%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141123205912+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141123205912+00'00') /Title (Plagues: Their Origin, History and Future) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4233 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Plagues: Their Origin, History and Future)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the past few years, no doubt as a consequence of HIV/AIDS newspapers have been full of stories about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the threat from plagues some such as TB and bubonic plague appear like spectres from the past while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently new diseases such as E-coli and the Ebola virus threaten to run riot in the future. It is against such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a background that Christopher Wills has published Plagues. Their origin, history and future. The title is self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanatory and in turn Wills examines, largely by means of case studies of bubonic plague, cholera, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typhoid, malaria, syphilis and AIDS, the history of each disease, how the aetiology of that disease became to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be understood and then how the disease could be controlled. Wills also has a grander scheme in this book I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would like to explore with you just how and why such disturbances of the ecological balance give rise to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plagues. Wills therefore has dualistic aims: small-scale ones which seek to explain the impact of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual disease, and the large-scale one of providing an all encompassing theory of plagues that is hinted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at in the introduction. It is appropriate therefore to examine how successful Wills is in each of these aims, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but before this it is appropriate to make some comments on the style and structure of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plagues may be broadly classified under the heading popular science, although it by no means provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematical analysis of epidemics. Indeed, along with the history and science there are sections that are part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography, part travel writing. Thus, we are introduced to the authors grandmother and father who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respective encounters with typhoid and a black bear whilst living in India during the 1920s. All this is highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(53)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 July, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Wills)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(354pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harper Collins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.harpercollins.co.uk/Pages/Home.aspx)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Galley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7430 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertaining, but for those whose main interest is history it is whether this book is able to shed light on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon such as the fourteenth-century Black Death or Asian Cholera that it has to be judged. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is divided into five parts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part one deals with the nature of plagues and disease. It also discusses what may be termed the mortality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition and overall it seeks to answer the question of why plagues occur. Parts two to four provide the six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual case studies of specific diseases and part five concludes by addressing the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plagues, population and the biosphere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sections dealing with individual diseases may be of greatest interest to historians. Chapters 4 and 5 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss the disease whose name describes the phenomenon - bubonic plague, Yersinia Pestis. Much of Wills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion focuses on The Black Death, the epidemic that swept through Western Europe during the 1340s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Great Plague of London, 1665. Both these events mark the beginning and end of the age of plague, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain at least, and in many ways are rather exceptional. Also, the association between the Great Plague, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fire of the following year and the subsequent disappearance of plague is noted even though by 1665 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plague was far more devastating in the suburbs, precisely those areas which were left untouched by the fire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is little however, on what caused the disappearance of plague after 1665 or about the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of plague epidemics. In spite of this, Wills strengths lie in his descriptions of how the plague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bacillus was discovered and became to be understood during the late nineteenth and early twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries. Overall then, the chapter provides an interesting account of nineteenth-century biological science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coupled with some historical background. The following chapter poses an interesting question; namely, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recent outbreak of plague in India really plague? Although the evidence is difficult to interpret, Wills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that The outbreaks in Beed and Surat may not have been plague after all. While this chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a useful summary of the available evidence, interspersed with accounts of his visit to India and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appalling levels of poverty that can be found in parts of that country, it is difficult to see how such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison adds much to his general thesis about the nature of plagues. It does tell us much about popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of plagues, but that is another matter. Similar problems arise in some of the other sections. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 6 compares the impact of cholera in nineteenth-century English cities with recent outbreaks in Peru. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wills describes the classic piece of epidemiological detective work by John Snow who discovered that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cholera could be linked to an infected water supply in the famous Broad Street Pump. Curiously though, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most important pieces in the jigsaw that enabled Snow to link cholera to the pump, the widow who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each day had a bottle of water fetched from the pump to her house in Hampstead and consequently became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the only person in that area to die during this outbreak, is missing from the story. The discussion of choleras )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epidemiology is once again interesting, but it is sometimes difficult to see the parallels between nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century London and modern-day Peru where poverty, poor sanitation and inadequate medical facilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combine to ensure that cholera still remains a threat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the introduction we are led to believe that some an important global theory about how plagues can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood is to be presented, but as the book enfolds this promise is not quite fulfilled. It is never fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained precisely how plagues arise out of an ecological imbalance and the final section discusses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between plagues and less virulent diseases. Part of the reason why no important model emerges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that while on page & we are told that plagues are defined as great epidemic or pandemic disasters as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion proceeds and the numbers of examples multiply it becomes apparent that many of these cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really be considered as plagues. Thus, outbreaks of the little known Four Corners virus in North America is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared with bubonic plague and malaria, yet the impact of each disease on the various societies is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different. Likewise, it is difficult to consider that AIDS is really a plague: the threat posed by this virus is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed frightening; yet mortality rates have increased only slowly, spread over a considerable number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years and recent estimates suggest that overall mortality rates will remain at these low levels. This mortality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profile is in sharp contrast to that of the other classic plagues - up to a third of a population could be wiped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out from bubonic plague within a few months. Moreover, modern medical advances have meant that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat from plagues recedes year by year, even in poor countries. Perhaps a better, although far less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glamorous title for this book would have been "Infectious Diseases".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plagues)] TJ ET BT 72.680 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is highly readable, but is of probably only limited interest for most historians, although those )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 917 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working on the history of science in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries should look at the appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/53)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 316.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/432)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 316.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/53) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000537 00000 n 0000000619 00000 n 0000004904 00000 n 0000005013 00000 n 0000005123 00000 n 0000005232 00000 n 0000008793 00000 n 0000008921 00000 n 0000009005 00000 n 0000009070 00000 n 0000016553 00000 n 0000016637 00000 n 0000017606 00000 n 0000017734 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 17828 %%EOF