%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150727202529+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150727202529+01'00') /Title (The Independent Man: Citizenship and Gender Politics in Georgian England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4581 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Independent Man: Citizenship and Gender Politics in Georgian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Georgian England, 'manly independence' was the most important qualification for political virtue and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for electoral citizenship. Connoting a particularly English libertarianism, this 'independence' infused a man's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, social and gendered being, and manifested itself in sincere and straightforward forms of bodily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation and behaviour. Thus, 'politics and masculinity were inseparable in this period: manliness was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important in political situations, but politics was also central to the business of being a man' \(p. 33\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring the relationship between gendered ideas of masculine behaviour and concepts of the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual, this important book fills a yawning gap in both political history and gender history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century. Some works have focused on individual political actors from a gendered perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(notably on John Wilkes\), but accounts which speak generally about men outside the political elite \(as this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book claims to\) are rare for this period. Though the important work of Anna Clark has achieved this for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, there really is very little work on gendered Georgian politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity. This book promises to be important for eighteenth-century political history; certainly for gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of this period \(an area on which I am more qualified to comment\) this is a turning point. It is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curious historiographical feature that a thorough and lengthy engagement with Joan Scott's programmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements about gender and politics of 1986 should not be made for men until Matthew McCormack's book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 2005. )] TJ ET BT 77.012 80.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Independent Man)] TJ ET BT 182.324 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is therefore very welcome. This book makes the case that the key question in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgian political life was who was qualified for the vote, and that the decisions were based upon an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual's claims to independence. Crucially, this was a deeply gendered idea, although the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(530)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew McCormack)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0719070546)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Harvey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7714 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender to independence changed over time. After a short positioning introduction, the book falls into two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts. Chapters 1 and 2 establish contemporary understandings of independence, addressing thematically the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues of political virtue and political performance respectively. In political theory, 'independence' was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only condition in which an individual was free from obligation and in which that individual could act freely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and with virtue. This was obtainable only by heads of patriarchal household. Such classical republican ideals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of political virtue melded with late-eighteenth-century languages of feminine sentimental domesticity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforcing the authority ? and independence ? of the male household head. Political entitlement was thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equated with 'the stations of husband, father and householder' \(p. 27\). In early-nineteenth-century conduct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts for both working and middling readers, men were counseled how to live an 'independent' life. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manly condition was thus woven through men's domestic, social, and leisure activities; and so, McCormack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, 'politics was ? central to the business of being a man' \(p. 33\). In a fascinating section, McCormack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes the ways in which 'independence' had to be performed through bodily behaviour. In the theatre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgian politics, the political identity of the 'independent' man was thus formed from posture, speech, dress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and declamatory style. Elections consisted of a series of ritualised moments in which the political man could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enact his 'independence': a condition that McCormack refers to as 'a lived role' \(p. 49\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second part of the book, chapters 3?8 construct a chronological narrative of the changing meanings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('independence' from the British Civil Wars to the First Reform Act of 1832. The key shift was in who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought to be capable of 'independence': once a state accessible only to legislators and those of rank, it came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to consist of inner qualities considered critical for 'the electoral citizenry, and even the national repository of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('manhood' itself' \(p. 56\). In this way, gender became more rather than less important in discussions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political obligation and virtue. A swift analysis in chapter 3 of English politics from James Harrington's neo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical )] TJ ET BT 77.672 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Commonwealth of Oceana)] TJ ET BT 226.664 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1656\) to William Pitt the Elder and the Seven Years War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1756?63\) is attuned to the changing meanings of 'independence', but prioritises the consistencies in this 100-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year period. 'Martial valour, patriotism and political efficacy' \(p. 76\), available to only those of property and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rank, remained key throughout. In this period, '[c]onstitutional action could be based only upon a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality that was independent: the condition of non-obligation in which manly virtue was possible' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(76\). In the early decades of the eighteenth century, it was tied closely to 'a 'Country' culture that privileged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property, rural virtue, straightforward manliness and personal autonomy'. Independence was also closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aligned with patriotism \(p. 72\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The period 1760?1832 is given more thorough attention in chapters 4?8. Indeed, for a study of ')] TJ ET BT 492.104 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Georgian)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England' this book gives an unexplained amount of space to the late-Georgian period: only chapter 3 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the period prior to 1760. The intention is clearly to construct a prequel to the 1832 Reform Act, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this is achieved most securely in the latter half of the book. As McCormack claims, '[t]he manly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent citizen-voter ? such an important figure in Victorian politics ? was a creation of the last third of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eighteenth century' \(p. 80\). The political uncertainty after the accession of George III in October 1760 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led the Whigs and their supporters to radicalise oppositional politics in part by detaching manly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence from the 'Country' culture. The resultant freeborn Englishman was still a gentleman, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it was only through the effects of the American Revolution that manly independence could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimately claimed by the electorate as well as their representatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1780s and 1790s were crucial decades in what McCormack refers to as the 'shift in style and psychology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of English politics' in this period \(p. 105\). Independence became more socially accessible, defined more in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of 'inner' qualities, and connected in various ways to the idealised figures of the man of simplicity, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man of gentility, and the man of rights. In this vein, independence was linked to radicalism. Not surprisingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for anti-Jacobins 'independence' was at first contested, yet from the early years of the nineteenth century this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical quality of independence was revived. McCormack here questions the historical right's recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflation of patriotism \(for country\), loyalism \(for governor\) and social consensus. The later phase of anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobin patriotism was distinct from earlier discussions of obedience to a governor, McCormack insists; this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejuvenated the independent man, a character long compatible with that of patriot. The final two substantive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters of this book show the significance of 'independence' in nineteenth-century reform debates. Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given particularly early-nineteenth-century inflections ? from domestic ideology and chivalry, for example ? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7197 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was an eighteenth-century notion of independence that held sway in the years immediately prior to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1832 Act. In contrast to Whiggish narratives of greater inclusion, we see how reforms were predicated on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion: 'The reformers of 1832 ? like so many of their predecessors ? believed that politics should be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world only for independent men' \(p. 198\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodologically this is a convincing account of the concept of independence. The book draws on sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging from political treatises, diaries and newspapers to caricatures, novels and songs. This is a cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, then, that explores the ways in which ideas about 'independence' shifted over time and through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of different types of evidence. The relatively narrow focus on just one concept guards against some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the problems of depth and attention to the specificity of sources that such a project may have faced had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the focus been conceptually \(as well as evidentially\) broad. McCormack is thus able to achieve a thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and convincing analysis of subtle transformations in language across a broad cultural canvas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, McCormack's handling of change over time is nuanced. On the one hand, there are startling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities. The work of J. G. A. Pocock and Quentin Skinner, both of whom stress the longevity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classically derived model of political action of virtue and corruption, is important here. McCormack argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that '[w]here the questions of political virtue, action and entitlement were concerned, 'independence' was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant consideration and the one that endured well beyond the early Georgian debate on manners' \(p. 57\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence, and the classical political model of which it was a part, endured into the Victorian period. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, however, the terms on which 'independence' was constructed transformed. Prior to mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, 'independence' was built on landed property and rank: virtue and freedom from corruption required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the necessary preconditions of wealth and status that freed men from indigence and obligation \(p. 76\). In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense, it was a value of the squirearchy. Increasingly, however, citizenship could be founded upon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller freehold property, a receptive sensibility and simple virtues such as rurality, industry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstemiousness. As such, independence began to be equated less with property and rank, and more with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity itself \(p. 100\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the key argument of this book is that after mid century, 'citizenship would continue to be conceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of virtue and obligation, but it would move from a paradigm of rank to one of gender' \(p. 77\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCormack points out that only with the Third Reform Act of 1884 is political 'independence' equated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manhood, rather than elite masculinity. He concludes that '[o]ver two centuries, therefore, 'independence' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifts from being the apogee of manliness to becoming equated with maleness' \(p. 208\). This account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered citizenship skillfully combines endurance and transformation: as McCormack puts it, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers 'both broad traditions of usage and long-term shifts in meaning' \(p. 56\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a contribution to the history of masculinity, McCormack develops our diachronic understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various styles of manhood. Currently this field is dominated by politeness, and in much published work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politeness is equated with the modernity of eighteenth-century England. However, McCormack is adamant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that independence was a not a 'traditional' style vying with newer, more dominant, qualities \(p. 57\). 'Mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgian England', McCormack argues, 'would have a 'Country' political culture, not a polite one, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the independent man would take centre stage' \(p. 67\). One important contribution of this book is to focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less obviously colourful male characters than the polite man of coffee houses or the fop of the town, making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others ? the patriotic country squire or the backbench Tory, for example ? the subjects of a gendered analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While making claims for the wide reach of independence, this book is also sensitive to the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence excluded certain groups. Though these changed over time, but women and poor, non-English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or homosexual men were excluded. As McCormack writes, 'independence' was 'the dominant masculine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal of the day' \(p. 34\). In this way, )] TJ ET BT 210.812 125.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Independent Man)] TJ ET BT 316.124 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( seems to owe a debt to Robert Connell's work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemonic masculinity. Connell's argument that a hegemonic masculinity exists through which some men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gain dominance, to which many men aspire and against which other men are measured has been remarkably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential in this field. This is echoed in McCormack's analysis of independence as the most exalted manly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtue in the political realm. ''Dependence' upon a patron, an employer, a landlord, or the parish was enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to call an individual's manliness and freedom into question, and could undermine a claim to political )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3172 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy' \(p. 13\). But some of the criticisms of Connell's work \(notably by Alexandra Shepard\) raise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions here. If manliness equates with independence, and \(at least in the first half of the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and perhaps later\) this is linked to status and property, then surely most men cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent? And if this is the case, then these men cannot make claims to manliness. This claim seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(untenable, given what we know about the formation of gendered identity for men more generally in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the century \(from Randolph Trumbach, for example\). My point is not to undermine McCormack's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key point that in political debates about citizenship 'independence' is crucial, but to suggest that the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs to bear in mind the limitations of the book: it opens up debates about political manliness \(something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we know little about\), but clearly there were other legitimate ways to be manly throughout this period. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important question that might be addressed as the field develops is the relationship between these rival \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently class-based\) ideals of manliness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew McCormack's intention in this book is to make a step towards 'a new narrative in English political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, where gendered subjectivity is at the centre of the political historian's enquiry' \(p. 9\). Certainly, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book successfully brings together recent cultural histories of citizenship with gender history, demonstrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how politics and manliness were mutually dependent in the eighteenth century. It promises to shift debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in British political history, and will certainly help revive the political history of Georgian England for a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation of historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 511.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 493.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 493.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/530)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 491.961 m 322.316 491.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 466.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2940)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 492.2755 322.3157 504.1555 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/530) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005290 00000 n 0000005399 00000 n 0000005509 00000 n 0000005618 00000 n 0000009179 00000 n 0000009307 00000 n 0000009391 00000 n 0000009456 00000 n 0000017223 00000 n 0000017288 00000 n 0000024538 00000 n 0000024622 00000 n 0000027847 00000 n 0000027975 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28070 %%EOF