%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818105854+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818105854+01'00') /Title (Russian Conservatism and its Critics: A Study in Political Culture) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4552 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Russian Conservatism and its Critics: A Study in Political Culture)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is an overview of Russian conservative ideology from roughly 1500 to the First World War. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Pipes, the now Emeritus Baird Professor of History at Harvard, has written or edited more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenty books on Russian history, and his latest work is in many ways a summary of his conclusions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why Russia developed differently from the countries of Western Europe. He calls it an 'essay in intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, but intellectual history related to reality' \(p. xv\). Pipes has little time for the Marxist view that ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and values belong to the 'superstructure' of society and reflect the socio-economic conditions within it; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead he defends the autonomy of ideas, although he notes that ideas do not emerge in a vacuum. Much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book addresses arguments in defence of autocracy. The 'critics' to which Pipes refers are essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberals or conservative liberals; Pipes, never one to pay Russian socialism too much respect, excludes from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration the radical strand of Russian thought on the grounds that it did not concern itself with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autocracy except as something that needed to be destroyed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pipes emphasises that Russia never developed a tradition of partnership between state and society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reiterating ideas developed in works such as )] TJ ET BT 252.980 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia under the Old Regime)] TJ ET BT 393.632 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1974\) and )] TJ ET BT 451.952 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Property and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freedom )] TJ ET BT 80.336 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1999\), Pipes notes that Russia never developed the traditions of private property necessary for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of a civil society. Although in medieval Muscovy, there existed privately owned estates known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(votchiny \(patrimonia\), these soon became fiefs held on condition of service to the crown. Mongol rule, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which lasted for roughly two and a half centuries from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries, accentuated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problem. Mongol rulers governed Russia through vassals, who considered the peoples and lands under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(532)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 May, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Pipes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0300112882)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Boobbyer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7332 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their rule as part of their individual 'patrimony', and when Mongol rule came to an end, the patrimonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system continued. More generally, such things as Roman law, Catholic theology, feudalism and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial culture of cities, which helped to shape Western political theory, were absent in Russia. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense that Russia was a private possession of its rulers continued right up until 1917: the Russian state failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to evolve from a private to a public institution \(p. 181\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The autocratic tendency was strengthened in the early sixteenth century by events in the Church. A dispute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between defenders of church lands, known as 'possessors', and a more ascetic group, known as 'non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessors', was resolved in favour of the former. According to Pipes's account, the possessors won their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory by trading the state's protection for theological support for autocracy. In 1503, the leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('possessor', Joseph of Volokalamsk, wrote that to obey the sovereign was equivalent to obeying God. Later, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following Basil III's decision to divorce his wife and marry a Lithuanian princess in 1524, Joseph's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor, Daniel, backed the tsar against the widespread opposition of clergy at home and abroad. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine political theory, church and state were supposed to operate in a harmonious partnership where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each was responsible for a particular area of society; however, the victory of the possessors gave the state a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater level of dominance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The early evolution of the Russian state thus led to the emergence of a particularly strong form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutism. Over the next four centuries, autocracy was defended on numerous grounds. Initially, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested that since the tsar was only accountable to God, discussion of his role was not necessary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, with time, and especially from the era of Peter the Great onwards, a body of doctrine emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing not so much that autocracy was the best form of government in general, but that it was the one most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suitable for Russia. It was held by such figures as V. N. Tatishchev \(1686?1750\), Russia's first historian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine II and Sergei Witte \(1849?1915\) that Russia was geographically too large, and its population too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backward, for the country to survive with any other form of government. There were many other arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made in autocracy's favour: Nikolai Novikov \(1744?1818\) and to some extent Nikolai Karamzin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1766?1826\) emphasised that what mattered were not political institutions but enlightenment and virtue in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the citizenry; Fyodor Dostoevsky \(1821?1881\) and Konstantin Pobedonostsev \(1827?1907\) likewise stressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that personal morality was