%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140830014858+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140830014858+01'00') /Title (Hurricanes and Society in the British Greater Caribbean, 1624?1783) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4696 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hurricanes and Society in the British Greater Caribbean, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1624?1783)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes you get lucky when you publish a book. Matthew Mulcahy's intriguing and well-written analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the cultural impact of hurricanes in the plantation regions of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America came out at an extremely apposite time for an academic publication, a month or so after one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biggest natural disasters in American history. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.320 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.320 250.545 m 264.320 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.320 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The effects of Hurricane Katrina on American politics are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going to be profound. Even now, it seems a fair bet that the presidency of George W. Bush is going to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more tarred by the abysmal government response to an event that was well within the realms of prediction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as Mulcahy shows, hurricanes are not an aberration in the experience of the American South and the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indies but regular occurrences that any prudent government needs to construct plans to deal with\) than it will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be by foreign adventures, given the American public's notorious indifference to anything that happens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the borders of continental America. Like 9/11, Hurricane Katrina was a catastrophic event played out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the full glare of the American and world media. The results were extremely unedifying, embarrassing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bush administration and the American public more than any other event this century. What was most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appalling was the extent to which Hurricane Katrina laid bare the failure of the United States to make better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lives of its poorest ? and more often than not its blackest ? citizens, scrabbling to make a living in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notoriously violent and racist southern city. In a few days, world attention was once again focused, in a way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had not happened since the days of Civil Rights in the 1960s, on how race worked itself out in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American south. We saw pictures of bedraggled poor black women and their children and helpless elderly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospital patients forced to exist in unimaginable squalor in the hellhole of a stadium devoted usually to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(529)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 May, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Mulcahy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0801882230)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevor Burnard)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.3197 250.8595 264.3197 262.7395 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7539 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excesses of professional sport. We heard outrageous, and generally fanciful, tales of criminality and brutality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that suggested that white Americans, in New Orleans at least, considered blacks in ways that were little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different to their slaveholding ancestors. Those ancestors were convinced that they were masters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbarians who were closer to animals than humans. We witnessed white officials, from the hapless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(president down, being unable either to grasp the extent of the tragedy that the hurricane had wrought and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also complicit in actions that suggested strongly that the lives and especially the property of affluent whites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were considerably more important than the lives and property of poor people and people of colour. Bush's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology of compassionate conservatism died a quick death in the aftermath of Katrina's destruction. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travails of the president and his Republican party in the six months since Katrina have made clear, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incompetence of the federal, state and city authorities in New Orleans in the face of a natural disaster that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a particularly severe impact on the most disadvantaged sectors of the American population has shaken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public confidence greatly. What is the point of trying to bring democracy to the developing world if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders of the richest and most powerful nation in the world cannot look after its own citizens?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, what Hurricane Katrina reaffirmed was the ability of the most fearsome natural phenomena in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean region to lay bare social assumptions and to highlight essential features of the curious civilisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created in that region, notably the extent to which white prosperity was founded on black destitution. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened in New Orleans in late summer 2005 was a reprise in modern times of the sort of repercussions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that happened after hurricanes in the early modern era. Both now and then, hurricanes are bewildering, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelming and mostly uncontrollable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anyone who has been in a hurricane feels duty bound to tell anyone who wants to listen what it was like to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and considers the experience to be a defining event, showing \(perhaps\) the awesome power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God ? a common response in the providentially-oriented seventeenth century ? or the extent to which man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not control the natural world ? a more frequent response in the eighteenth century, especially among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men of science attuned to Enlightenment currents. Mulcahy gives an excellent account of how residents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Greater Caribbean interpreted hurricanes over time and how living with hurricanes was the most tangible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which people came to terms with living in a distinct and violent world. Then, as now, hurricanes had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a differential impact on people, depending on their social circumstances, with slaves in the early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period suffering disproportionately. As Mulcahy points out, even if hurricanes were acts of God, humans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played an important role in shaping their impact. That impact could be immense in highly volatile societies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent on slavery, racially divided and at risk from both internal revolt and external invasion. Finally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hurricanes were so destructive of property and so indiscriminate in how they attacked that they highlighted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the necessity for preparing for disaster in the regions where hurricanes were most frequent and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligation that natural disaster posed on people fortunate enough to escape their effects to help the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate people who lost everything as a result of the destructive impact of wind and rain. