%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721203333+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721203333+01'00') /Title (Visions of the Press in Britain, 1850?1950) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4327 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Visions of the Press in Britain, 1850?1950)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Hampton sets out to analyse 'the way in which British elites conceptualized the press between 1850 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1950', examining the debates that helped to lead the British press to the point where 'informing readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and toppling governments, and never in boring fashion, could appear as the appropriate function of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalism'. As he remarks, although historians frequently use the press as a source, they rarely consider its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place in modern British culture; and even when they do, they tend either to write biographies of particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers and journalists or to quarry newspaper columns for particular subjects, such as gender or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism. His intention is to 'address the press itself as a category, over a substantial chronological period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... within the context of intellectual history'. His tools are not confined to a handful of established texts, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the writings of Matthew Arnold, but embrace a wide ranging and rich collection of books and articles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes named, often anonymous, usually but not invariably published, to address the important question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of how the role of the press was seen by writers and intellectuals during his chosen period. The ideas which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he studies are still relevant. We still worry about what our newspapers say, how they say it and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivation for doing so. Hampton is surely right in arguing that the history of these preoccupations should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be studied and, where possible, explained within the context of the many changes which took place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society during this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first chapter Hampton offers a thorough, well researched, dense overview of changes and refinements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the approach to developments in the press during his period. From the 'Whig' mythology of Fox-Bourne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other writers of the nineteenth century, to the modern critiques of Lee, Curran and many others, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(528)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Hampton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0252029461)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Illinois Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacqueline Beaumont)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8005 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicles the transformation of newspapers from small, sometimes occasional, providers of limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information and opinion to mass conveyors of news of all types; and from the age of censorship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government control to that of 'freedom' subject to market forces. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.940 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.940 766.563 m 355.940 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 355.940 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The developments which permitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these changes are the backdrop to debates about the role of the press with which he is primarily concerned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter discusses the 'educational' ideal of the press, current in 1850, significant above all others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the next thirty years, and still a not negligible factor well into the twentieth century. This period was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time seen as the golden age of the press, an opinion still largely held by most modern commentators. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was characterised by seriousness, both of the middle-class readership and of the newspapers, which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily concerned with quality journalism, less so with profit margins and turnover. Most historians of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer's generation absorbed this view from the pages of Robert Ensor's volume in the Oxford History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England series, covering the period 1870 to 1940, which Hampton picks up on. Ensor was himself a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian and, for a time, in his youth, worked as a journalist on the )] TJ ET BT 362.312 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manchester Guardian)] TJ ET BT 468.632 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It says much for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the status of journalism on such broadsheets at this time that a man like Ensor should gladly take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment on one, after failing to achieve his primary objective, a prize fellowship at All Souls College, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford. Nor was he unique in making this switch from academe to journalism. As Hampton comments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ensor's view of the role and function of the press was rooted in the views of mid-Victorian intellectuals who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed to the press the power to disseminate a range of high-minded virtues which they cherished. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press would provide both a forum for public discussion of topics of the moment and a means of transmitting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('right' thinking to a wider working-class audience. Where there were disagreements, it was confidently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected that the 'truth' must prevail and be disseminated. Hampton links this attitude to the mid-nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century concern for improvements of all kinds, and, in particular, to improvements in primary education. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better educated proletariat would be more able to read and absorb 'right' thinking from newspapers. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of the press was considered to be essentially Liberal by Alan Lee. Hampton does not disagree with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him, but he extends the embrace of the educational virtues of newspapers more widely. While Liberals might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish to see a more educated populace better able to undertake the obligations of a broadened franchise, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives, concerned to avoid revolt and revolution, and to make the growing urban working classes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more provident and biddable, and less inclined to listen to demagogues, saw education as a means of control. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authority of the written word in newspapers was an important tool in achieving the goal of a sober, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrifty, obedient working class, which knew its place. So, the educational role of the press was not a purely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal concept, as Lee thought, but quite general. This is an important point, and Hampton makes it well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The educational view may seem today naive. Indeed, to some it already did so by the end of the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. But it must be understood within the context of contemporary values. All the literature Hampton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotes stresses the importance of placing the public good ahead of self-interest, and this is as prominent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the thinking of newspaper editors as it was for other intellectuals and public figures. Such thinking is a part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the educational ideal. So too was the belief in rational public debate as the foundation of popular self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. Expounded by John Stuart Mill in 1859, the arguments of )] TJ ET BT 377.000 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Liberty)] TJ ET BT 429.332 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( became standard. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education was the key to creating a settled society and encouraging political participation. The latter was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially a middle-class occupation, but some thought that, in time, when they had been educated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand it, the working classes might also participate, a view which persisted with regard to people of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colour and women long after the franchise had been extended to the majority of adult males in Great Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The educational ideal provoked a number of concerns expressed in the Press and elsewhere. First, there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problem of the reading audience. Hampton cites a series of texts, culminating with an article of 1858 by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilkie Collins, who bemoans the fact that people read the wrong sort of papers ? silly illustrated magazines. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, he argues, clearly a huge audience 'out there' just waiting to be taught 'how to read' \(p. 59\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside this, others comment that the press had so changed the conditions of politics that the reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public had to be influenced. Information about political events was now freely available to the public in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper columns; so politicians had now to persuade newspaper readers that their policies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable. Unsurprisingly these comments are found primarily in the press and periodicals; we are coming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the period when the press saw itself as the people's friend and representative, there to report and comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on events at all times, a Fourth Estate ? a not unreasonable view in days when Parliament rose in August and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 349.9397 766.8775 355.9397 778.7575 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8060 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely reassembled until the following February. Yet others remarked that the press was helping to create a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical public, which now had enough knowledge about any given topic to challenge the wit and wisdom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority in the shape of the local clergyman. Hampton argues that such remarks demonstrate the challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to prevailing cultural authority provided by newspapers and places this in the context of general discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the overthrow of old authorities and institutions; more particularly, the decline in the position of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church. There were also debates about the dangers of the rational debate being skewed, even stifled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances, such as the profit motive or the preponderance of one or other political party.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, in this section of the book, Hampton discusses two issues in which the educational ideal played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major role: the abolition of stamp duty and the argument about anonymity in the press. The 'educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal' of the press was widely disseminated between 1850 and the 1880s. It reflected, Hampton argues, 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide elite optimism in England's institutions, in the potential for "progress", in the possibilities for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrating the people into a politics by public discussion'. More fundamentally, this theory of the press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected a confidence in the possibilities of rational communication and persuasion. It also had its blind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spots, and was increasingly was out of sympathy with prevailing conditions. Above all it never really came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to grips with the inherent difficulty of reconciling the fundamental conflict between the two aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational ideal: the creation of a public discussion and the transmission of the 'right' ideas. The world had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed, consensus on a whole range of issues was less obvious; the newspaper world too had changed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was heading for mass industrial production. According to Alan Lee and Stephen Koss the golden era was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being destroyed by the industrialisation of the press and the onset of the 'New Journalism'. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.284 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.284 526.467 m 480.284 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.284 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Hampton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrees that both these factors are undeniable, but he does not subscribe to Lee's view that they spelled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of any kind of morality or serious debate about the role of the press. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.284 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.284 497.955 m 393.284 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 393.284 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The educational ideal did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(die, he argues, but adapted and, where it was abandoned, it was replaced by another ideal, that of the press as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a 'representative agency'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The backbone of the old educational view had been the importance of 'opinion'. Gradually, Hampton argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this became less important. He associates this change, less with the growth of the New Journalism, and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the professionalisation of the journalist's calling and the growing realisation of editors that this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what people really wanted to read. At the heart of the new journalist's professional expertise was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathering of 'facts' which he wanted to see fully represented in the pages of his paper. So discussion took a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back seat in place of accurate reporting; the space available in a newspaper for 'opinion' was cut back until it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprised chiefly the Leader. Hampton then discusses a variety of 'educational' views which were trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapt to these changed circumstances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of these, one of the most interesting is George Binney Dibblee, journalist, business manager of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manchester Guardian)] TJ ET BT 140.336 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and subsequently an academic. Dibblee is presented as a member of the educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school because he believed in the value of opinion. He considered that the press had lost its golden age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Boer War, after which virtually all the quality papers were politically Conservative, leading to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distortion of the truth. But Dibblee had been a man of business and therefore accepted the facts of journalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in practice. So he placed news first in his list of priorities, followed by opinion and then advertising. He also, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike the traditional educational thinker, did not see facts as the raw material of opinion, but as a kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion in themselves. In this he was unusual for that time, but not unique. In 1901 Leonard Courtney had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written 'the selection of facts is made with a bias, and the very arrangement of the facts selected may involve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an opinion'. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.172 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.172 188.835 m 103.172 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.172 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) But, in general, news and opinion were seen as separate, with news now in the ascendant. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The educational ideal survived, mainly among those on the left, and occasionally resurfaced, but it no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the general agreement of all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It died back because of the commercialisation of the press, which invoked torrents of complaints from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old middle-class readership. They deplored the changes in newspaper presentation, which they blamed upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pandering to the low tastes of the semi-educated masses who read papers, after enjoying the benefits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1870 Education Act, which were increasingly tailored to their capabilities. They were disgusted by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent wholesale takeover of the press by 'foreign capitalists' during the Boer war which destroyed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility of proper public debate. Hampton comments that they took the obvious, if expensive, course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchasing or founding Liberal newspapers to redress the balance. They were particularly vehement in their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.2837 526.7815 480.2837 538.6615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.2837 498.2695 393.2837 510.1495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.1717 189.1495 103.1717 201.0295 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7409 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticisms of Alfred Harmsworth, founder of the )] TJ ET BT 267.968 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mail)] TJ ET BT 320.300 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for whom circulation was far more important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than supporting a particular political party or ideal, and who, it was thought, brought the entire press into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disrepute with his stunts, his competitions, and his desire for 'scoops' which led to inaccuracy. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised that the pace and tone of the press had changed. It was all due to the copying of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It also suffered because of the waning belief in rational public discussion. Hampton traces this back to Mill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who, in the same book in which he expounded it, expressed doubts as to its possibility, given the qualities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the masses. Mill was reinforced by other philosophers who increasingly doubted whether opinions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed by reason, rather than history, personal experiences, or simply intuition. These new approaches lie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneath the change from an educational ideal to one of 'representing the people'. In this theory, newspaper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers are not endowed with rationality and newspapers do not prepare them for self-government, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves constitute an exercise in that self-government ? they act as the Fourth Estate. Increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors, journalists, even politicians, realising that public opinion could not be influenced or educated, sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reflect it instead. As Hampton points out more than once, the change is not clear cut; old views are often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be found side by side with the new. But for those who lived by the New Journalism, this was the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodoxy. In practice it meant ensuring that the people were organised to defend their own interests, chiefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vis--vis Parliament, and explaining to them what those interests were. The classic figure in the prosecution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this model of journalism was W. T. Stead. As in so much else, Stead went to extremes in his belief that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers were far better at representing the people than was the House of Commons. Hampton comments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this democratic champion or 'representative of the people' wrote as the editor of a newspaper with a tiny, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite readership and the article in which he expressed these views appeared not in the daily press, but