at the centre in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period; it seems to have been in war that their services were most in demand by the crown. This was, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, very different from the situation by the late fourteenth century. Thus, Morris's work indirectly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(augments our sense of changes that took place between the thirteenth century and the late fourteenth. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question still at issue, of course, is why such a change took place, and Morris's work is undoubtedly a useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tool in historians' search for the answer to that question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As we have already noted, however, Morris's own brief for this book extended beyond the confines of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles that Roger III and Roger IV played in politics and government in this period, even if discussion of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes its principal concern. We are also provided with personal information about the two earls. Having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced an estimate of Roger III's wealth via clever use of the available sources, Morris is able to conclude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was really from the time of the death of his mother in 1248 that Roger III moved from being 'comital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small-fry' to being 'a big fish' \(p. 42\). His 'affinity', as Morris terms his following, similarly underwent a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor transformation in the 1240s, though this does not seem to have been connected with Bigod's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance of his mother's dower lands. Throughout the years Roger held his earldom, his 'affinity' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprised both feudal tenants in East Anglia particularly, and men with no tenurial connection with the earl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but, from the 1240s, it also came to include men who had, Morris tells us, 'risen from further down the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectrum' \(p. 65\). Furthermore, 'considerably fewer' in this new generation of 'affinity' members were feudal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants of the earl \(p. 68\), though at the same time very few were royal officers. So, where previously men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active in local government in East Anglia had been prominent, now the 'affinity' was composed of people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were not regular royal officers, but who represented what Morris calls 'the bedrock of county society' )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 156.3197 393.2455 162.3197 405.1255 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7936 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 72\). As for the size of the 'affinity', it was, he argues, in line with those of earls with similar wealth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the time Roger IV came into his inheritance, he was, then, what one might call an earl in the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division. With his marriage and the death of his own mother, Roger IV was able to add significantly to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands and wealth and he consequently became one of the greatest English magnates. It is all the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising, therefore, that Bigod should have signed away his earldom to the crown in an extraordinary deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made with Edward I in 1302. This is something Morris rightly takes time to examine, arguing that it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of Roger's debts and his deeply religious nature that provides the best explanation of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivations for entering into the arrangement with Edward I. Morris declares that Bigod, acutely aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Church's attitude to debt, wanted to do his 'utmost' \(p. 182\) to discharge his own financial obligations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before his death. Thus, an earl who, like his uncle before him, had previously worked hard to preserve and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(augment his estate now surrendered it as he neared the end of his life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, at the same time as providing us with greater insight into the politics of the thirteenth century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of the nobility at the centre, Morris has also contributed to our knowledge both of the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noble followings at this time and of the landed wealth of the king's greatest subjects in the period. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations on the presence of tenurial and non-tenurial links in Bigod's affinity, for example, fit neatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with conclusions that J. R. Maddicott reached in his consideration of the following of Simon de Montfort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which David Carpenter reached in a recent article. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.588 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.588 528.723 m 308.588 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 308.588 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Both feudal/tenurial and 'bastard feudal'/non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenurial connections were therefore important in the relationships magnates had with the men of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(localities. At the same time as reinforcing these conclusions, however, Morris's work calls others into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question. Recently, a number of historians of the thirteenth century have argued that the increasing retention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of gentry local royal officers by magnates played an important role in local government in this period. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.600 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.600 471.699 m 536.600 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 536.600 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, like Maddicott's study of Simon de Montfort's following a decade ago, Morris's study of the Bigod )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following now suggests that such links were remarkably limited. How we should therefore see local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in this period is a matter of debate to which Morris has made a valuable contribution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is, then, without doubt important to our understanding of the thirteenth century on a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels. However, it does in my view have some limitations. First, it would have been very helpful if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study had included some sort of contextual introduction which highlighted the historiography of the period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially where the nobility is concerned. Although Morris acknowledges in his preface the debt of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work to Maddicott's )] TJ ET BT 133.172 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Simon de Montfort)] TJ ET BT 223.172 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Crouch's )] TJ ET BT 291.656 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William the Marshal)] TJ ET BT 390.992 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminate the longer-term historiographical debt it owes first to K. B. McFarlane, and further back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of Lewis Namier. This would have been useful in enabling the reader to make comparisons between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris's methodology and conclusions, and those of historians who have produced similar work. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical discussion throughout would also have been extremely informative. There are vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions which are left unaddressed during the course of the narrative: how, for instance, have Roger III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and IV been seen by historians, particularly in 1258?67 and 1297?1301? What role have historians hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assigned to the nobility in government, central and local? How has discussion of noble affinities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followings developed in recent years? This would have helped with the contextualisation of the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important information that Morris conveys here, enabling a clear sense of how his work contributes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the thirteenth-century nobility, politics and government. In the same manner, more explicit analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout would have sharpened Morris's arguments about the two earls; often the reader is left to put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together for him/herself what Morris is arguing. His discussion of Roger III's role in politics during Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(III's majority rule, and of Roger IV's motivations during the major crisis of Edward I's reign, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could usefully have been summarised fully at the end of each discussion, with perhaps some broadening out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to tell us what light this sheds on each king and his reign too. Both are important missed opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Morris really does have some very interesting points to make about these men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, however, )] TJ ET BT 123.320 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bigod Earls of Norfolk)] TJ ET BT 254.000 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the product of extremely thorough and painstaking research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and makes an illuminating and very important contribution to our understanding of thirteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and government, the great crises of 1258?67 and 1297?1301, and, more specifically, of the lives of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 302.5877 529.0375 308.5877 540.9175 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.5997 472.0135 536.5997 483.8935 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 3533 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two of the king's greatest subjects in a troubled century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. B. McFarlane, )] TJ ET BT 150.668 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nobility of Later Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 343.004 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1973\), p. 120. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.652 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.652 729.555 m 514.640 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, M. C. Prestwich, )] TJ ET BT 214.340 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edward I)] TJ ET BT 259.340 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1997\), pp. 413?4. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 353.660 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 353.660 715.299 m 407.648 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. R. Maddicott, )] TJ ET BT 144.020 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Simon de Montfort)] TJ ET BT 234.020 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1994\), pp. 59?76; D. A. Carpenter, 'The second )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century of English feudalism', )] TJ ET BT 211.160 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past & Present)] TJ ET BT 284.492 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 138 \(2000\), 30?71. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.812 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.812 686.787 m 438.800 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, P. R. Coss, 'Bastard feudalism revised', )] TJ ET BT 321.320 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past & Present)] TJ ET BT 394.652 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 125 \(1989\), 27?64; P. R. Coss, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. A. Carpenter and D. Crouch, 'Debate: bastard feudalism Revised', )] TJ ET BT 397.268 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past & Present)] TJ ET BT 470.600 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 131 \(1991\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(165?203; H. W Ridgeway, 'Mid-thirteenth century reformers and the localities: the sheriffs of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baronial regime, 1258?61', in )] TJ ET BT 207.488 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regionalism and Revision: The Crown and its Provinces in England, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1200?1650)] TJ ET BT 118.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in ed. A. Gross, P. Fleming and J. R. Lander \(1998\), 59?86. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.324 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.324 615.507 m 464.312 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 571.663 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 553.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 553.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/527)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 552.489 m 322.316 552.489 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.512 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2933)] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.6517 729.8695 514.6397 741.7495 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 353.6597 715.6135 407.6477 727.4935 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 384.8117 687.1015 438.7997 698.9815 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.3237 615.8215 464.3117 627.7015 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 552.8035 322.3157 564.6835 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/527) >> endobj xref 0 40 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000005777 00000 n 0000005886 00000 n 0000005996 00000 n 0000006105 00000 n 0000009666 00000 n 0000009794 00000 n 0000009878 00000 n 0000010006 00000 n 0000010042 00000 n 0000010107 00000 n 0000017657 00000 n 0000017741 00000 n 0000024887 00000 n 0000025015 00000 n 0000025051 00000 n 0000025142 00000 n 0000033131 00000 n 0000033259 00000 n 0000033295 00000 n 0000033423 00000 n 0000033459 00000 n 0000033571 00000 n 0000037157 00000 n 0000037285 00000 n 0000037321 00000 n 0000037449 00000 n 0000037485 00000 n 0000037613 00000 n 0000037649 00000 n 0000037777 00000 n 0000037813 00000 n 0000037941 00000 n trailer << /Size 40 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38036 %%EOF