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtues of Mulcahy's book is that he shows how vital hurricanes were in developing humanitarian outreach in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late eighteenth century. The devastating hurricanes that swept through Barbados and Jamaica in 1780, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, represented the highpoint of eighteenth-century relief efforts. They presaged more extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts from the nineteenth century onward to use the power of the state and the power of humanitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathy to alleviate short-term distress occasioned by events outside human control.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, the continuities evident in the response to hurricanes in the past and the present should not blind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us to how hurricanes are also historically specific events with historically specific consequences. For me, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mulcahy's book, which is narrowly focused on hurricanes and their immediate impact on social patterns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised some larger points that, while not discussed in his book, seem to arise naturally out of the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Mulcahy has amassed. The first of these larger issues is the extent to which hurricanes defined ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physically and culturally ? a particular region of early America, a region Mulcahy defines, in unproblematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion, as 'the British Greater Caribbean'. I doubt that everyone will share Mulcahy's belief that such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region actually existed but in my opinion the concept of a British Greater Caribbean is useful. The Hurricane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region of the British mainland \(roughly the coastal area of the continent south of the Mason-Dixon line and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(east of west Texas\) and the British West Indies shared a number of common features that were more obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when both regions were part of a single British polity than after the two regions were artificially separated as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7490 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a result of the American Revolution. Of course, what united the two regions was above all a commitment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black chattel slavery. But along with that went a particular set of social attitudes, such as a devotion to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main chance, restlessness and impulsiveness, a tendency towards reckless risk-tasking, an indifference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious feeling \(that characteristic being one that vanished in both societies by the twentieth century\), a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compulsive gregariousness, and a willingness to accept high degrees of individual and socially-legitimated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence. By the middle of the eighteenth century, careful observers, such as Benjamin Franklin, could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish the denizens of this area as being significantly different from the more cool-headed, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrious and more fecund residents of the American North. In his "Observations on the Increase of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mankind", of 1751, Franklin argued, counterintuitively from conventional wisdom, that the future of empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in America was not the increasingly wealthy, slave-dominated societies of the South and the West Indies but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was instead the American north, where, due to the absence of slaves, 'true wealth', in the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatically increasing white populations, was to found. In his view, slaves were taking up spaces that could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be occupied by white immigrants who in the long run would add more wealth to the empire than slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owners, because whites without slaves exhibited 'frugality and industry' while those with slaves did not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is interesting is the extent to which climate accentuated those features of white behaviour in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greater Caribbean that offended Franklin. Many contemporaries, Edward Long being a noticeable example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were convinced, as followers of the humoral system in medicine, that climate was determinative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character. It is not a view we usually hold, if only because such views very quickly lapse into crude and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offensive racial stereotyping. But perhaps it is time to reconsider the effect of environment in shaping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial character. Hurricanes, for example, reinforced the temporary nature of white existence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tropics. Building substantial dwellings and planning for the future was a bit pointless when a great wind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would blow everything that you had worked for into ruin. Mulcahy notes that hurricanes made colonists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question their ability to transform the environment of the Greater Caribbean into something recognisably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British but does not do a great deal to explore the consequences of such a statement. It seems to me central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to exploring social values and cultural mores in this region. How, for example, could one create an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('improved' society if that improvement was always so subject to violent destruction? If 'improvement' was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible, then how could white colonists prevent themselves from succumbing to momentary passions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from living in the moment rather than preparing for the future? West Indians, the historian Charles Leslie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commented