in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monthly review, and it was presented in the old 'educational' manner, as a rational argument to be discussed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stead wrote it at a time when the representative argument was becoming standard. It received its fullest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposition from R. A. Scott-James who contributed the idea that there was more than one audience to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed and that these audiences needed different styles of newspapers. The old broadsheets catered for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more educated readership which wanted the old well-argued opinions. The new mass readership wanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something more popular. The educational view was appropriate for the first group, the representative for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his final chapter Hampton considers the way in which these two ideas developed during the first half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the twentieth century. Generally the new representative ideal prevailed, as one would expect in a period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by the press barons. The older ideal survived, but fitfully and with no real strength. The fate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new Labour paper, the )] TJ ET BT 162.644 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Herald)] TJ ET BT 226.304 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is a case in point; Bevan wanted it to be in the older style; readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not like it and within a few years the paper was staving off financial disaster by trying to appeal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everybody in order to build up its circulation. In the main, the educational ideal was confined to the BBC ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, being a monopoly, had no financial incentive to be entirely 'representative' ? and a few nostalgic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals, like Robert Ensor. But critics of the new status quo continued and became ever more vocal as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of Nazism made the prospect of propaganda ever more distasteful. And increasingly, too, the huge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount of advertising in all newspapers became a target for criticism, with suggestions that this, Dibblee's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third essential, was now the first priority of a newspaper.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book finishes with a brief consideration of the post World War II Royal Commission on the Press. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completion date, 1949, does not fully justify the centennial dates in the title. This book starts well before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1850 and ends in the 1930s. But this is not a criticism, for Hampton's treatment of events and arguments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first half of the nineteenth century are essential to an understanding of the points he makes. The heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book focuses on the nineteenth century and comprises a clever, exceptionally well informed and densely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textured rethinking of what the press meant to those writing in it and reading it at the time. As a corrective to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the familiar arguments of scholarship now more than forty years old, and as a piece of intellectual history, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is stimulating and mind stretching. Although Hampton writes well, it is not easy to read and some reflection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is often necessary ? and well worth the effort. Such a book is not often written and is required reading for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anybody interested in the culture of this period.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 2719 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newspaper History from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day)] TJ ET BT 394.976 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. George Boyce, James )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curran and Pauline Wingate \(1978\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.316 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.316 729.555 m 295.304 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Koss, )] TJ ET BT 135.680 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of the Political Press in Britain)] TJ ET BT 374.696 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols, 1981\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.692 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.692 715.299 m 504.680 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Lee, )] TJ ET BT 114.332 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of the Popular Press in England, 1855?1914)] TJ ET BT 390.008 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1976\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.000 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.000 701.043 m 484.988 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. H. Courtney, 'The Making and Reading of Newspapers, address delivered on February 8th 1901', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary Review )] TJ ET BT 174.668 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(March, 1901\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.980 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.980 672.531 m 303.968 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Dr Beaumont for her kind and generous review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.413 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 602.431 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 584.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 584.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/528)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 583.257 m 322.316 583.257 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.280 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 543.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2936)] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.3157 729.8695 295.3037 741.7495 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.6917 715.6135 504.6797 727.4935 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.9997 701.3575 484.9877 713.2375 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 249.9797 672.8455 303.9677 684.7255 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 583.5715 322.3157 595.4515 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/528) >> endobj xref 0 40 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000634 00000 n 0000005013 00000 n 0000005122 00000 n 0000005232 00000 n 0000005341 00000 n 0000008902 00000 n 0000009030 00000 n 0000009114 00000 n 0000009198 00000 n 0000017256 00000 n 0000017384 00000 n 0000017420 00000 n 0000017518 00000 n 0000025631 00000 n 0000025759 00000 n 0000025795 00000 n 0000025923 00000 n 0000025959 00000 n 0000026086 00000 n 0000026122 00000 n 0000026187 00000 n 0000033649 00000 n 0000033761 00000 n 0000036533 00000 n 0000036661 00000 n 0000036697 00000 n 0000036825 00000 n 0000036861 00000 n 0000036989 00000 n 0000037025 00000 n 0000037153 00000 n 0000037189 00000 n 0000037317 00000 n trailer << /Size 40 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37412 %%EOF