more important than political reform; Karamzin defended autocracy on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds that it was Russia's traditional form of government; Iury Krizhanich \(1618?1683\), Tatishchev and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Pushkin \(1799?1837\) argued that only autocracy could lead Russia towards enlightenment, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pushkin suggested that only the tsar could liberate the serfs; the Slavophiles stated that the Russian people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were by nature apolitical and happy to let the monarch govern; Konstantin Kavelin \(1818?1885\) and Iury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samarin \(1819?1876\) warned that representative government in Russia would result in aristocracy rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than democracy; Konstantin Leontiev \(1831?1891\) stated that only the autocracy could save Russia from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois philistinism, and Pobedonostsev saw it as the only means of saving the country from nihilism; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dmitry Shipov \(1851?1920\) defended autocracy on the grounds that, unlike democracy, it rose above class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests \(pp. 183?84\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pipes devotes a lot of space to liberal and liberal conservative criticism of autocracy. Indeed, he suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal elements in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were stronger than is generally supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 112?113\). Dmitry Golitsyn, for example, tried to introduce some form of constitutionalism at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the reign of Queen Anne in 1730, but Anne avoided it by forming a compact with members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lower nobility who feared that constitutionalism might in practice mean aristocratic rule. Count Nikita )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panin \(1718?1783\), who played a role in the overthrow of Peter III, was an aristocrat and patrician who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to restore the influence of the nobility and defended the role of private property; according to Pipes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was 'Russia's earliest liberal in the Western sense of the word' \(p. 73\). Mikhail Speransky \(1772?1839\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander I's chief minister between 1807 and 1812 and, according to Pipes, a 'profound and original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinker', sought to create an autocracy that was accountable to law; he was the first Russian political thinker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to emphasise the importance of public opinion, once stating that 'no government at odds with the spirit of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times can stand up to its all-powerful action' \(p. 84\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Speransky's interest in public opinion was unusual, and it took a long time for Russian thinkers to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society itself seriously. A pioneer in this field was Samarin, a Slavophile whose views, according to Pipes, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7497 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a 'solidity rarely found among Russian intellectuals' \(p. 127\). In an essay of 1853, 'About Serfdom and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Transition from it to Civil Freedom', Samarin emphasised that great power status could only be derived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the strength and vitality of society. Although Samarin remained committed to absolute monarchy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1860s, he believed that the institutions of self-government set up in 1864 could help to prepare the peasantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for political participation; implicitly his ideas pointed towards a constitutional regime. Another Slavophile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ivan Aksakov \(1823?1886\), who eventually became a rabid nationalist, developed the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obshchestvo, meaning by it a population that, although not having political rights, was separate from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and had developed its own culture. Although Pipes lauds Dostoevsky's psychological understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revolutionary movement, he also states that he was a man who 'loved to hate', and that he was himself 'no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less of a utopian than the most extreme nihilist' \(pp. 137, 139\). Shipov, he calls 'nave' \(p. 171\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chief theorists of the Russian conservative-liberal school in the nineteenth century were Konstantin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kavelin, Boris Chicherin \(1828?1903\) and Alexander Gradovsky \(1841?1889\). Kavelin, the founder of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian Statist School of historiography, argued that unlike in Western Europe, where change was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently driven 'from below', Russian development was always shaped by the state. For this reason, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1860s he did not endorse the idea of a constitution on historical grounds, believing that the country was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not ready for one. Chicherin, the leader of the conservative-liberal school, distinguished his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('conservative liberalism' from what he called 'oppositional liberalism' ? the tendency to identify all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government with oppression. His commitment to a mixture of autocracy, laissez-faire economics, civil rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and law alienated both left and right, and he remained an isolated figure. Gradovsky also believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autocracy and civil rights were compatible. In practice, it was difficult to combine a commitment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autocracy with a belief in liberal ideas in nineteenth-century Russia. Indeed, Pipes criticises this nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century brand of conservative liberalism as 'abstract and unrealistic'. As regards a later conservative liberal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Struve \(1870?1944\), on whom Pipes wrote an acclaimed two-volume biography, Pipes notes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Struve came to believe that the individual took precedence over the state, and that liberalism was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precondition of national greatness. It was Struve who stated in 1895 that if the autocracy identified with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy and not with society, then it would eventually 'fall under the pressure of live social forces' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(167\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pipes has some interesting things