in 1740, were 'careless of futurity'. They were obsessed by a future in which they would be rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and powerful but doing little to plan for it. Planning made little sense when one's efforts could be thrown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away by a momentary but very powerful blast of wind and rain. The problem, however, in adopting such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefree attitude to the future was that it suggested that colonists in the Greater Caribbean were emulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not cool, cautious Englishmen but tempestuous and present-directed Africans. Hurricanes thus reinforced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendencies towards Africanisation \(at least as Africanisation was defined by contemporaries as concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the potential destructiveness of a slave rebellion as by a hurricane\) and hindered Anglicisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is harder to get at is what hurricanes meant for Africans. Whites assumed that slaves would take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage of hurricanes to indulge in what whites thought was their habitual cruelty and instinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminality. Hurricanes brought out into clear relief just how terrified whites were of their slaves. Yet, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mulcahy points out, slaves never used hurricanes to mount a serious rebellion. The most obvious reason is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he suggests, that the principal sufferers from hurricanes were slaves, thousands perishing in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devastating storms of 1780. Yet other factors might also be at work. Africans had no more experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hurricanes than did Europeans and had to devise ways of fitting these new and terrifying events into their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmic universe. Unsurprisingly, they tended to treat hurricanes within a religious framework. The evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is missing about how slaves conceptualised hurricanes but it is interesting to speculate. Were hurricanes seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as divine punishment on white pretensions? Or were they instruments of a devil that seemed more active in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the New World than in the old? It is often been noted that African-derived religions in the New World were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(darker than in Africa, more focused on black magic and on devils. Did that have something to do with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mysterious power of hurricanes, a power even more destructive and inexplicable than the power of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white oppressors?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the British Greater Caribbean did exist as a distinct region, the unity that linked together the British slave )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7696 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies in the hurricane danger zone disappeared during the American Revolution when the West Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies left rebellion against Britain to their northern compatriots. What the effect of this artificial split was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the southern plantation colonies \(especially South Carolina, the region of British North America that most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resembled the British West Indies\) and the British West Indies has been much debated. Usually, historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment on how badly affected the British West Indies were by the American Revolution, ignoring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more drastic effects of revolutionary conflict on lowcountry South Carolina and Georgia. Yet what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seldom noted is that our analysis of the effects of the Revolution on the British West Indies is compromised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the many hurricanes that devastated the island colonies during the first half of the 1780s. It is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know whether West Indian economic difficulties in this period were occasioned by the strains placed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercolonial commerce by the outbreak of rebellion in the northern colonies and to what extent they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the result of an unprecedented number of natural disasters. Mulcahy does not look at the effect of hurricanes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this way, which is a pity, because a consideration of the hurricanes within the context of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution would do a lot to answer a question that has exercised historians' minds for a long time. For what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is worth, I think that the major causes of West Indian travails in this period were due to hurricanes. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of the worst hurricanes occurred during the American Revolution was unfortunate historiographically. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It encourages us to overstate the extent of West Indian suffering in the American Revolution and to give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credence to notions that decline in the West Indian sugar economies was inevitable once half of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America declared for independence. The West Indian colonies were doing well in the late 1770s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovered quickly from their economic downturn in the early 1780s to the extent that in the 1790s both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planters and also the British government were contemplating considerable expansion of the sugar economies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the African slave trade experienced a temporary boom as the French American colonies plunged into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war and revolution. Without hurricanes, it is entirely conceivable that the whole period between 1776 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1800 would have been one of steady and at times exceptional growth in the British West Indies. Of the three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues that afflicted West Indian planters in the last quarter of the eighteenth century ? the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, the beginnings of the abolitionist campaign, and hurricanes ? it may have been only the natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomena that inflicted real damage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, in the long run hurricanes were much less dangerous to the survival of the slave system in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greater Caribbean than abolition. Over time West Indian planters came to regret not joining their southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues in rebellion because independence from Britain protected South Carolinians and Georgians from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the abolitionist crusade to an extent that was impossible in the West Indies. The slave system expanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormously in the Napoleonic period in both regions as America and Britain took advantage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakdown of the French Atlantic system to acquire potentially lucrative sugar-growing areas in Louisiana, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lesser Antilles and South America. Planters had every reason to feel optimistic about their future. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the optimism of West Indian planters was misplaced. Metropolitan agitation against the slave trade was so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong that it overwhelmed planters' protestations about the value of what they produced to imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosperity. That planters could be attacked in this way came as an enormous shock. The shock was greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than it might have been as a result of their previous experiences during the hurricane-induced crises of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1780s when planters had reached out to Britain for assistance and when Britain had responded magnificently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their plight. As Mulcahy demonstrates, the devastation wrought by the 1780 hurricane led to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented campaign of humanitarian relief to alleviate suffering \(though that suffering was strictly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racially demarcated ? little money went to help blacks, the principal victims\). One lesson that planters did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not draw from this outpouring of humanitarian sympathy was that the intellectual climate in Britain had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed. As Thomas Haskell pointed out many years ago, the growth in humanitarianism and the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of sensibility as the basis of public policy after 1750 illustrated a developing belief in the power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of people to influence events even when those events happened in distant lands. The impulses that led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons to believe that they were responsible for the plight of people suffering from natural disaster were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same impulses that led many Britons to believe it was their duty to relieve the sufferings of innocent African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves. Perhaps in retrospect planters should have thought twice before accepting British charity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was understandable that planters did not pick up on what the rise of humanitarian sympathy really meant. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were grateful for what they received. It confirmed their belief that the British West Indies \(and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greater Caribbean generally\) occupied a special place in imperial thinking. The abolitionist campaign )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4358 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the slave trade came as a particular shock to planters because for a quarter of a century Britain had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indulged them to an extent that was not replicated in the northern colonies. When colonists outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hurricane zone in Massachusetts demonstrated their dissatisfaction with imperial policy in the 1760s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1770s, the British government punished them with Coercive Acts, prompting rebellion. When West Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protested against their government, as the planters of Jamaica had done repeatedly since the 1730s, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British government caved in. They listened to planter complaints after the Seven Years' War and agreed not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to take Guadeloupe from the French, taking worthless Quebec instead. They tried their best to assuage West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian concerns about the Stamp Act and other regulatory acts in the 1760s and so prevented West Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from joining in rebellion. They were even prepared to imperil their British North American Empire in 1781 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by diverting naval forces from the Battle of Yorktown in order to save Jamaica from impending French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion. Hurricane relief was just a further manifestation of the peculiar goodwill that the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government manifested towards the West Indies, goodwill that was in short supply in the region of America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Franklin lauded as the coming future of the British Empire. In this respect, the actual harm that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hurricanes did in the West Indies shielded West Indians from a more significant danger. Hurricanes made the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greater Caribbean special. Planters thought that they lived in a privileged region and that British concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the effects of hurricanes was a sign that their own sense of importance was recognised by the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. That the British government and the British people were coming to see the West Indies as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special in a different way ? as places that were especially evil ? was something that white West Indians were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to learn about the hard way in years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 504.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the interests of full disclosure, I should note that I read and commented on some sections of this )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in draft and provided Professor Mulcahy with summaries of the diaries of Thomas Thistlewood, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a source that Mulcahy uses frequently in this work. I do not know Professor Mulcahy well, however )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and do not think that my comments on his work materially altered his argument. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.324 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.324 430.179 m 506.312 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank Professor Burnard for his thoughtful review and does not wish to comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 374.335 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 356.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 356.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/529)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 355.161 m 322.316 355.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2938)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.3237 430.4935 506.3117 442.3735 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 355.4755 322.3157 367.3555 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/529) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000005413 00000 n 0000005522 00000 n 0000005632 00000 n 0000005741 00000 n 0000009302 00000 n 0000009430 00000 n 0000009514 00000 n 0000009642 00000 n 0000009678 00000 n 0000009743 00000 n 0000017335 00000 n 0000017400 00000 n 0000024943 00000 n 0000025008 00000 n 0000032757 00000 n 0000032848 00000 n 0000037259 00000 n 0000037387 00000 n 0000037423 00000 n 0000037551 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37646 %%EOF