to say about Russia's two great pre-revolutionary statesmen, Witte and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Stolypin \(1862?1911\). Pipes states that although it was Witte who persuaded Nicholas II to issue the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently liberal October Manifesto in 1905, Witte was not a liberal-minded statesman, but one whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision resembled that of the German Rechstaat; he emphasised autocracy buttressed by bureaucracy, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this he was quite similar to Tatishchev and Catherine II \(pp. 151?152\). Pipes calls Stolypin a 'sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative liberal'; he understood that the patrimonial ideal was outmoded, and also saw the vital need of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing society into some kind of equilibrium with the government. Unfortunately, like so many of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors, he was unable to bring government and society together; opposed by both conservatives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberals, and lacking wholehearted backing from the court, his successes were limited to implementing his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrarian reform plan. His failure, Pipes declares, 'demonstrates that Russia could not take the middle road: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its alternatives lay between the extremes of black and red' \(p. 178\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pipes does not regard autocracy as exclusively to blame for the fact that state and society never developed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate partnership in Russian history. In his conclusion, he points out that liberal rulers like Catherine II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Alexander I feared surrendering their authority because they believed that if they did so, their empires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might implode. However, they also received no support from society at large. If the state was too powerful, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society was itself too weak. Pipes writes that the 'weakness of Russian society inevitably led to the growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and assertiveness of autocratic principles' \(p. 185\); conservatism triumphed because there was no society to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act as a counterweight. Speransky expressed it well in 1802 when he noted that paupers and philosophers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the only free people in the country; all the rest were slaves, 'slaves of the tsar and slaves of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords' \(p. 113\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The failure of the Russian state and society to work together has been a recurring theme in Pipes's oeuvre. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, writing about the relationship between the monarchy and the intelligentsia in )] TJ ET BT 471.968 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution)] TJ ET BT 86.012 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Pipes stated that a constitutional regime can only function properly if government and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6642 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition accept the same political ground-rules; however, in Russia after 1905 both tsar and intelligentsia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that the new regime was an obstacle to their ambitions. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.632 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.632 780.819 m 354.632 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 354.632 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Pipes has always considered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary intelligentsia to be as much to blame for the absence of a dialogue between state and society as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Romanovs. In this new book, by refusing to give the revolutionary tradition serious attention, Pipes is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicitly saying that the Russian socialist tradition lacked real intellectual substance. Probably he endorsed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indeed enjoyed the comment made by Chicherin that the Russian radicals Nikolai Chernyshevsky and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dmitry Pisarev participated in the 'Great Reforms' of the 1860s only in the way that flies defecating on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting could be thought of as having contributed to art \(p. 162\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writing about Witte, Pipes quotes Struve as saying that he lacked a 'central idea toward which he would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gravitate morally'; 'the absence in him of a moral-ideological center was especially striking in view of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political genius' \(p. 150\). Although Pipes questions the final accuracy of Struve's appraisal, the theme is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting one to consider in relation to Pipes himself. There is a sense that )] TJ ET BT 399.644 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian Conservatism and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Critics)] TJ ET BT 66.692 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, along with Pipes's other writings, and indeed his activities on Reagan's National Security Council in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 1980s, reflect some kind of unifying moral and political ideal. In )] TJ ET BT 392.300 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia under the Bolshevik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regime, 1919?1924)] TJ ET BT 130.004 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Pipes stated that 'to "make sense" of the past, the historian must follow some principle'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 38.012 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 38.012 569.235 m 44.012 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 44.012 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) What, then, is Pipes's principle, or the moral-ideological framework shaping his view of Russian history?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Summed up, Pipes's moral and political ideal appears to be a form of conservative liberalism: in healthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries, there will be a working alliance between state and society based on private property and the rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of law. In the medieval era, Russia failed to develop the political and social institutions needed to sustain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that kind of alliance. Following this unpromising beginning, Russian history after 1500 was the story of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidation and expansion of autocracy. However, there were also a number of key moments, taking place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at times of social upheaval or with the appearance of certain brilliant personalities, when breakthroughs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social evolution might have occurred. For a variety of reasons, the Russian state or people failed to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage of these occasions; Russian history was effectively a series of missed opportunities. In Pipes's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework, a lot depends on particular individuals. Pipes suggests that Mikhail Katkov \(1818?1887\), whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong conservatism greatly influenced both Alexander II and Alexander III, 'bore heavy responsibility for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tsarism's persistent refusal to grant its subjects a voice in running the country' \(p. 126\). And he describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas II's rejection of calls for consultations with the zemstva in 1895 as 'the most fatal mistake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed by tsarism in the late nineteenth century' \(p. 167\). He clearly believes that individuals can make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistakes, and that these mistakes can be costly. Implicitly he also believes that historians have a right to hold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures from the past morally accountable for their actions. Pipes's sense that history contains a real moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drama, and that moral judgments about the past are valid, suggests that his worldview contains some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying metaphysical elements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Critics of Pipes, of whom there have been many, might easily suggest that this framework for interpreting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian history is too rigid; it contains too much liberal ideology to be good history. However, the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pipes operates within a liberal interpretative framework is in fact one of his strengths. It means that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly has something to say, and it gives him a way of integrating a large body of material. The French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosopher, Henri Bergson, once said that every philosopher has one basic insight, and that everything he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says is a variation on it. It is a point that might be equally applied to Pipes: he is constantly re-expressing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same point about the failure of Russia to establish a partnership between state and society.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.6317 781.1335 354.6317 793.0135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 38.0117 569.5495 44.0117 581.4295 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 3724 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It should be said, however, that Pipes's account of Russian history also contains an element of sadness. If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past was a series of missed opportunities, as Pipes implies, then it could also have been different; the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was not different means that Russian history is a somewhat depressing story. At the end of the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pipes bleakly concludes: 'Such ... was Russia's fate.' \(p. 185\) There is a sense of loss for what might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been. It should also be said that Pipes is not an admirer of the Russian intellectual tradition. He states, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly, that Russians generally think in terms of 'either-or': hence their inability to endorse concepts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited government or moderate forms of patriotism \(p. 183\). Few of the statesmen or thinkers described in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book achieve a larger greatness in terms of consistency and depth of thought. On the other hand, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book underlines the fact that there are plenty of liberal currents in Russian history on which to build.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Pipes, )] TJ ET BT 137.012 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian Revolution )] TJ ET BT 254.012 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1990\), p. 153. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.004 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.004 603.507 m 381.992 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Pipes, )] TJ ET BT 137.012 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia under the Bolshevik Regime, 1919?1924 )] TJ ET BT 369.320 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1994\), p. 10. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.312 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.312 589.251 m 491.300 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 538.133 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 509.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/61460/robert-legvold/russian-conservatism-and-its-critics-a-study-in-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 508.227 m 555.260 508.227 l S BT 34.016 495.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political-cultur)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 493.971 m 105.344 493.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 108.344 495.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 490.639 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 472.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 472.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/532)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 471.465 m 322.316 471.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 446.488 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2944)] TJ ET BT 34.016 417.803 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/61460/robert-legvold/russian-conservatism-and-its-critics-a-)] TJ ET BT 528.920 417.803 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in-political-cultur)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.0037 603.8215 381.9917 615.7015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.3117 589.5655 491.2997 601.4455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 508.5415 555.2597 520.4215 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/61460/robert-legvold/russian-conservatism-and-its-critics-a-study-in-political-cultur) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 494.2855 105.3437 506.1655 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/61460/robert-legvold/russian-conservatism-and-its-critics-a-study-in-political-cultur) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 471.7795 322.3157 483.6595 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/532) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005262 00000 n 0000005371 00000 n 0000005481 00000 n 0000005590 00000 n 0000009151 00000 n 0000009279 00000 n 0000009363 00000 n 0000009428 00000 n 0000016813 00000 n 0000016878 00000 n 0000024428 00000 n 0000024519 00000 n 0000031214 00000 n 0000031342 00000 n 0000031378 00000 n 0000031504 00000 n 0000031540 00000 n 0000031652 00000 n 0000035429 00000 n 0000035557 00000 n 0000035593 00000 n 0000035721 00000 n 0000035757 00000 n 0000035884 00000 n 0000036060 00000 n 0000036187 00000 n 0000036363 00000 n 0000036491 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36586 %%EOF